What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder | Neurology

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-(ADHD)

What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often continues into adolescence. ADHD involves a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty maintaining vision, hyperactivity, and sudden behavior. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can also have low self-esteem, troubled relationships, and poor school performance.

Sometimes the symptoms decrease with age. However, some people do not completely outgrow attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. But they can also learn strategies to be successful. Treatment does not cure attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, it helps a lot with symptoms. Treatment generally involves medication and behavioral intervention. Early diagnosis and treatment can make a big difference in your results.

Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  • Not paying too much attention to detail or making careless mistakes in school or on work assignments.
  • Problems concentrating on tasks or activities such as lectures, conversations, or prolonged reading.
  • It does not appear to be heard while speaking (that is, it appears to be elsewhere).
  • Doesn’t follow directions and doesn’t complete schoolwork, homework, or work assignments (can start homework but quickly lose focus).
  • There are problems managing tasks and work (for example, not managing time properly; messy and chaotic work; not meeting deadlines).
  • Avoid or dislike tasks that require constant mental effort, such as preparing reports and filling out forms.
  • School papers, books, keys, wallet, cell phone, and glasses are often lost due to tasks or items necessary for daily life.
  • It can be easily distracted.
  • Forget daily chores like doing housework and doing housework. Older teens and adults can forget to return phone calls, pay bills, and make appointments.

Types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

To make attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnoses more consistent, the APA divides this condition into three categories or types. These guys are mostly careless, mostly sudden hyperactivity and a combination of both.

Predominantly inattentive: As the name suggests, people with this type of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder find it very difficult to concentrate, complete tasks, and follow directions. Experts believe that many children with the neglected type of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may not receive a proper diagnosis because they do not disrupt the classroom. This type is very common in girls with ADHD.

Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type: People with this type of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder mainly show sudden and hyperactive behavior. This includes joking around, interrupting people while they are talking, and not being able to wait their turn. Although inattention with this type of ADHD is less of a concern, it is still difficult for people with primarily hyperactive-sudden ADHD to focus on tasks.

Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive type: This is the most common type of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. People with this mixed type of ADHD have symptoms of neglect and hyperactivity. These include inattention, sudden tendency, and more activity and energy than usual. Determine how you or your child will deal with the type of ADHD they have. The type you have can change over time, so your treatment can change too. Learn more about the three types of ADHD.

Causes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Experts are not sure what causes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Several things can lead to this, including:

  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is hereditary
  • Chemical products. Brain chemicals can be out of balance in people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  • Brain changes The areas of the brain that control vision is less active in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  • Poor nutrition, infections, smoking, alcoholism, and drug abuse during pregnancy. These things affect the baby’s brain development.
  • Toxins like lead. They affect the brain development of children.
  • Brain injury or brain disorder. Damage to the frontal lobe, called the frontal lobe, causes problems controlling impulses and emotions.
  • Sugar does not cause attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is also not caused by too much television, a stressful home life, poor schools, or food allergies.

Risk factors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Researchers do not know the cause of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. As with many other diseases, there are several factors that contribute to it, including:

  • Genes
  • Smoking cigarettes, alcohol, or drug use during pregnancy
  • Exposure to environmental toxins during pregnancy
  • Exposure to high levels of lead at a young age
  • Low birth weight
  • Brain injuries
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is more common in men than women, and women with ADHD are more likely to have problems with inattention. Other conditions, such as learning disabilities, anxiety disorder, behavior disorders, depression, and drug abuse, are common in people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Diagnosis in children: The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is based on a set of strict criteria. If he or she has ADHD, your child should have 6 or more symptoms of inattention or 6 or more symptoms of hyperactivity and abruptness.

To diagnose ADHD, your child must also have:

  • Show symptoms continuously for at least 6 months.
  • He began showing symptoms before the age of 12.
  • Showing symptoms in at least 2 different settings, for example at home and at school, to rule out the possibility that the behavior could simply be a reaction to a teacher or parental control.
  • Traits that hinder your life on a social, educational, or professional level.
  • Symptoms are not just part of a developmental disorder or difficult stage and may not be well calculated by another condition.
  • Diagnosis in adults.
  • Diagnosing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults is difficult because there are some differences of opinion about whether the list of symptoms that are used to diagnose children and adolescents also applies to adults.

In some cases, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be diagnosed with it if they have 5 or more of the neglect symptoms listed in the diagnostic criteria, or 5 or more hyperactivity all of a sudden. As part of your evaluation, the specialist will ask about your current symptoms. However, the diagnosis of ADHD in adults cannot be confirmed unless its symptoms have been present since childhood.

