Types and Causes of Migraine | Neurology


What is a migraine?

Migraine is a neurological circumstance that can cause several symptoms. It is often identified by severe and weakening headaches. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, slurred speech, numbness or tingling, and sensitivity to light and sound. These are often hereditary and distress people of all ages.

The diagnosis of migraines is firmly based on medical history, listed symptoms, and decision out other causes. The most common categories of migraines are those without aura (formerly known as common migraines) and those with aura (formerly known as classic migraines).

This can start in childhood or not occur until early adulthood. Females are more likely than males to have migraines. Family history is one of the most communal risk factors for migraines.

Types of migraine

There are several types of migraines. The most common are migraines with aura (also known as classic migraine) and migraines without aura (or common migraine).

Other types include:

  • Menstrual migraine: This is when the headache is related to the woman’s period.
  • Silent migraine: This type is also known as acetic migraine. You have aura symptoms without a headache.
  • Vestibular migraine: You have stability problems, vertigo, nausea, and vomiting, with or without a headache. This type typically occurs in people who have a history of motion sickness.
  • Abdominal migraine: Experts don’t know much about this guy. It causes stomach pain, nausea, and vomiting. It often occurs in children and can develop into classic migraine headaches over time.
  • Hemiplegic migraine: You have a brief period of paralysis (hemiplegia) or weakness on one side of the body. You may also feel numbness, dizziness, or vision changes. These symptoms can also be signs of a stroke, so you should seek medical help immediately.
  • Ophthalmic migraine: They are also known as ocular or retinal migraines. They cause short-term, partial, or total loss of vision in one eye, along with a dull pain behind the eye, which can spread to the rest of the head. Seek medical help immediately if you have any vision changes.
  • Migraine with brainstem aura: Dizziness, confusion, or loss of balance can occur before the headache. Pain can affect the back of the head. These symptoms usually start suddenly and may be accompanied by trouble speaking, ringing in the ears, and vomiting. This type of migraine is fully relevant to hormonal changes and mainly attacks young adult women. Again, have a doctor check for these symptoms right away.
  • Migraine state: This basic type of migraine can last more than 72 hours. The pain and nausea are so bad that you may need to go to the hospital. Sometimes medications or drug withdrawal can cause them.
  • Ophthalmoplegic migraine: This causes pain around the eye, including paralysis of the muscles around it. This is a medical emergency because symptoms can also be caused by pressure on the nerves behind the eye or by an aneurysm. Other symptoms include droopy eyelids, double vision, or other vision changes.

Causes of migraine

Researchers have not identified a definitive cause of migraines. However, they have found some funding factors that can trigger the situation. This includes changes in brain chemicals, such as a reduction in stages of the brain chemical serotonin.

Other factors that can trigger a migraine include:

  • Bright lights
  • Severe heat or other extremes in weather
  • Dehydration
  • Changes in barometric pressure
  • Hormonal changes in women, such as fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone during menstruation, pregnancy, or menopause
  • Excess stress
  • Loud sounds
  • Intense physical activity
  • Skip meals
  • Changes in sleep patterns
  • Use of some medications, such as oral contraceptives or nitroglycerin
  • Unusual smells
  • Certain foods
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Travel

If you experience a migraine, your doctor may ask you to keep a headache diary. Inscription down what you were doing, the foods you ate, and the medications you were taking before your migraine started can help you recognize your triggers. Find out what else could be causing or triggering your migraines.

Risk factors for migraine

Risk factors may include:

Sex: Women have three times more migraines than men.

Years: Most people start having migraines between the ages of 10 and 40. But many women find that their migraines improve or go away after age 50.

Family history: Four out of five people with migraines have other family members who have them. If one of the parents has a history of these types of headaches, their child has a 50% chance of suffering from them. If both parents have them, the risk increases to 75%.

Other medical conditions: Depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, sleep disorders, and epilepsy can increase your chances.

