Overview of Automated External Defibrillators | Cardiology

What are automated external defibrillators (AEDs)?

The AED, or an automated external defibrillator, is used to help those experiencing sudden cardiac arrest. It is a sophisticated yet easy-to-use medical device that can analyze the rhythm of the heart and, if necessary, provide an electric shock or defibrillation to help restore efficient heart rhythm.

History of automated external defibrillator

Defibrillation was first performed in 1899 by two physiologists Provost and Batelli from the University of Geneva in Switzerland. They found that small electrical shocks could induce ventricular fibrillation.

The first use of a defibrillator in humans was made in 1947 by Claude Beck, professor of surgery at Case Western Reserve University. Beck first used the defibrillation technique on a 14-year-old boy who was undergoing surgery for a congenital breast defect.

In the 1960s, portable defibrillators were introduced for use in ambulances. Today, defibrillators are the only proven way to resuscitate a person with cardiac arrest and persistent ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia upon the arrival of rescuers.

Sudden cardiac arrest is a major public health problem, affecting 500,000 people each year. Sudden cardiac arrest can affect anyone, so it is important to be prepared to respond quickly to sudden cardiac arrest.

Having an automated external defibrillator (AED) accessible to deliver life-saving shocks quickly is the difference between life and death. When the victim experiences sudden cardiac arrest, with a shocking rhythm, every minute counts;

Every minute that the victim goes without defibrillation, the chances of survival decrease by 7% to 10%. Installing an automated external defibrillator in your area can enable on-site trained first responders or nearby first responders to provide lifesaving defibrillation treatment quickly and effectively.

How does an automated external defibrillator work?

  • A built-in computer checks the victim’s heart rate
  • By adhesive electrodes. The computer calculates
  • If defibrillation is necessary. If so, register
  • The voice asks the rescuer to press the shock button.
  • An automated external defibrillator, this shock surprises the heart in a moment
  • And disable all activity. Give the heart a chance
  • Start beating effectively. An audible prompt guides the user through the process. Automated external defibrillator only advise downloads
  • For ventricular fibrillation or other malignancy
  • A condition called pulseless ventricular tachycardia.

Who can use an automated external defibrillator?

Most AEDs are user-friendly and can be operated by non-medical personnel, such as firefighters, police officers, flight attendants. With rapid cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency defibrillation, it can dramatically help increase a person’s chances of surviving sudden cardiac arrest.

Are automated external defibrillators safe to use?

Yes, AEDs are safe to use in all weather conditions. However, if possible, seek shelter and protect the victim from adverse weather. If the victim is in water, move them to a relatively dry area before using the automated external defibrillator.

Where should an automated external defibrillator be placed?

To ensure that your AED enclosure is accessible to anyone, even those in a wheelchair, in an emergency, it must be mounted 48 inches above the floor, in an unoccupied area. Make sure your employees can reach the AED with one hand to minimize response time.

AED’s Placement checklist:

  • Are your AEDs located in a clearly identified, well-lit, unbuilt space?
  • Isn’t it easy to reach and remove your AEDs with one hand?
  • Have you installed your AED in accordance with ADA guidelines?
  • Have you trained your employees in CPR and AED?
  • Do you have a DEA compliance management program or a preventive management program?
  • Does your AED have bleeding control kits, first aid kits, non-rubber gloves, CPR masks, scissors, razors, and absorbent pads?

Risk Factors, and Results of Electrocardiogram | Cardiology

What is an electrocardiogram (ECG)?

An electrocardiogram is commonly called an ECG or EKG and it is a simple test used to check the rhythm and electrical activity of your heart. Sensors attached to the skin are used to detect the electrical signals your heart produces each time it beats. A machine records these signals, and the doctor sees if they are abnormal.

The electrocardiogram can be ordered by a cardiologist or any doctor who thinks you have a heart problem, including your GP. This test can be done by a hospital, clinic, or healthcare professional who is specially trained in surgery by your GP. Despite the similar name, the electrocardiogram is not the same as the echocardiogram, which is a scan of the heart.

Natural electrical impulses coordinate the contractions of different parts of the heart, causing blood to flow. An electrocardiogram records these impulses to show the strength and timing of the electrical impulses as the heartbeats, the rhythm of the heartbeat (constant or irregular), and the passage through different parts of the heart. Changes in the ECG indicate heart conditions.

Why is an electrocardiogram done?

Your doctor may recommend an electrocardiogram to assess the health of your heart. This is a common part of checkups, especially for those over 40.

An electrocardiogram by itself does not diagnose all types of heart conditions or predict future heart problems. Provides important information about your heart health-related to your age, physical exam, medical history, and other tests.

  • Identify abnormal heart rhythms that cause blood to clot.
  • Identifying heart problems includes a recent or ongoing heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia), coronary artery occlusion, damaged areas of the heart muscle (from a previous heart attack), inflammation of the broken heart, and shock around the heart.
  • Identify non-cardiac conditions such as electrolyte imbalance and lung and lung diseases.
  • Heart attack, the progression of heart disease, or recovery from the effect of certain medications or pacemakers.
  • Eliminate hidden heart disease in patients undergoing surgery.

