What are nervous system disorders in children?
The nervous system disorders in children control everything in the human body that we do, including breathing, walking, thinking, and feeling. This system is made up of our brain, spinal cord, and all the nerves of our body, and It may consist of two major parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
The central nervous system: Which consists of the brain and spinal cord, is known as the central nervous system
Peripheral nervous system: The peripheral nervous system is made up of nerves that separate from the spinal cord and extend to all parts of the body.
Principal organs of the nervous system disorders in children, In addition to the brain and spinal cord, include the following:
- Sensory organs of taste
- Sensory organs of smell
- Main causes of nervous system disorders
The nervous system is unprotected to various disorders and can be damaged by the following:
- Structural defects
- Blood flow disruption
- Autoimmune disorders
- Inborn genetic or metabolic problems
- Toxic exposures or direct effects of drug exposures
Nervous system disorders in children are mentioned in the following:
Major common symptoms of nervous system disorders in children. However, Every child may experience different symptoms and disorders which will cause different symptoms to occur. Symptoms may include:
- Delays in developmental milestones
- Increase or lack of growth in head size
- Changes in activity, reflexes, or movements
- Lack of coordination
- Changes in the level of consciousness or mood
- Muscle rigidity, tremors, or seizures
- Muscle wasting and slurred speech
The symptoms of nervous system disorders in children may resemble medical problems. Always consult your child’s doctor for a diagnosis.
Delays in developmental milestones
Children reach developmental milestones at their own pace, while others move faster than others. Two siblings from the same family can reach milestones at different speeds.
Short, temporary delays are not usually the cause of an alarm, but a continuous delay or multiple delays in reaching milestones can be a sign that later life may be challenging.
The delay in reaching milestones in language, thinking, social, or motor skills is called developmental delay.
Developmental delay can occur for a variety of reasons, including heredity, complications during pregnancy, and preterm delivery. The cause is not always known.
If you suspect that your child may have a developmental delay, talk to your pediatrician. Developmental delay sometimes refers to an underlying condition that can only be diagnosed by a doctor.
Once you are diagnosed, you can plan early treatments or other interventions to help your child progress and become an adult.
Increase or lack of growth in head size
The increase in head size can be any of the following:
- Benign familial macrocephaly (family orientation toward a large head size)
- Canavan disease (a condition that affects the body’s breakdown and how it uses a protein called aspartic acid)
- Hydrocephalus (fluid formation inside the skull that causes swelling of the brain)
- Bleeding inside the skull
- A disease in which the body cannot break down long chains of sugar molecules (Harler or Morquio syndrome)
Changes in activity, reflexes, or movements
Most reactions involve multiple synapses on the reflex arc. The stretch reflex is abnormal, with no internal neuron in the arch, with a single synapse between the associated nerve fiber and motor neurons (see movement below: regulation of muscle contraction). The flexor reflex, which removes an organ from a damaging stimulus, contains at least two interneurons and three synapses.
There are also long-term changes in reflexes that can be observed in experimental spinal cord transfers in cats. Repeated stimulation of the skin below the level of the lesion, such as rubbing the same area for 20 minutes every day, causes a change in the delay of some reflexes (interval between the start of the stimulus and the start of the response), a decrease and eventual disappearance of the response. This procedure takes several weeks and, with daily stimulation, shows that one reflex response can be changed to another. Repetitive activation of synapses increases their effectiveness, causing a permanent change. When this repetitive stimulus stops, synaptic functions regress and reflex responses return to their original form.
Lack of coordination
Coordination disorder (one of the main nervous system disorders in children) is an impairment of motor skills characterized by a coordinated movement that affects gait, speech, the ability to swallow, eye movements, and other generally voluntary movements. The medical term for this condition is ataxia.
When you abuse drugs, the medications can affect your motor function and affect your daily life. Each movement you perform involves the use of a specific group of muscles. The cerebellum is the cardinal part of the brain that controls these muscle groups. Coordination error occurs when communication between the brain and other parts of the body is disrupted.
Changes in the level of consciousness or mood
Our level of consciousness, or level of awareness of our surroundings, affects our mental functioning in various ways. For simplicity, there are two categories of consciousness: normal waking consciousness (NWC) and altered state consciousness (ASC). ASC is the spectrum of sleep, coma, drugs/alcohol, or meditation. In the case of drugs/alcohol and meditation, ASC can be started intentionally or it can occur without awareness, such as daydreaming, memory, coma, or sleep. A condition of severely altered consciousness but with few signs of self-awareness or awareness of the environment. Consciousness is subject to fluctuations in degree and consistency, but it can reproduce. Different forms of minimal consciousness are defined:
Minimal awareness is characterized by linguistically mediated behavior, such as more order-following, verbalization.
Emerges from the minimal state of consciousness to the use of functional objects and functional communication.
Specific behaviors of the minimum state of consciousness: localization to pain stimuli, non-reflective movement patterns, stabilization and search for visual stimuli, intelligent vocalization, inconsistent following of orders, yes / unreliable responses, and some inconsistent manipulation of objects. Minimally conscious is sometimes an intermittent state between coma and full consciousness.
Muscle rigidity, tremors, or seizures
Myoclonic seizures are characterized by brief, spasmodic spasms of a muscle or group of muscles. They often occur with atonic seizures, which cause sudden muscle weakness. Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic seizures (SMA-PME) is a neurological condition that causes a combination of muscle weakness and atrophy (atrophy) and uncontrolled muscle seizures and spasms (myoclonic seizures). Vibration is the sudden and uncontrolled rhythmic movement of a part or part of your body. Vibration can occur in any part of the body, at any time. It is usually the result of a problem controlling the movement of the brain muscles.
Tremors are not always serious, but in some cases, they can indicate a serious disorder. Most tremors are not easily treated, but they often go away on their own.
Muscle wasting and slurred speech
Muscle atrophy, also known as muscle atrophy, is a loss of muscle tissue due to reduced mobility or an underlying disease. Many neuromuscular and chronic inflammatory diseases are closely associated with muscle weakness, skeletal muscle wasting, and muscle fatigue. Depending on the root cause, muscle wasting can partially or completely waste it.
Symptoms of muscle atrophy:
Muscle atrophy reduces the basic strength needed to perform daily activities. Common symptoms associated with muscle atrophy are:
- Loss of muscle coordination
- Weakness or numbness in the limbs
- Weak balance when running
- The weakness of the extremities
- The general feeling of fatigue and illness
- Progressive weakness
- Facial weakness
- Little by little she loses her memory
Treatment of muscle atrophy depends on the root cause of muscle damage and the condition. Muscle waste treatment options:
Physical therapy: The physical therapist teaches some exercises that facilitate the movement of the arms and legs.
Ultrasound therapy: Sound waves are used to treat chronic pain conditions, improve muscle circulation, and promote tissue healing.
Surgery: The doctor will perform surgery if any contraction (stiffness or contraction of the connective tissue) causes the deformity to cause muscle atrophy.
Departments to consult for this condition
- Department of Neurology