Childhood Heart Conditions | Cardiology

Heart Conditions in Children

What are common heart conditions in children?

The number of adults living with heart disease and other heart conditions is widely reported, but some of us have found that heart disease affects small hearts as well, and a large number do.

  • It is estimated that between three and five million children worldwide live with chronic rheumatic heart disease, the most serious complication of rheumatic fever.
  • Each year, more than 4,000 children under the age of 5 are diagnosed with Kawasaki disease.

While some children’s heart problems cannot be prevented, there are signs that parents can see, and what parents can do can lead to prior intervention and better outcomes for their children and teens.

Types of heart conditions in children

Here are the most common heart conditions in children which are following:

1. Congenital heart defects

Congenital malformations are abnormalities in the formation of the heart and/or its main blood vessels. These defects occur at birth in eight out of 1,000 babies, but go undiagnosed for many years. The abnormalities range from simple defects, such as a small hole in the wall between the two chambers of the heart, to more complex problems. Here is a list of common congenital heart defects:

2. Coronary artery fistulas

Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is defined as the irregular connection between the coronary artery and the main vessel or cardiac chamber. It is an unusual form of congenital heart disease. Randomized results of coronary disorders during the angiographic evaluation of coronary vascular disorders.

Most of these fistulas originate from the left anterior descending artery or the right coronary artery. Most of these patients are asymptomatic, but heart failure, angina, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, endocarditis, and dyspnea have been described in some cases. Management is complex and recommendations are based on narrative cases of very small recurring sequences.

3. Anomalous pulmonary venous return

Irregular total pulmonary vein return (TAPVR) is a congenital heart defect. Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs does not return to the left atrium. Instead, it returns to the right side of the heart. Here, oxygen-rich blood mixes with oxygen-depleted blood. This gives the baby less oxygen than the body needs.

To live with this defect, children with TAPVR usually have a hole between the right atrium and the left atrium (an atrial septal defect), which allows the mixed blood to reach the left side of the heart and out to the rest of the body. Some children have a separate atrial septal defect and have other heart defects along with TAPVR. Since a child with this defect may need surgery or other procedures immediately after birth, TAPVR is considered a critical congenital heart defect. It means coming with birth at birth.

4. Aortic stenosis/Bicuspid aortic valve

Some people are born with a bicuspid aortic valve, which has an aortic valve, located between the lower left heart chamber (left ventricle) and the main artery leading to the body (aorta), with only three (two) leaflets. People can also be born with one (unicuspid) or four (quadricuspid) cosplay, but these are very rare.

The bicuspid aortic valve narrows the aortic valve of the heart (aortic valve stenosis). This narrowing prevents the valve from opening fully, reducing, or obstructing blood flow from the heart to the body. In some cases, the aortic valve does not close tightly, causing blood to flow back into the left ventricle (aortic valve regurgitation). Most people with a bilateral aortic valve are not affected by valve problems until they become adults, and some may not be affected until adulthood.

5. Atrial septal defect (ASD)

An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall (septum) between the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart. The condition is present at birth (congenital).

Minor bugs can be found accidentally and will never cause a problem. Some small atrial septal defects close in infancy or childhood.

Blood from the holes increases the amount of blood that flows through the lungs. Large, chronic ASD can damage the heart and lungs. Surgery or device closure may be required to correct atrial septal defects and prevent complications.

6. Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD)

A heart defect called Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) in which there are holes between the chambers on the right and left sides of the heart and the valves that control blood flow between these chambers may not be formed correctly.

This condition is also known as the atrioventricular canal (AV canal) defect or endocardial cushion defect. In AVSD, blood usually flows where it shouldn’t go. Blood may have less oxygen than normal, and excess blood flows into the lungs. This excess blood is pumped to the lungs, causing the heart and lungs to work harder and leading to heart failure.

7. Coarctation of the aorta/Interrupted aortic arch

Coronation of the aorta is a congenital (congenital) condition in which the aorta (the main blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body) narrows. The narrow segment (coarctation) is usually small and opens to a normal size beyond the aortic coarctation. However, the correction can cause problems with heart function and high blood pressure.

8. D-Transposition of the great arteries

Dextro-transposition of the great arteries, or D-TGA, is a congenital heart defect in which the two main arteries that carry blood from the heart, the main pulmonary artery and the aorta, become congested or “transposed.” D-TGA is considered a complicated congenital heart defect (CCHD) because a baby with this defect may need surgery or other procedures immediately after birth. It means to come with birth at birth.

9. Ebstein’s anomaly

Ebstein’s deformity, also known as Ebstein’s deformity, is a rare congenital (congenital) heart defect.

In patients with Ebstein’s disorder, the valve (tricuspid valve) between the chambers on the right side of the heart may not close properly. The right side of the heart is where blood returns from the rest of the body and sends it to the lungs to take in oxygen again.

10. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

A birth defect called Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) affects normal blood flow through the heart. As the baby develops during pregnancy, the left side of the heart does not form properly. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a congenital heart defect. It means to come with birth at birth. HLHS is considered a complicated congenital heart defect (CCHD) because a baby with this defect may need surgery or other procedures immediately after birth.

11. L-Transposition of the great arteries

The bottom section is a completely inverted heart.

This heart defect causes a reversal in the normal blood flow pattern because the lower right and left chambers of the heart are reversed. However, transposition I am less dangerous than transposition because even the great arteries are inverted. This “double inversion” allows the body to continue to receive oxygen-rich blood and the lungs to receive oxygen-depleted blood.

12. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

An unsealed hole in the aorta.

Before a baby is born, the fetus’s blood does not have to go to the lungs for oxygen. The ductus arteriosus is the hole that allows blood to bypass circulation to the lungs. However, when the baby is born, the blood needs to carry oxygen to the lungs and this hole closes. If the ductus arteriosus is still open (or patented), the blood can bypass this necessary circulatory phase. The open hole is called a patent ductus arteriosus.

13. Pulmonary atresia

Pulmonary atresia is a form of heart disease in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly. It is congenital (congenital heart disease). The pulmonary valve opens on the right side of the heart, which controls blood flow from the right ventricle (right-side pumping chamber) to the lungs.

In pulmonary atresia, the valve leaflets converge. It forms a solid sheet of tissue where the valve opening is located. As a result, normal blood flow to the lungs and lungs is blocked. Because of this defect, oxygen from the blood on the right side of the heart cannot reach the lungs.

14. Pulmonary stenosis

Pulmonary stenosis (also known as pulmonary stenosis) means that the pulmonary valve (the valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery) is too small, narrow, or too tight.

The symptoms of pulmonary stenosis depend on how small the narrowing of the pulmonary valve is. If symptoms are mild, pulmonary stenosis should never be treated. But children with more severe pulmonary stenosis need a procedure to repair the pulmonary valve so that blood flows properly through the body.

15. Tetralogy of Fallot

Fallot’s tetralogy (Fuh-Low’s The-Troll-Uh-Ji) is a rare condition caused by a combination of four congenital heart defects.

These defects, which affect the structure of the heart, cause oxygen-deficient blood to flow from the heart to the rest of the body. Babies and children with tetralogy of following usually have blue skin because their blood does not have enough oxygen.

16. Tricuspid atresia

Tricuspid atresia (tri-cusp-id uh-tree-yuh) is a congenital defect of the heart, where the valve that controls blood flow from the right upper chamber of the heart to the lower right chamber of the heart does not form at all. In children with this defect, blood does not flow properly through the heart and to the rest of the body.

17. Truncus arteriosus

Truncus arteriosus also is known as the common trunk, a rare heart defect in which a common blood vessel protrudes from the heart, instead of the two normal vessels (the main pulmonary artery and the aorta).

18. Vascular ring/Sling

The vascular ring is a birth defect in which there is an abnormal structure in the main artery that supplies blood from the heart to the body (aorta) and the blood vessels associated with it. They can be classified as complete when both the trachea and the esophagus are surrounded by vascular dysfunction or incomplete without complete closure of both structures.

19. Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

Ventricular septal defect (VSD), a hole in the heart, is a common congenital heart defect. The hole (defect) occurs in the wall (septum), which separates the lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart and allows blood to flow from left to right into the heart. Excess oxygenated blood is sent back to the lungs rather than outside the body, causing the heart to work harder.

A small ventricular septal defect does not cause problems, and most small VSDs close on their own. Medium or large VSDs may require surgical repair early in life to prevent complications.

20. Dilated cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is a disease in which the heart muscle becomes weak, stretches, or has another structural problem.

Dilated cardiomyopathy is a condition in which the heart muscle becomes weak and expands. As a result, the heart does not pump enough blood to the rest of the body.

21. Endocarditis

Endocarditis is an infection of the endocardium, the lining of the heart’s chambers, and valves.

Endocarditis usually occurs when there is a spread of bacteria, viruses, fungi to the damaged portion of the heart from already infected parts. If not treated quickly, endocarditis can damage or destroy heart valves and lead to fatal complications. Treatments for endocarditis include antibiotics and, in some cases, surgery.

22. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease that affects the heart muscle and causes the muscles to dilate or “hypertrophy.”

23. Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease is an illness that causes inflammation (swelling and redness) in the blood vessels throughout the body. It occurs in three stages, and permanent fever is usually the first sign.

This condition most often affects children under 5 years of age. When symptoms are detected and treated early, children with Kawasaki disease may feel better within a few days.

24. Myocarditis

The inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium). Inflammation of the heart muscle can lead to atrophy or death of heart muscle cells. Myocarditis has many different causes and can lead to many outcomes ranging from mild (brief presentation and resolution) to rapidly developing malignancy. Myocarditis is distinguished from pericarditis because pericarditis is an inflammation of the sac that surrounds the heart and is not associated with the heart muscle as in myocarditis. However, it is not uncommon for a patient to have both pericarditis and myocarditis.

25. Pericarditis

The inflammation of the pericardium is called pericarditis, which consists of two thin layers of a sac-like tissue that surround the heart, holding it in place and helping it function. A small amount of liquid separates the layers so there is no friction between them.

A common symptom of pericarditis is chest pain, which is caused by inflammation of the lining of the sac and rubbing against the heart. It can feel like the pain of a heart attack.

26. Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that develops when strep throat or scarlet fever is not treated properly. Infection with the bacteria Streptococcus (Strep-toe-Coke-US) can cause strep throat and scarlet fever.

Rheumatic fever mainly affects children between the ages of 5 and 15, although it can develop in young children and adults. Although strep throat is common, rheumatic fever is very rare in the United States and other developed countries. However, rheumatic fever is common in many developing countries.

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