When are ECGs needed?

In some cases, having this test is very important. If you have symptoms of high blood pressure or heart disease, chest pain, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, or large heartbeat, you may need an electrocardiogram. You may need screenings or tests for professional purposes or if you have a personal or family history of heart disease, diabetes, or other accidents and want to start exercising.

How the test is done

You will be asked to remove all clothing and jewelry from your waist (including women’s bras) to place electrodes on specific areas of the chest wall, arms, and legs. The electrodes are held in place by rubber bands, suction cups, or adhesive pads.

Sometimes it is necessary to shave the skin where the electrode recording patches are placed to easily detect the electrical signal and reduce discomfort when removing the patches. For a standard 12-bottle ECG, the electrodes are placed in 4 positions on the 4 extremities and 6 on the chest wall. Sometimes additional leads are added for a 15-lead electrocardiogram.

You will be prompted to remain normal when the machine is turned on, and typically a sample (usually 3-4 seconds) from each electrode site is recorded. The electrocardiogram is usually constantly monitoring and may ask you to hold your breath for a short time during the procedure (to stop chest wall movement that interferes with the signal). The machine captures the electrical activity of the wires and then produces a graph with an up and down row that looks a bit like a geographic map but indicates the activity of your heart.

Types of electrocardiogram

The types of ECG are:

  • Standard (resting) ECG: The electrocardiogram measures the electrical activity of your heart while you lie down or rest in a semi-reclined position. This is the most common type of ECG.
  • Stress test (exercise ECG or tape test): This usually involves taking an electrocardiogram on a treadmill while you exercise. Show how exercise affects your heart. Helps diagnose and diagnose coronary artery disease and other types of heart disease. Medications are sometimes given instead of mimicking the effect of exercise on the heart.
  • Holter monitor (24-hour ECG or ambulatory ECG): This includes the use of an electronic electrocardiogram recorder 24 hours a day. It records the electrical activity of your heart for 24 hours. It can help diagnose arrhythmias (irregular or abnormal heartbeats).
  • Cardiac event recorders record an electrocardiogram for an extended period, a year or more. Portable cardiac event recorders record the electrical activity of the heart when you have symptoms. Adjustable loop recorders are mounted under the skin on your chest. They constantly record the electrical activity of your heart.

Results of ECG

For most people, an electrocardiogram is just a series of lines. However, each line corresponds to an electrical signal sent from the heart. Doctors can read and understand these lines, which indicate the general condition of the heart.

The operating physician or healthcare professional places the electrodes on a person’s skin, usually around the chest, and at 10 different points on the extremities. Each beat sends an electrical impulse. These electrodes select this pulse and record the activity as a waveform on a graph.

All of these take place in the eyelid, so an EKG is very important. An ECG can capture all these little details and record them for the doctor to analyze.

Risk factors of ECG

Electrocardiograms (EKGs) are safe, non-invasive, painless, and accident-free tests. The electrodes (adhesive patches) that connect the sensors to your chest do not send electrical shocks. People who undergo stress tests have a higher risk of having a heart attack, but this is related to exercise, not the EKG.

You may develop a mild rash or irritation of the skin where the electrodes are placed. If paste or gel is used to place the electrodes, you may have an allergic reaction. This irritation usually disappears without the need for treatment, once the patches are removed.

Specialists who handle ECG

  • Cardiac surgeons specialize in the surgical treatment of the heart and its vascular conditions. They are also known as cardiothoracic surgeons.
  • Pediatric cardiologists and cardiologists are interns or pediatricians who specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases or situations of the heart and its blood vessels.
  • Emergency medicine specialists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of sudden illness or injury and difficulties of chronic illness.
  • Interventional cardiologists are cardiologists who specialize in diagnosing and treating conditions and diseases of the heart and its blood vessels. They use catheter-based non-surgical procedures and imaging techniques.
  • Primary care providers include interns, family practitioners (family medicine physicians), pediatricians, geriatricians, physician assistants (PA), and nurse practitioners (NP). Primary care providers provide comprehensive health services and treat a wide variety of ailments and conditions.
  • Thoracic surgeons train in the surgical treatment of diseases of the chest, including the blood vessels, heart, lungs, and esophagus. They are also known as cardiothoracic surgeons.
General Topics

Childhood Heart Conditions | Cardiology

What are common heart conditions in children?

The number of adults living with heart disease and other heart conditions is widely reported, but some of us have found that heart disease affects small hearts as well, and a large number do.

  • It is estimated that between three and five million children worldwide live with chronic rheumatic heart disease, the most serious complication of rheumatic fever.
  • Each year, more than 4,000 children under the age of 5 are diagnosed with Kawasaki disease.

While some children’s heart problems cannot be prevented, there are signs that parents can see, and what parents can do can lead to prior intervention and better outcomes for their children and teens.

