What are the types and symptoms of muscular dystrophy? | Neurology

Muscular dystrophy (MD)

What is muscular dystrophy (MD)?

Muscular dystrophy is an abstraction of diseases that cause advanced weakness and loss of muscle mass. In muscular dystrophy, abnormal genes (mutations) interpose with the presentation of proteins needed to make healthy muscles.

There are many types of muscular dystrophy. Symptoms of the most common type begin in childhood and are mostly in boys. Other species do not appear until adulthood. There is no cure for muscular dystrophy. But medications and treatments can help manage symptoms and slow the course of the disease.

Types of muscular dystrophy

There are many different types of muscular dystrophy, and they each have somewhat different symptoms. Not assorted types cause serious inability and many don’t influence the future.

A portion of the more normal kinds of muscular dystrophy include:

  • Duchenne MD: One of the most common and severe forms, and it usually affects boys in early childhood; People with this condition usually only live into their 20s or 30s
  • Muscular dystrophy: A type of MD that can develop at any age; Life expectancy is not always affected, but people with a severe form of muscular dystrophy may have a shorter life
  • Facioscapulohumeral MD: A kind of muscular dystrophy that can create in childhood or adulthood; It advances gradually and isn’t normally dangerous
  • Becker MD: It is closely related to Duchenne MD, but it develops later in childhood and is less severe; Life expectancy is not usually affected to the same extent
  • Limb-girdle MD: A gathering of conditions that generally show up in late youth or early adulthood; Some variations can advance rapidly and be perilous, while others grow gradually
  • Oculopharyngeal MD: A type of MD – doesn’t usually develop until a person is between 50 and 60 years old, and it doesn’t affect life expectancy
  • Emery-Dreifuss MD: A type of MD that develops in childhood or early adulthood; most people with this condition will live at least to middle age

Symptoms of muscular dystrophy

The following are symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which is the most common form of the disease. Symptoms of Baker’s muscular dystrophy are similar but tend to start in the mid-twenties or later, are milder, and progress slowly.

Include early symptoms:

  • A wobbly gait
  • Muscle pain and stiffness
  • Difficulty running and jumping
  • He walks on the toes
  • Difficulty sitting or standing up
  • Learning difficulties, such as developing speech later than usual
  • Frequent falls

Over time, the likelihood of the following increases:

  • Inability to walk
  • Shortening of muscles and tendons, which limits movement
  • Breathing issues can turn out to be serious to such an extent that helped to breathe is vital
  • A curvature of the spine can occur if the muscles are not strong enough to support their structure
  • Heart muscles can weaken, leading to heart problems
  • Difficulty swallowing, with the risk of developing respiratory pneumonia, a feeding tube is sometimes necessary.

Muscular dystrophy causes and risk factors

Muscular dystrophy is caused by defects in certain genes, the type determined by the abnormal gene. In 1986, researchers discovered a gene that causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy when defective or defective. In 1987, the muscle protein related to this quality was named dystrophin. Duchenne muscular dystrophy occurs when this gene fails to make dystrophin. Baker’s muscular dystrophy occurs when a different mutation in the same gene causes some dystrophin, but it is either insufficient or of poor quality. Scientists have discovered and are still looking for genetic defects that cause other forms of muscular dystrophy.

Most cases of muscular dystrophy are a form of a genetic disease called X-linked disorders or genetic diseases that mothers can pass on to their children even though the mothers themselves do not have the disease.

Men convey one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. Females carry two X chromosomes. Thus, for a girl to be affected by muscular dystrophy, both of her X chromosomes must carry the defective gene – which is extremely rare, as her mother must be a carrier (defective X chromosome) and the father must have MD ( Since men carry one X chromosome, and the other is the Y chromosome).

A woman with the defective X chromosome can pass the disease to her son (whose other chromosome is the Y from the father). A small number of MD cases are never inherited and are caused by a new genetic defect or mutation.

How is muscular dystrophy diagnosed?

A number of different tests can help your doctor diagnose muscular dystrophy. Your doctor can:

  • Test your blood for enzymes released by damaged muscles
  • Test your blood for genetic markers of MD
  • Perform an electromyography test on the electrical activity of your muscles using an electrode needle inserted into your muscles
  • Perform a muscle biopsy to test a sample of your muscles for MD


Complications include progressive muscle weakness:

  • Trouble walking: A few people with MD inevitably need to utilize a wheelchair.
  • Trouble using a weapon: Daily activities can become more difficult if the muscles in the arms and shoulders are affected.
  • Shortening of muscles or tendons around joints (contractures): Contracts can further restrict movement.
  • Breathing problems: The reformist shortcoming can influence the muscles related to relaxing. People with MD may eventually need to use a breathing aid (ventilator), initially at night but possibly also during the day.
  • A curved spine (scoliosis): Weak muscles may be unable to keep the spine straight.
  • Heart problems: MD can decrease the efficiency of the heart muscle.
  • Swallowing problems: If the muscles associated with swallowing are affected, feeding problems and aspiration pneumonia can develop. Feeding tubes may be an option.

How is muscular dystrophy treated?

There is currently no cure for MD, but treatments can help manage symptoms and slow the disease’s progression. Treatments depend on your symptoms.

Include treatment options:

  • Corticosteroid medications, which help tone your muscles and slow muscle deterioration
  • Assisted ventilation in case of injury to the respiratory muscles
  • Medicine for heart problems
  • Surgery to help correct shortening of your muscles
  • Surgery to repair cataracts
  • Scoliosis surgery
  • Surgery to treat heart problems

The treatment has proven effective. You can strengthen your muscles and maintain your range of motion with physical therapy. Occupational therapy can help:

  • Be more independent
  • Improve your coping skills
  • Improve your social skills
  • Access to community services


MD is a progressive disease. Symptoms get worse over time. Physical and occupational therapy and medical devices such as a walker can help you maintain mobility and independence for as long as possible. Medical professionals provide treatments and can make recommendations to protect your heart and lungs.


Unfortunately, there’s really nothing you can do to prevent MD. In the event that you have the disease, these means can assist you with getting a charge out of superior personal satisfaction:

  • Follow a healthy diet to prevent malnutrition.
  • Drink a lot of water to dodge dehydration and constipation.
  • Exercise as much as possible.
  • Maintain a healthy weight to prevent obesity.
  • Quit smoking to protect your lungs and heart.
  • Get flu and pneumonia vaccines.

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