Symptoms of migraine

Symptoms of migraine include:

  •  The pain normally on one side of the head, but often on both sides
  •  Throbbing or throbbing pain
  •  Sensitivity to light, sound, and sometimes smell and touch
  •  Nausea and vomiting

Diagnosis of migraine

Your physician will ask about your medical history and indications. It can help to keep a journal of your symptoms and any triggers you have noticed. Make a note of:

  • What symptoms you have, including where it hurts
  • How often do you have them?
  • How long they last?
  • Any other family member who has migraines
  • All the medicines and supplements you take, even those over the counter
  • Other medications you remember taking in the past

Your physician may order checks to rule out other things that could cause your symptoms, including:

  • Blood test
  • Imaging tests such as MRIs or CT scans
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)

Treatment for migraine

There is no cure for migraines. But many medications can treat or even prevent them. Common treatments for migraine include:

  • Pain relief. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications often work well. The main ingredients are acetaminophen (Panadol, Tylenol), aspirin (Bayer, Bufferin), caffeine, and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Nuprin). Never give aspirin to anyone younger than 19 years old due to the risk of Reye’s syndrome. Be careful when taking over-the-counter pain relievers, because they can also make a headache worse. If you use them too much, you can get rebound headaches or become independent of them. If you take over-the-counter pain relievers more than 2 days a week, talk with your doctor about prescription drugs that might work best. They may suggest prescription medications that may work well to end migraine pain, including triptans as well as newer titans and pants. Your doctor can tell you if these are right for you.
  • Nausea medicine. Your doctor may prescribe medication if you have nausea with a migraine.
  • Triptans. These drugs balance the chemicals in your brain. You may be given a pill to swallow, lozenges to dissolve on the tongue, a nasal spray, or an injection. Samples include almotriptan (Axert), eletriptan (Relpax), sumatriptan (Imitrex), rizatriptan (Maxalt), and zolmitriptan (Zomig).
  • Ergotamine (Cafergot, Migergot, Ergomar), which also acts on chemicals in the brain
  • Lasmiditan (Reyvow). This medicine relieves pain, nausea, and sensitivity to light or sound.
  • CGRP receptor antagonists. Your doctor might prescribe rhyme.

Home remedies

You can ease migraine symptoms by:

  • Rest with your eyes closed in a dark, quiet room.
  • Put a cold pack or ice pack on your forehead
  • Drink a lot of liquids

Complementary and alternative treatments in migraine

Some people get relief from therapies they use in addition to or in place of traditional medical treatment. These are called complementary or alternative treatments. For migraine, they include:

  • Biofeedback. This way helps you take note of stressful situations that could trigger symptoms. If the headache starts slowly, biofeedback can stop the attack before it fully develops.
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). A specialist can teach you how your actions and thoughts affect the way you feel pain.
  • Supplements. Research has established that some vitamins, minerals, and herbs can prevent or treat migraines. These include riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, and melatonin. Butterbur can prevent migraines, but it can also affect liver enzymes.
  • Bodywork. Physical treatments such as chiropractic, massage, acupressure, acupuncture, and craniosacral therapy can relieve headache symptoms.

Talk to your doctor before trying complementary or alternative treatments.


Try these steps to prevent symptoms:

  • Identify and avoid triggers. Keep track of your symptom patterns in a journal so you can find out what is causing them.
  • Manage stress. Relaxation techniques like meditation, yoga, and mindful breathing can help.
  • Eat on a regular schedule
  • Drink lots of fluids
  • Get plenty of rest
  • Get regular moderate exercise

Ask your doctor about preventative medications if you have migraines around your period or if lifestyle changes don’t help.


The International headache society created a system for classifying headaches and migraines and their complications, known as ICHD-3. Some of these include:

Migraine state

This rare and severe migraine with aura lasts more than 72 hours. Some people have been hospitalized due to severe pain.

Migraine infarction

This is when a migraine is associated with a stroke. Usually, this is a migraine with an aura that lasts for more than an hour. Sometimes the aura is present even when the headache goes away. An aura that lasts for more than an hour can be a sign of bleeding in the brain. If you have a migraine with an aura that lasts above an hour, see your physician right away.

Persistent aura without a heart attack

This complication arises if the aura lasts more than a week after the migraine has ended. This complication has symptoms similar to those of a migraine infarct, but there is no bleeding in the brain. See your doctor immediately for a proper diagnosis.


This is a condition in which a headache triggers an epileptic seizure. Typically, the seizure will occur one hour after a migraine. This condition is rare.

Departments to consult for this condition

  • Department of Neurology

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