Types of heart conditions in children

Here are the most common heart conditions in children which are following:

1. Congenital heart defects

Congenital malformations are abnormalities in the formation of the heart and/or its main blood vessels. These defects occur at birth in eight out of 1,000 babies, but go undiagnosed for many years. The abnormalities range from simple defects, such as a small hole in the wall between the two chambers of the heart, to more complex problems. Here is a list of common congenital heart defects:

2. Coronary artery fistulas

Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is defined as the irregular connection between the coronary artery and the main vessel or cardiac chamber. It is an unusual form of congenital heart disease. Randomized results of coronary disorders during the angiographic evaluation of coronary vascular disorders.

Most of these fistulas originate from the left anterior descending artery or the right coronary artery. Most of these patients are asymptomatic, but heart failure, angina, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, endocarditis, and dyspnea have been described in some cases. Management is complex and recommendations are based on narrative cases of very small recurring sequences.

3. Anomalous pulmonary venous return

Irregular total pulmonary vein return (TAPVR) is a congenital heart defect. Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs does not return to the left atrium. Instead, it returns to the right side of the heart. Here, oxygen-rich blood mixes with oxygen-depleted blood. This gives the baby less oxygen than the body needs.

To live with this defect, children with TAPVR usually have a hole between the right atrium and the left atrium (an atrial septal defect), which allows the mixed blood to reach the left side of the heart and out to the rest of the body. Some children have a separate atrial septal defect and have other heart defects along with TAPVR. Since a child with this defect may need surgery or other procedures immediately after birth, TAPVR is considered a critical congenital heart defect. It means coming with birth at birth.

4. Aortic stenosis/Bicuspid aortic valve

Some people are born with a bicuspid aortic valve, which has an aortic valve, located between the lower left heart chamber (left ventricle) and the main artery leading to the body (aorta), with only three (two) leaflets. People can also be born with one (unicuspid) or four (quadricuspid) cosplay, but these are very rare.

The bicuspid aortic valve narrows the aortic valve of the heart (aortic valve stenosis). This narrowing prevents the valve from opening fully, reducing, or obstructing blood flow from the heart to the body. In some cases, the aortic valve does not close tightly, causing blood to flow back into the left ventricle (aortic valve regurgitation). Most people with a bilateral aortic valve are not affected by valve problems until they become adults, and some may not be affected until adulthood.

5. Atrial septal defect (ASD)

An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall (septum) between the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart. The condition is present at birth (congenital).

Minor bugs can be found accidentally and will never cause a problem. Some small atrial septal defects close in infancy or childhood.

Blood from the holes increases the amount of blood that flows through the lungs. Large, chronic ASD can damage the heart and lungs. Surgery or device closure may be required to correct atrial septal defects and prevent complications.

6. Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD)

A heart defect called Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) in which there are holes between the chambers on the right and left sides of the heart and the valves that control blood flow between these chambers may not be formed correctly.

This condition is also known as the atrioventricular canal (AV canal) defect or endocardial cushion defect. In AVSD, blood usually flows where it shouldn’t go. Blood may have less oxygen than normal, and excess blood flows into the lungs. This excess blood is pumped to the lungs, causing the heart and lungs to work harder and leading to heart failure.

7. Coarctation of the aorta/Interrupted aortic arch

Coronation of the aorta is a congenital (congenital) condition in which the aorta (the main blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body) narrows. The narrow segment (coarctation) is usually small and opens to a normal size beyond the aortic coarctation. However, the correction can cause problems with heart function and high blood pressure.

8. D-Transposition of the great arteries

Dextro-transposition of the great arteries, or D-TGA, is a congenital heart defect in which the two main arteries that carry blood from the heart, the main pulmonary artery and the aorta, become congested or “transposed.” D-TGA is considered a complicated congenital heart defect (CCHD) because a baby with this defect may need surgery or other procedures immediately after birth. It means to come with birth at birth.

9. Ebstein’s anomaly

Ebstein’s deformity, also known as Ebstein’s deformity, is a rare congenital (congenital) heart defect.

In patients with Ebstein’s disorder, the valve (tricuspid valve) between the chambers on the right side of the heart may not close properly. The right side of the heart is where blood returns from the rest of the body and sends it to the lungs to take in oxygen again.

10. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

A birth defect called Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) affects normal blood flow through the heart. As the baby develops during pregnancy, the left side of the heart does not form properly. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a congenital heart defect. It means to come with birth at birth. HLHS is considered a complicated congenital heart defect (CCHD) because a baby with this defect may need surgery or other procedures immediately after birth.

11. L-Transposition of the great arteries

The bottom section is a completely inverted heart.

This heart defect causes a reversal in the normal blood flow pattern because the lower right and left chambers of the heart are reversed. However, transposition I am less dangerous than transposition because even the great arteries are inverted. This “double inversion” allows the body to continue to receive oxygen-rich blood and the lungs to receive oxygen-depleted blood.

12. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

An unsealed hole in the aorta.

Before a baby is born, the fetus’s blood does not have to go to the lungs for oxygen. The ductus arteriosus is the hole that allows blood to bypass circulation to the lungs. However, when the baby is born, the blood needs to carry oxygen to the lungs and this hole closes. If the ductus arteriosus is still open (or patented), the blood can bypass this necessary circulatory phase. The open hole is called a patent ductus arteriosus.

