What is an aneurysm?
An aneurysm is an expansion of an artery caused by weakness in the arterial wall. Often there are no symptoms, but a broken aneurism can lead to fatal complications. It refers to a weakening of the wall of an artery that creates a bulge or strain in the artery. It demonstrates no symptoms and is not dangerous. However, in their most severe stage, some can rupture and cause life-threatening internal bleeding.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) warns that aortic aneurism contributes to more than 25,000 deaths in the United States (US) each year. About 30,000 brain aneurysms rupture in the United States each year. It is estimated that 40 percent of these cases cause death within 24 hours.
Symptoms of an aneurysm vary with each type and location. It is important to know that it occurs in the body or brain usually has no signs or symptoms until they rupture. This occurs near the surface of the body can show signs of swelling and pain. A large dough can also develop. Symptoms of broken aneurysms anywhere in the body can include:
- Increase in cardiac frequency
- Feeling dizzy or lightheaded
It is classified according to its location in the body. The arteries of the brain and the heart are the two most common sites for severe.
The package can take two main forms:
- Spindle aneurism bulge on all sides of a blood vessel
- Saccular aneurism bulge only on one side
- The risk of breakage depends on the size of the package
Aortic aneurism: The aorta is the big artery that begins in the left ventricle of the heart and passes done the chest and abdominal cavities. The normal diameter of the aorta is between 2 and 3 centimeters (cm), but it can protrude more than 5 cm. This happens in the part of the aorta that runs through the abdomen. Without surgery, the annual survival rate for an AAA larger than 6 cm is 20 percent.
Less commonly, a thoracic aortic aneurism (TAA) can affect the part of the aorta that goes through the chest. TAA has a 56 percent survival rate without treatment and 85 percent after surgery. It is a rare condition, with only 25 percent of aortic aneurysms occurring in the chest.
Brain aneurysm: It is supply blood to the brain are known as intracranial aneurysms. Because of their appearance, they are also known as “berry”. A ruptured aneurysm of the brain can be fatal within 24 hours.
40% of brain aneurysms are fatal, and about 66 out of 100 of those who survive will experience a resulting neurological impairment or disability. Ruptured brain aneurysms are the most common cause of a type of stroke known as a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
Peripheral aneurysm: It can also happen in a peripheral artery.
- Popliteal: occurs behind the knee. It is the most common peripheral aneurysm.
- Splenic artery: This type of aneurysm happens near the spleen.
- Mesenteric artery: moves the artery that carries blood to the intestines.
- Femoral artery: The femoral artery is set in the groin.
- Carotid artery: Occurs in the neck.
- Visceral: This is a bulging of the arteries that supply blood to the intestine or kidneys.
Any condition that causes the walls of the arteries to weaken can lead to one. The most common culprits are atherosclerosis and high blood pressure. Deep wounds and infections can also chief. Or you can be born with a weakness in one of your artery walls.
The diagnostic tools used to find arterial damage often be contingent on the location of the problem. Your doctor may refer you to a specialist, such as a cardiothoracic or vascular surgeon.
CT scans and ultrasound methods are common tools used to diagnose or find irregularities in blood vessels. CT scans use x-rays to examine the inside of your body. This allows your doctor to see the condition of the blood vessels, as well as any blockages, bumps, and weak spots that may be within the blood vessels.
Treatment of asymptomatic aneurysms consists of repairing the blood vessels. Trimming and rolling are two treatment options.
Clipping: A neurosurgeon can operate on the brain by opening the skull, identifying the damaged blood vessel, and placing a clip on it. This prevents blood from entering the aneurysm and causing further growth or loss of blood.
Coiling: An interventional neurologist, neurosurgeon, or interventional radiologist may permit a tube through the arteries, such as with an angiogram, classify the disease, and fill it with coils of platinum wire or latex. This prevents more blood from entering the disease and solves the problem.
Both options have the risk of destroying the blood vessels and causing more bleeding, damaging nearby brain tissue, and causing spasms in the surrounding blood vessels; depriving brain tissue of the blood supply and causing a stroke.
Before, during, and after surgery, care is taken to protect the brain and its blood vessels from further damage. Vital signs are checked frequently, and heart monitors are used to detecting abnormal heart rhythms. Medications can be used to control high blood pressure and prevent blood vessel spasms, seizures, agitation, and pain.
It is not always possible to prevent, as some are congenital, which means they are present from birth.
However, some lifestyle choices can affect risk:
Smoking: Smoking is a risk factor for both aortic and ruptured aneurysms anywhere in the body. Quitting smoking can reduce the risk.
Blood pressure: Controlling blood pressure can also minimize the risk. Healthy blood pressure can be achieved through dietary measures, regular exercise, and medications.
Obesity: Obesity can put extra pressure on your heart, so taking these steps is important to reduce stress on your artery walls.
Diet: A healthy diet can also lower cholesterol and lower the risk of atherosclerosis. Spindle aneurysms are often associated with atherosclerosis.
Anyone diagnosed with an aneurysm and who has been prescribed a conservative treatment plan can work with a doctor to address any risk factors.