What Is An MRI? | Neurology


Overview of an MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a test that uses powerful magnets, radio waves, and a computer to make detailed pictures of the inside of your body.

Your doctor can use this test to see how well you’ve responded to treatment. Unlike X-rays and computed tomography (CT) scans, MRIs don’t use the damaging ionizing radiation of X-rays.

Uses of magnetic resonance imaging

An MRI helps a doctor diagnose a disease or injury, and it can monitor how well you’re doing with treatment. MRIs can be done on different parts of your body. It’s especially useful for looking at soft tissues and the nervous system.

An MRI of the brain and spinal cord can help find many things, including:

  • Blood vessel damage
  • Brain injury
  • Cancer
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Spinal cord injuries
  • Stroke
  • Eye problems
  • Inner ear problems

An MRI of the heart and blood vessels looks for:

  • Blocked blood vessels
  • Damage caused by a heart attack
  • Heart disease
  • Problems with the structure of the heart

MRIs can also be done to check the health of these organs:

  • Breasts (women)
  • Liver
  • Kidneys
  • Ovaries (women)
  • Pancreas
  • Prostate (men)

Risks factors of MRI

Pregnant women shouldn’t get an MRI during their first trimester unless they absolutely need the test. The first trimester is when the baby’s organs develop. You also shouldn’t get contrast dye when you’re pregnant.

Don’t get contrast dye if you’ve had an allergic reaction to it in the past or you have severe kidney disease.

Certain people with metal inside their body can’t get this test, including those with:

  • Some clips used to treat brain aneurysms
  • Pacemakers and cardiac defibrillators
  • Cochlear implants
  • Certain metal coils placed in blood vessels

Preparation for magnetic resonance imaging

Before your MRI, let your doctor know if you:

  • Have any health problems, such as kidney or liver disease.
  • Recently had surgery
  • Have any allergies to food or medicine, or if you have asthma.
  • Are pregnant, or might be pregnant

Metal is not allowed in the MRI room because the magnetic field in the machine can attract metal. Tell your doctor if you have metal devices that can cause problems during the test. These include:

  • Artificial heart valves
  • Body piercings
  • Cochlear implants
  • Drug pumps
  • Fillings and other dental work
  • Implanted nerve stimulator
  • Insulin pump
  • Metal fragments, such as a bullet or shrapnel
  • Metal joints or limbs
  • Pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)
  • Pins or screws

If you have tattoos, talk with your doctor. Some inks contain metal.

On the day of the test, wear loose, comfortable clothing that doesn’t have snaps or other metal fasteners. You might need to take off your own clothes and wear a gown during the test.

Remove all of these before entering the MRI room:

  • Cellphone
  • Coins
  • Dentures
  • Eyeglasses
  • Hearing aids
  • Keys
  • Underwire bra
  • Watch
  • Wig

If you don’t like enclosed spaces or you’re nervous about the test, tell your doctor. You may be able to have an open MRI or get medicine to relax you before the test.

MRI equipment

A typical MRI machine is a large tube with a hole at both ends. A magnet surrounds the tube. You lie on a table that slides all the way into the tube. In a short-bore system, you are not totally inside the MRI machine. Only the part of your body that’s being scanned is inside. The rest of your body is outside the machine.

During the MRI

Before some MRIs, you’ll get contrast dye into a vein in your arm or hand. This dye helps the doctor more clearly see structures inside your body. The dye often used in MRIs is called gadolinium. It can leave a metal taste in your mouth.

You will lie on a table that slides into the magnetic resonance imaging machine. Straps might be used to hold you still during the test. Your body might be completely inside the machine. Or, part of your body may stay outside the machine.

The Magnetic resonance imaging machine creates a strong magnetic field inside your body. A computer takes the signals from the MRI and uses them to make a series of pictures. Each picture shows a thin slice of your body.

You might hear a loud thumping or tapping sound during the test. This is the machine creating energy to take pictures inside your body. You can ask for earplugs or headphones to muffle the sound.

You might feel a twitching sensation during the test. This happens as the MRI stimulates nerves in your body. It’s normal, and nothing to worry about. The magnetic resonance imaging scan should take 20-90 minutes.

After a magnetic resonance imaging test

You can usually go home after a magnetic resonance imaging test and get back to your normal routine. If you had medicine to help you relax, you’ll stay in the imaging centre until you’re fully awake. You’ll also need someone to drive you home.

Side effects of magnetic resonance imaging

The contrast dye helps your doctor see what is happening, and for most people, it does not cause any problems. But it can also cause an allergic reaction in some people. There are steps that doctors can take to treat them. If you are pregnant, your doctor will not use it on you, even if there is no evidence of harm to the fetus. Your doctor can monitor your kidney function before the test. People with severe kidney disease are at increased risk for a rare disease called nephrogenic sclerosing fibrosis.

Magnetic resonance imaging results

A specially trained doctor called a radiologist will read the results of your MRI and send the report to your doctor. Your doctor will explain the meaning of your test results and what to do next.

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