13. Pulmonary atresia

Pulmonary atresia is a form of heart disease in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly. It is congenital (congenital heart disease). The pulmonary valve opens on the right side of the heart, which controls blood flow from the right ventricle (right-side pumping chamber) to the lungs.

In pulmonary atresia, the valve leaflets converge. It forms a solid sheet of tissue where the valve opening is located. As a result, normal blood flow to the lungs and lungs is blocked. Because of this defect, oxygen from the blood on the right side of the heart cannot reach the lungs.

14. Pulmonary stenosis

Pulmonary stenosis (also known as pulmonary stenosis) means that the pulmonary valve (the valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery) is too small, narrow, or too tight.

The symptoms of pulmonary stenosis depend on how small the narrowing of the pulmonary valve is. If symptoms are mild, pulmonary stenosis should never be treated. But children with more severe pulmonary stenosis need a procedure to repair the pulmonary valve so that blood flows properly through the body.

15. Tetralogy of Fallot

Fallot’s tetralogy (Fuh-Low’s The-Troll-Uh-Ji) is a rare condition caused by a combination of four congenital heart defects.

These defects, which affect the structure of the heart, cause oxygen-deficient blood to flow from the heart to the rest of the body. Babies and children with tetralogy of following usually have blue skin because their blood does not have enough oxygen.

16. Tricuspid atresia

Tricuspid atresia (tri-cusp-id uh-tree-yuh) is a congenital defect of the heart, where the valve that controls blood flow from the right upper chamber of the heart to the lower right chamber of the heart does not form at all. In children with this defect, blood does not flow properly through the heart and to the rest of the body.

17. Truncus arteriosus

Truncus arteriosus also is known as the common trunk, a rare heart defect in which a common blood vessel protrudes from the heart, instead of the two normal vessels (the main pulmonary artery and the aorta).

18. Vascular ring/Sling

The vascular ring is a birth defect in which there is an abnormal structure in the main artery that supplies blood from the heart to the body (aorta) and the blood vessels associated with it. They can be classified as complete when both the trachea and the esophagus are surrounded by vascular dysfunction or incomplete without complete closure of both structures.

19. Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

Ventricular septal defect (VSD), a hole in the heart, is a common congenital heart defect. The hole (defect) occurs in the wall (septum), which separates the lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart and allows blood to flow from left to right into the heart. Excess oxygenated blood is sent back to the lungs rather than outside the body, causing the heart to work harder.

A small ventricular septal defect does not cause problems, and most small VSDs close on their own. Medium or large VSDs may require surgical repair early in life to prevent complications.

20. Dilated cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is a disease in which the heart muscle becomes weak, stretches, or has another structural problem.

Dilated cardiomyopathy is a condition in which the heart muscle becomes weak and expands. As a result, the heart does not pump enough blood to the rest of the body.

21. Endocarditis

Endocarditis is an infection of the endocardium, the lining of the heart’s chambers, and valves.

Endocarditis usually occurs when there is a spread of bacteria, viruses, fungi to the damaged portion of the heart from already infected parts. If not treated quickly, endocarditis can damage or destroy heart valves and lead to fatal complications. Treatments for endocarditis include antibiotics and, in some cases, surgery.

22. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease that affects the heart muscle and causes the muscles to dilate or “hypertrophy.”

23. Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease is an illness that causes inflammation (swelling and redness) in the blood vessels throughout the body. It occurs in three stages, and permanent fever is usually the first sign.

This condition most often affects children under 5 years of age. When symptoms are detected and treated early, children with Kawasaki disease may feel better within a few days.

24. Myocarditis

The inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium). Inflammation of the heart muscle can lead to atrophy or death of heart muscle cells. Myocarditis has many different causes and can lead to many outcomes ranging from mild (brief presentation and resolution) to rapidly developing malignancy. Myocarditis is distinguished from pericarditis because pericarditis is an inflammation of the sac that surrounds the heart and is not associated with the heart muscle as in myocarditis. However, it is not uncommon for a patient to have both pericarditis and myocarditis.

25. Pericarditis

The inflammation of the pericardium is called pericarditis, which consists of two thin layers of a sac-like tissue that surround the heart, holding it in place and helping it function. A small amount of liquid separates the layers so there is no friction between them.

A common symptom of pericarditis is chest pain, which is caused by inflammation of the lining of the sac and rubbing against the heart. It can feel like the pain of a heart attack.

26. Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that develops when strep throat or scarlet fever is not treated properly. Infection with the bacteria Streptococcus (Strep-toe-Coke-US) can cause strep throat and scarlet fever.

Rheumatic fever mainly affects children between the ages of 5 and 15, although it can develop in young children and adults. Although strep throat is common, rheumatic fever is very rare in the United States and other developed countries. However, rheumatic fever is common in many developing countries.


Information neurologist | Neurology

What is a neurologist?

A neurologist is a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases that affect the nervous system. Neurology is the branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. The nervous system is a complex and sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates bodily functions.

The nervous system has two parts:

The central nervous system (CNS): CNS represents the brain and spinal cord.

