What is vascular disease?
Vascular disease is an abnormal condition of the blood vessels. Blood vessels are the tubes through which blood is pumped throughout the body. The arteries carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to nourish all parts of the body, including the brain, kidneys, intestines, arms, legs, and heart. Veins carry blood back to the heart. In addition to this vast network of blood vessels, problems with the so-called vascular system can lead to serious disability and death.
The vascular disease usually occurs in areas of unstable blood flow, when the direction of blood flow in the arteries changes abruptly. This figure illustrates the sites in the arterial system where this change in the direction of blood flow occurs.
Vascular diseases are vascular conditions that can put you at risk for a heart attack, stroke, or amputation. People over the age of 45 or family members with cardiovascular disease are at increased risk of developing vascular disease. Diabetes, smoking, high cholesterol, esophagus, and a sedentary lifestyle can all lead to vascular problems.
Types of vascular disease
The two main types of vascular disease are:
Functional VD: This means that there is no physical damage to the structure of your blood vessels. Instead, your vessels dilate and narrow in response to other factors such as brain signals and changes in temperature. Narrow blood flow decreases.
Organic VD: It involves changes in the structure of blood vessels, such as inflammation, plaque, and tissue damage.
Causes of vascular disease
People with conditions like diabetes, high blood pressure, or kidney failure are more likely to have vascular problems. Working with vibrating devices, having a cold temperature and smoking can exacerbate vascular problems.
Causes of vascular disease are:
- Traumatic occurs after an injury
- Compression occurs when pipes flatten
- Occasionally, it happens when the pipes are blocked
- Tumors (growth) or deformities (clumsy, tangled pipes), which may or may not be present at birth
- Abnormal control of the vessels, they are narrow due to abnormal control of the vessels
Risk factors for vascular disease
The exact reason for atherosclerosis is not defining, but several risk factors accelerate the formation of fatty deposits in the arteries:
- Being male
- Family history of vascular disease, angina, heart attacks, or stroke
- High blood pressure
- Being overweight
- High cholesterol levels
- An unhealthy diet
- Lack of exercise
Symptoms of vascular disease
Experts say that half of the people with PAD are unaware of their condition. This is because most people have no symptoms. Possible characteristics:
- Hair loss on the feet and legs
- Intermittent claudication – The thigh or calf muscles experience pain when walking or climbing stairs; Some people complain of painful fruits.
- Leg weakness
- The lower leg may feel cold
- Numbness in the legs
- Brittle toenails
- Toenails grow steadily
- Sores or ulcers on the legs and feet that take more time to heal (or never heal)
- The skin on the legs becomes shiny or turns pale or bluish
- A problem in getting a pulse in the leg or foot
- Erectile dysfunction (impotence in men, problems achieving or sustaining an erection)
Diagnosis of vascular disease
If a person suspects they have PVD, they should see a doctor. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the course of the disease and prevent serious complications.
A doctor can diagnose PVD by:
- Life taking a complete medical and family history, including details of lifestyle, diet, and medication use
- Perform a physical examination, which checks the temperature of the skin, the appearance, and the presence of papules on the legs and feet
Diagnostic tests used to diagnose PVD:
- Angiography: Angiography involves injecting a dye into an artery to identify a blocked or blocked artery.
- Ankle-brachial index (ABI): This non-invasive test measures blood pressure at the ankle. The doctor then compares this reading to the blood pressure readings on the hands. A doctor takes measurements after rest and physical activity. Low blood pressure in the legs indicates obstruction.
- Blood tests: Although blood tests alone cannot diagnose PVD, they can help the doctor detect the presence of conditions that increase a person’s risk of developing PVD, such as diabetes and high c0holesterol.
- Computed tomography angiography (CTA): The CTA imaging exam shows the doctor a picture of the blood vessels, including narrow or blocked areas.
- Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA): Similar to CTA, magnetic resonance angiography highlights vascular obstruction.
- Ultrasound: Using sound waves, ultrasound allows the doctor to see the blood flow through the arteries and veins.
Treatment for vascular disease
Recognized leaders in the treatment of vascular disorders. From repairing an aortic aneurysm to varicose veins, your Loyola team will implement the treatment plan that is right for you and may include lifestyle changes, medical maintenance, or surgery:
- Aortic aneurysm repair
- Bypass surgery
- Carotid artery reconstruction
- Deep venous thrombosis treatment
- Endovascular stenting
- Mesenteric intervention
- Peripheral bypass
- Peripheral stenting
- Renal artery interventions
You have access to the most advanced treatment options for vascular diseases. Through a personalized and collaborative approach to patient care, our professionals can provide you with the most advanced care. After your treatment, your doctor will continue to monitor your progress to make sure your treatment is successful and your quality of life improves.
Treatment of the vascular disease depends on the specific type of vascular disease and the age, health, and medical history of the patient and may include:
- Reduce risk factors that contribute to vascular disease by quitting smoking, exercising, improving eating habits, and controlling high blood pressure.
- Using medications to lower cholesterol, lower blood pressure, control heart rate, and prevent blood clots.
- Surgeries such as coronary angioplasty surgically remove an atherosclerotic plaque within the wall of the carotid artery to keep the artery open and prevent re-narrowing of carotid endarterectomy.
Steps that help to prevent vascular diseases are:
- Make healthy lifestyle changes, such as eating a heart-healthy diet and getting more exercise.
- Do not smoke. If you already smoke, talk to your healthcare provider to help you find the best way to quit.
- Control your blood pressure and cholesterol
- If you have diabetes, check your blood sugar
- Try not to sit for too long or stand. If you need to sit all day, get up, and turn about every hour. If you are traveling on a long trip, you can also wear compression stockings and stretch your legs regularly.
Complications from undiagnosed and untreated vascular disease can be serious and even fatal. Restricted blood flow from vascular disease is a warning sign of other types of vascular disease.
Complications of vascular disease are:
- Tissue death, which can change to limb amputation
- Pale skin
- Pain at rest and with movement
- Severe pain that reduces mobility
- Wounds that don’t heal
- Life-threatening infections of the bones and bloodstream
In the most serious problems, the arteries carry blood to the heart and brain. When they are closed, it can lead to a heart attack, stroke, or death.
When diagnosed early, vascular disease is often easily treated with lifestyle changes and medications.
A person’s development can be monitored by measuring the distance a person can walk without a liner. If the treatments are effective, people will gradually be able to walk longer distances without pain.
Early intervention can stop the condition from progressing and help prevent problems. Anyone experiencing any symptoms of vascular disease should see a doctor.
The sudden development of pale, cold, and painful limbs with loss of legumes is a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment.
Department to consult for this condition
- Department of Cardiology