Common Neurological Problems in Children | Neurology

Neurological problems in children

What are neurological problems in children?

The brain is one of the most important and delicate organs in the human body. Neurological problems in children are those caused by dysfunction of the brain or nervous system and result in psychological or physical symptoms depending on the area of the brain involved, leading to disorders.

The human brain begins to develop when the child is in the womb and continues through childhood through adolescence. Brain cells are formed mainly before birth, although nerve connections do not develop until later. Neurological disorders have a wide spectrum and can have a variety of causes, complications, symptoms, and outcomes. All neurological conditions involve the nervous system that comprises the brain and spinal column. The nervous system panels everything in the human body, including movement, vision, and hearing. Symptoms and results depend on the area of the brain that has been damaged.

These conditions can affect people of all age groups; however, few neurological conditions present only during the early years of development. They can manifest as birth defects or, in some cases, symptoms are diagnosed only during the child’s later years. Most of these neurological signs and symptoms are found when a child misses a developmental milestone or has a brain injury or infection. Brain-related complaints, such as headaches, are sometimes temporary and are often ignored. However, symptoms like constant dizziness or weakness that appear unexpectedly without any explanation or cause can be indications of neurological conditions.

Symptoms of neurological problems in children

Some common symptoms of pediatric neurological disorders are:

  • Partial or complete paralysis
  • Muscular weakness
  • Partial or total loss of sensation
  • Convulsions
  • Difficulty reading and writing
  • Poor cognitive abilities
  • Pain
  • Decreased alertness

Effects of neurological problems in children

Neurological disorders in children can occur for many reasons and can have a wide range of effects on the baby and her family. Autism, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, brain injuries, and headaches are some of the common neurological disorders in childhood.


Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that refers to impaired social interaction, impaired communication skills along a repetitive pattern of behavior.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

It is a common neurological disorder that makes it difficult for a child to be attentive and unable to control impulses.


This is a condition that makes it difficult for children to coordinate physical movements.


It refers to the learning disability in children and they find it difficult to read, write, etc.

Cerebral palsy

This is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a child’s motor skills and is caused by brain damage that occurs before or during birth. It usually occurs during pregnancy when the fetus does not grow properly or develops brain damage. Proper treatment and therapies can help improve the condition.

Causes of neurological problems in children

Many neurological disorders are “congenital,” meaning they were present at birth. But some of the disorders are “acquired,” which means they developed after birth. Those with an unknown cause are called “idiopathic.”

  • Congenital Causes (present at birth)
  • Pre/perinatal Causes
  • Acquired Causes (developed after birth)

Types of neurological problems in children

There are many nervous system disorders here that require clinical attention from a physician or other healthcare professional. A few are listed in the following directory, for which we have provided a brief overview.

  • Acute spinal cord injury
  • Alzheimer disease
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • Ataxia
  • Bell’s palsy
  • Brain tumors
  • Brain aneurysm
  • Epilepsy and seizures
  • Guillain-BarrĂ© syndrome
  • Headache
  • Head injury
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Lumbar disc disease (herniated disc)
  • Meningitis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Neurocutaneous syndromes
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Stroke (brain attack)
  • Cluster headaches
  • Tension headaches
  • Migraines
  • How a migraine occurs
  • Diagnosis and treatment of migraines
  • Encephalitis
  • Septicemia
  • Types of muscular dystrophy and neuromuscular diseases
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Stroke overview
  • Risk factors for stroke
  • Types of stroke
  • Effects of stroke
  • Stroke rehabilitation

Treatment for neurological disorder in children

Neurological problems in children refer to the condition that affects the brain and nervous system. In other words, it is caused by dysfunction in a part of the brain or nervous system. Disorders involve the brain, spine, or nerves, and symptoms depend on the site of damage and vary accordingly. Physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms may occur that affect control movement, communication, vision, hearing, or thinking, etc.

Neurological problems in children generally occur in the early years of development and can be diagnosed at birth. The disorder can occur as birth defects or during a child’s later years. Symptoms of neurological disorders in children appear for the following reasons:

  • Development problems
  • Harmful infection
  • Brain damage

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