The peripheral nervous system (PNS): PNS contains all the nerves outside the CNS.

Due to the complex nature of the nervous system, many neurologists focus on treating people or a specific population of people with specific neurological diseases. After completing their residency training, most neurologists will spend a year or more in a fellowship program where they will gain experience in their subspecialty.

Examples of subdivisions in the field of neurology:

  • Pediatric or child neurology
  • Neurodevelopmental disabilities
  • Neuromuscular medicine
  • Hospice Neurology and Palliative Care
  • Pain drug
  • Headache drug
  • Sleep drug
  • Vascular neurology
  • Autonomic disorders
  • Neuropsychiatry
  • Brain injury drug
  • Neurocritical attention
  • Epilepsy

What conditions do they treat?

Neurologists treat neurological conditions that affect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. These conditions are:

  • Race
  • Epilepsy
  • Headaches and migraines
  • Brain tumors
  • Brain aneurysms
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Sleep disorders
  • Neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Neuromuscular diseases such as mastenia gravis, multiple sclerosis (MS), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • Nervous system infections, encephalitis, meningitis, and HIV

What procedures do they do?

Neurologists perform a variety of tests and procedures to diagnose and treat neurological conditions. A neurologist can use a pelvic puncture to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid. They can use this approach to help diagnose the following conditions:

  • Meningitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Myelitis
  • Leukemia
  • Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Dementia
  • Bleeding in the brain

Neurologists can also use pelvic puncture to treat conditions that affect the spinal cord. Narcotics, antibiotics, or cancer treatments can be injected with a pelvic puncture needle.

Electromyography: One procedure that a neurologist can perform is EMG. A neurologist can use electromyography (EMG) to assess how a person’s muscles respond to the electrical stimulation of motor neurons, which are specialized nerves that control muscle movements.

During EMG, a specially trained technician inserts small needles into the muscle called electrodes. These electrodes record the different electrical activity that occurs in muscle tissue during movement and at rest. The EMG machine produces an electromyogram, which is a record of this action. Neurologists can use EMG results to diagnose neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia gravis and ALS.

Electroencephalogram: Neurologists use electroencephalograms (EEGs) to measure and record electrical activity in the brain. Neurons in the brain communicate with other neurons through electrical impulses, which can pick up the EEG. The EEG also tracks brain wave patterns.

During the EEG, a technician places electrodes on the person’s head. These electrodes are connected to a computer that converts technical signals that technicians can view on screen or print on paper. Neurologists can use the EEG results to detect abnormal electrical activity in the brain and diagnose certain conditions:

  • Epilepsy
  • Convulsions
  • Brain tumors
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Tensilon test

Mastenia gravis is a rare neuromuscular disease that weakens the muscles of the arms and legs. The neurologist may use a blood test called a Tensilon test to diagnose Mastinia gravis.

Tensilon is the brand name for a drug called edrophonium, which inhibits the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which stimulates muscle movement. Mastenia Gravis The immune system attacks acetylcholine receptors in muscle, reducing muscle fatigue and muscle mobility.

During a Tensilon test, a neurologist injects a small amount of Tensilon into the bloodstream. Then, they ask the person to do different movements, namely:

  • Got up and sat down
  • Holding hands above their heads
  • Crossing and spreading the legs

The neurologist will continue to give doses of Tensilone each time the person feels tired. If a person notices their strength returning after each Tensilon injection, this indicates that they are more likely to have myasthenia gravis.

When to see a neurologist?

If you have a diagnosed neurological disorder or one of the above symptoms, it’s time to make an appointment to see a neurologist. A specialized team of specialists at Regional Neurological Associates has advanced training in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders, so you can be sure you are receiving professional care.

A primary care physician may refer a patient to a neurologist if they have symptoms that indicate a neurological condition:

  • Frequent or severe headache
  • Muscular weakness
  • Confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Loss of coordination
  • Partial or complete paralysis
  • Sensory changes that affect the sense of touch, sight, smell, or taste

5 big signs you should see a neurologist

Sleeping Problems: We know that the most obvious causes of sleep problems are having a condition like sleeping too late, sleep apnea or anxiety, nightmares, or others, some sleep problems are neurological disorders. An example of this is narcolepsy, a chronic genetic disorder that has no known cause that affects the body’s central nervous system.

These symptoms may be part of a more neurological disorder. Your primary care physician is a great resource to help you decide whether or not to see a neurologist. However, if your symptoms are severe enough, or you still don’t trust your primary care doctor’s recommendations, you may need to make an appointment with a neurologist.

You have seizures: Seizures are disturbances in your brain. They can cause strange sensations, uncontrollable movements or loss of consciousness. To find the cause, the neurologist can test the brain and obtain images. Sometimes seizures stop when the cause is treated. However, some conditions that cause seizures, such as epilepsy, can be chronic. There are many medications that can prevent or reduce seizures. There are also policies that can help. A neurologist will find the best treatment for you and help you manage the condition. 