If you had trouble as a child or had trouble remembering whether you had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as a child, your specialist may want to look at your past school records or talk to your parents, teachers, or acquaintances to see that it was okay as a child. If an adult suffers from ADHD, their symptoms should also have a moderate effect on several areas of their life, including:

  • Accomplishing less at work or in education
  • Dangerous driving
  • Making or keeping friends is difficult
  • Problems in relationships with partners

If your problems are recent and have not occurred regularly in the past, you are not considered to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This is because it is currently thought that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may not develop for the first time in adults.

Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Treatment for children: For children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder younger than 6 years old, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends training parents in behavior management as the first line of treatment. For children 6 years and older, the recommendations include medication and behavior therapy, parent training in behavior management for children 12 and under, and other types of behavior therapy and training for adolescents.

Schools can be part of the treatment. Application recommendations include classroom behavioral intervention and academic support. Good treatment plans include careful monitoring of how the treatment is helping the child’s behavior, as well as any changes that may be needed.

Children under 6 years: For young children with ADHD, behavior therapy is an important first step before trying medications. Parent training in behavior management provides parents with skills and strategies that will help their children. Parent training in behavior management has been shown to work for ADHD in young children, as well as medications.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications on young children have more side effects than older children. The long-term effects of ADHD medications in young children have not been well studied.

School-age children and adolescents: For children 6 years and older, the AAP recommends combining AP drug therapy with behavioral therapy. There are several behavioral therapies that can be effective, including:

  • Training of parents in behavior management
  • Behavioral interference in the classroom
  • Peer intervention that focuses on behavior
  • Organizational skills training

These policies can be very effective if used together depending on the individual needs of the child and family.

Treatment for adults: If your doctor tells you that you have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, you can work together to create a treatment plan for yourself. Treatment plans include learning more about medicine, treatment, education, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and seeking family support. These things together can help you find new ways to do things that make everyday life easier. It makes you feel good in general and it makes you feel good about yourself.

It is important to ensure that a doctor examines you thoroughly. People with ADHD often experience other conditions as well. You may have a learning disability, anxiety or other mental disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or even dependence on drugs or alcohol. Knowing the big picture can help you come up with the best plan for you.

This to consider to manage attention deficit hyperactivity disorder:

  • Take the medicine as prescribed: If you are taking any medication for ADHD or any other condition, take it exactly as prescribed. Taking two doses at the same time to find out the missed doses is bad for you and for others. Talk to your doctor as soon as possible in case of side effects.
  • Make daily to-do lists (be reasonable!): And work to complete them. Use the daily planner, take notes for yourself, and set your alarm clock when you need to remember an appointment or other activity.
  • Inhale slowly: If you have a tendency to do things that you later regret, like interrupting others or getting angry at others, manage motivation by giving it a break. Count to 10 when you breathe slowly instead of acting. Inspiration usually wears off as quickly as it appears.
  • Reduce distractions: If you feel distracted by loud music or television, turn it off or wear earplugs. Go to a quieter place or ask others to help you focus less on things.
  • Burns extra energy: If you’re feeling hyperactive or restless, you need a way to get rid of some energy. Exercise, a hobby, or another hobby are good options.
  • Ask for help: We all need help from time to time and it is important not to be afraid to ask for it. If you have upsetting thoughts or behaviors, ask the counselor if they have thoughts that can help you control them.

Complications of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder makes life difficult for children

  • Frequent fighting in the classroom, which can lead to academic failure and the judgment of other children and adults.
  • Accidents and injuries of all kinds are more common than children without ADHD
  • Have low self-esteem
  • May have difficulty communicating and accepting with peers and adults
  • There is an increased risk of alcohol and drug abuse and other criminal behavior
  • Symbiotic conditions

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder does not cause other developmental or mental problems. However, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have more conditions than others. Oppositional Defective Disorder (ODD), commonly defined as a pattern of negative, dismissive, and hostile behavior towards authority figures.

  • Conduct disorder, characterized by antisocial behavior such as stealing, fighting, destroying property, and causing harm to people or animals.
  • The disruptive mood is characterized by dysregulation disorder, irritability, and depression.
  • Learning problems, including reading, writing, comprehension, and communication problems.
  • Substance use disorders including drugs, alcohol, and smoking.
  • Anxiety disorders, which can cause a lot of anxiety and nervousness, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
  • Mood disorders, depression, and bipolar disorder, including depression and manic behavior.
  • Autism spectrum disorder, a condition related to brain development, affects the way a person perceives and interacts with others.
  • Tic disorder or Tourette syndrome, repetitive movements, or uncontrollable sounds (contractions).

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