You have a brain or spinal cord injury: Car accidents fall, and sports injuries can damage your brain or spinal cord. Symptoms depend on the type of injury and the extent of the damage. Brain injuries can cause headaches, dizziness, seizures, and loss of consciousness.

They cause changes in your behavior, thinking, and memory. Spinal cord injuries can cause weakness and numbness. You may also lose mobility below the area of injury. A neurologist can design a treatment plan for your specific condition and coordinate your care. This can include medications, physical therapy, and mental health treatment.

Migraine: Migraine is a type of headache that affects many people. If you have frequent and persistent headaches along with other symptoms, you are suffering from a migraine. Symptoms of migraine:

  • Headache on one or both sides of the head
  • Headache aggravated by physical exertion
  • Pain or throbbing pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Sensitivity to sounds
  • Sensitivity to odors.

According to the American Migraine Foundation, migraine affects 37 million people in the United States and more than 144 million worldwide. If you have migraine symptoms that your primary care provider cannot treat, you should see a neurologist.

Neuropathy: Peripheral neuropathy, commonly known as neuropathy, refers to a group of conditions that affect the peripheral nerves of the body. The peripheral nervous system connects the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord, to the rest of the body. Neuropathy can take many forms, including:

  • Chronic pain
  • Balance is difficult
  • Poor coordination
  • Burning sensations
  • Numbness, weakness, or tingling in the affected part of the body.
  • Paralysis

There is a long list of conditions that can cause neuropathy, from autoimmune diseases to vitamin deficiencies. Diabetic neuropathy is a type of neuropathy that many people have heard of and how common diabetes is in the US.

Disease General Topics

Treatments for Functional Neurological Disorder | Neurology

What is a functional neurological disorder?

Functional neurological disorder (FND) is a medicinal condition in which there is a problem with the operative of the nervous system and how the brain and body send and/or receive signals, rather than a structural disease process such as multiple sclerosis or a stroke. The functional neurological disorder can encompass a wide variety of neurological symptoms, such as limb weakness or seizures.

A functional neurological disorder is a condition at the interface between the specialties of neurology and psychiatry. Conventional tests, such as brain MRIs and EEGs, are usually normal in patients with functional neurological disorders. This has historically led to both doctors and researchers neglecting the disease.

However, it has now been established that functional neurological disorder is a common cause of disability and distress, which can overlap with other problems such as chronic pain and fatigue. Encouraging studies support the possible reversibility of functional neurological disorder with specifically designed treatments. New scientific findings are influencing the way patients are diagnosed and treated, which is creating a general shift in attitudes towards people with functional neurological disorders.

Older ideas that functional neurological disorder is “totally psychological” and that diagnosis is made only when someone has normal tests have changed since the mid-2000s. New understanding, including modern neuroscientific studies, has shown that FND it is not a diagnosis of exclusion. It has specific clinical features of its own and is a disorder of nervous system functioning in which many perspectives are needed. These vary greatly from person to person. In some people, psychological factors are important, in others they are not.

Signs and symptoms of functional neurological disorder

Patients with a functional neurological disorder can experience a wide range and combination of physical, sensory, and/or cognitive symptoms. The most common include:

Motor dysfunction

  • Functional weakness/paralysis of the limbs
  • Functional movement disorders; including tremors, spasms (dystonia), jerky movements (myoclonus), and trouble walking (gait disorder)
  • Functional speech symptoms; including whispering (dysphonia), slurred speech, or stuttering

Sensory dysfunction

  • Functional sensory disturbance includes altered sensation; eg numbness, tingling, or pain in the face, torso, or extremities. This often occurs on one side of the body
  • functional visual symptoms; including vision loss or double vision

Episodes of altered consciousness

  • Dissociative (non-epileptic) seizures, fainting spells, and fainting spells: These symptoms may overlap and may look like epileptic seizures or blackouts (syncope)

Symptoms often fluctuate and can vary from day to day or be present all the time. Some patients with a functional neurological disorder may experience a substantial or even complete remission followed by sudden relapses of symptoms.

Patients with the functional neurological disorder often experience other physical and psychological symptoms, but they may not be present. These include chronic pain, fatigue, trouble sleeping, memory symptoms, bowel and bladder symptoms, anxiety, and depression.

Causes functional neurological disorder

The exact cause of the functional neurological disorder is unknown, although ongoing research is beginning to provide suggestions on how and why it develops. Many different predisposing factors can make patients more susceptible to FND, such as having another neurological condition, experiencing chronic pain, fatigue, or stress. However, some people with functional neurological disorders do not have any of these risk factors.

By the time FND begins, studies have shown that there can be triggers such as a physical injury, infectious disease, panic attack, or migraine that can give someone the first experience of symptoms. These symptoms usually go away on their own.

However, in FND the symptoms “get stuck” in a “pattern” in the nervous system. This “pattern” is reflected in altered brain function. The result is a genuine and disabling problem, which the patient cannot control. The goal of treatment is to “retrain the brain,” for example, by unlearning abnormal and dysfunctional movement patterns that have developed and re-learning normal movement.

One way to think about FND is to think of it as a “software” problem on a computer. The “hardware” is not damaged, but there is a problem with the “software”, so the computer does not work, it does not work properly. Conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is usually normal in FND unless the person has another neurological condition.

Functional brain scans (fMRI) are beginning to provide early evidence of how the brain fails in FND. Functional magnetic resonance imaging shows changes in FND patients who look different from healthy patients without these symptoms, as well as from healthy people who “pretend” to have these symptoms.

Functional imaging is still a research tool and is not sufficiently developed to be used in the diagnosis of FND. The scans support what patients and researchers already know: These are genuine disorders in which there is a change in how the brain works, which is beyond the control of the person with FND.

Diagnosis of functional neurological disorder

The diagnosis of a functional neurologic disorder depends on the positive features of the history and examination.

Positive features of functional softness on examination include the Hoover sign, when there is the weakness of hip extension that regularizes with contralateral hip flexion, and the abductor thigh sign, thigh abduction weakness which is normalized with the abduction of the contralateral thigh. Signs of functional tremors include entrainment and distraction.

The trembling patient should be asked to copy the rhythmic movements with one hand or one foot. If the tremor on the other hand follows the same rhythm, stops, or if the patient has trouble copying a simple movement, this may indicate a functional tremor.

Functional dystonia usually presents with an inverted ankle stance or with a clenched fist. Positive features of dissociative or nonepileptic seizures include prolonged immobile unresponsiveness, long-lasting episodes (> 2 minutes), and dissociative symptoms before the seizure. These signs can be usefully discussed with patients when making the diagnosis.

Patients with functional movement disorders and limb faintness may experience the onset of symptoms triggered by an episode of acute pain, bodily injury, or physical trauma. They may also experience symptoms when faced with a psychological stressor, but this is not the case for most patients. Patients with functional neurological disorders are more likely to have a history of another disease, such as irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pelvic pain, or fibromyalgia, but this cannot be used to make a diagnosis.

FND does not show up on blood tests or structural brain images, such as MRI or CT. However, this is also the case for many other neurological conditions, so negative investigations should not be used alone to make the diagnosis. However, FND can occur along with other neurological diseases, and tests can show nonspecific abnormalities that confuse clinicians and patients.

Treatment for a functional neurological disorder

There is no best treatment for a conversion disorder. A physician is likely to provide support and reassurance and tailor treatment goals to the specific situation.

Most doctors will explain the limits of what the physical exam and tests could show about symptoms. They try to avoid confronting the individual with the idea that the symptoms are “false”, because the symptoms are often distressing and are not under the control of the person. It is helpful to avoid overly intrusive and uncomfortable medical tests, while still monitoring symptoms.

Symptoms occasionally go away on their own after the stress has been reduced, the conflict has been resolved, or the family or public has responded with concern and support.

If symptoms do not recover relatively quickly, more vigorous rehabilitation may be required. Physical or occupational therapy can be helpful.

Psychotherapy can deliver relief, although there is no evidence that one type of therapy is more effective than another. Many therapists will focus on encouragement and motivational interviewing, with the goal of improving functioning.

If the source of the conflict or stress can be determined, it can be helpful to know what triggered the symptoms. For instance, the person may be in conflict about leaving home, starting a new job, or having a first child.

In psychotherapy, the person can learn to cope with conflict or withdraw from the source of distress. In either case, the physical symptoms can go away. Performance remains a higher priority than knowledge.

As with psychotherapy, there is no single drug that is best for this disorder. Medication can be helpful in treating an underlying problem with anxiety or depression.

Disease General Topics

Symptoms of Central Nervous System Depression | Neurology

What is central nervous system depression?

Central command brain. It commands his lungs and lungs to breathe and his heart to beat. It controls all the other parts of your body and mind, how you feel, and interacts with the world around you. The spinal cord maintains nerve impulses, allowing your brain to communicate with the rest of your body.

When the functions of the CNS slow down, this is called central nervous system depression. Slowing down a bit is not dangerous. Of course, sometimes it even helps. But if it slows down too much, it can quickly turn into a fatal event. People should use sleeping pills, pain relievers, and other CNS depressants with caution.

A person can benefit from taking the correct dose of central nervous system depression patients, such as opioid pain relievers. However, an overdose of these drugs can reduce CNS activity to dangerous levels. The CNS contains the brain and spinal cord. It regulates many bodily functions, including breathing and the heart, sending messages through the spinal cord between the brain and other nerves.

It plays a role in essential physiological processes:

Involuntary processes: These do not require conscious thought. These regulate vital organs such as the heart, lungs, and stomach. They are responsible for functions that include digestion and blood circulation.

Voluntary processes: These include conscious thinking. They allow people to move their arms and legs or blink. Central nervous system depression patients are drugs and other substances that slow down the CNS. Most central nervous system depression patients work by increasing the chemistry of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which inhibits or slows the transmission of messages between cells. 

Symptoms of central nervous system depression

Mild CNS decline can make you feel less anxious and more relaxed. Therefore, central nervous system depression patients are used to treat anxiety and insomnia. People with CNS depression have various overdose symptoms. Factors affecting the impact of CNS depression:

  • Type and dose of a substance
  • The severity of illness or injury
  • The size of the person
  • The individual’s medical history
  • Mild symptoms
  • Mild symptoms of CNS depression
  • Lack of coordination and little sense of space.
  • Muscular weakness
  • sloth
  • Dizziness
  • Disorientation
  • Speaks slow or stutters
  • Short piri or shallow breathing
  • Heart rate decreased slightly
  • Constipation
  • Dry mouth
  • Volatility and anxiety
  • Unhappy
  • Blurred, altered, or double vision
  • Severe symptoms
  • Symptoms of acute CNS depression:
  • Decreased heart rate
  • Respiratory rate less than 10 breaths per minute
  • Severe confusion or memory loss
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Lack of criteria
  • Blue lips or fingers
  • Irritability and aggression
  • Cold or clammy skin
  • Sudden and intense mood change
  • Slow reactions

If a person has any of these symptoms, they should seek medical attention immediately. Lastly, severe symptoms can lead to unresponsiveness, coma, and death.

Long-term effects: Continued use of some CNS depressants is harmful in the long term because the body cannot excrete these substances.

Effects can include:

  • Thinking, memory, and judgment problems.
  • Confusion and confusion
  • Muscular weakness
  • Loss of coordination
  • Speak slow

Also, a person may need more and more medications to experience the same benefits. This leads to a greater dependence on needs. Some people may need rehabilitation treatment to stop taking medicine.

Severely depressed CNS can lead to forgetfulness or coma. Without prompt treatment, it can be fatal.

Causes central nervous system depression?

Some drugs affect the neurotransmitters in your brain, causing brain activity to decrease. It makes your breathing slow and shallow. Slow heart rate.

Common causes of central nervous system depression are the use of drugs, medications, or alcohol. Initially, they cause a mild stimulating effect or a sensation of pleasure. But make no mistake about it, these substances are CNS depressants. Some specific antidepressants:

Barbiturates: They are sometimes prescribed before surgery. They can also be used as anticonvulsants. Because they are so powerful, they are not currently prescribed for anxiety and insomnia.

Medicines of this group:

  • Mephoborbital (Mabral)
  • Sodium Pentobarbital (Nembutal)
  • Phenobarbital (luminal sodium)
  • Benzodiazepines

These medications, which are considered safer than barbiturates, are prescribed to treat anxiety and insomnia. There are many benzodiazepines, which you may have heard of:

  • Alprazolam (Genox)
  • Diazepam (volume)
  • Triazolam (holcian)
  • Opiates
  • They are usually prescribed for pain. Common opioids include:
  • Codeine
  • Hydrocodone (Vicodin)
  • Morphine (Kadian)
  • Oxycodone (Percocet)
  • Heroin is also an opiate.
  • Sleeping pills
  • Some sleep aids also fall into this category. In addition to:
  • Eszopiclone (Lunesta)
  • Jaleplan (Sonata)
  • Zolpidem (Ambien)

In small doses, these medications can slow down brain function and cause a feeling of calm or sleepiness. An overdose can reduce your heart and breathing rates. Risk when the CNS slows down too much, which can lead to loss of consciousness, coma, and death.

Combining alcohol with other central nervous system depression patients improves its effectiveness and, in many cases, can be fatal.

Medical causes: Central nervous system depression can also be caused by serious health events.

Chronic medical conditions can lead to CNS depression. These include:

  • Diabetes
  • Thyroid problems
  • Liver disease
  • Nephropathy

Direct injury to the brain can also cause CNS depression. These include:

  • Brain aneurysm
  • Tumor
  • Career
  • Infection
  • Injury from a fall or accident.

Any event that causes a decrease in blood flow and oxygen to the brain, such as a severe heart attack, can also lead to CNS depression.

Other reasons

Many other things in your environment can cause central nervous system depression when ingested or inhaled. One of those products is a chemical found in a wide variety of consumer goods, including ethylene glycol, antifreeze, and de-icing products. When taken, this chemical is toxic to the CNS, kidneys, and heart. It can cause serious health problems, including death.

The risk factor of central nervous system depression

When people use CNS depressants, it can be dangerous for several reasons:

  • Dependence
  • Withdrawal symptoms when use is discontinued
  • Overdose
  • Long-term adverse effects

Abuse can occur if one person uses another person’s action medications, takes more than the recommended dose, or uses medications that have not been prescribed by a doctor.

Combining ingredients: The combination of central nervous system depression patients, for example, alcohol with sleeping pills is dangerous. The combination of CNS depressants, opioids, and alcohol increases its effectiveness. There can be serious adverse reactions and fatal consequences.

Sometimes a person may not realize that there is an overdose risk when using opioid pain relievers and then drinking alcohol. First, people should check with their doctor to see if it is safe to take medications for CNS depression and any of the following:


  • Over-the-counter medications with symptoms similar to pain relievers
  • Allergy medications
  • Sleeping aids
  • Tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants (TCAs) also exacerbate the effects of CNS depressants, especially drowsiness.

Dependence and withdrawal: Some CNS depressants become less effective over time, causing the person to feel the need to take larger doses. If they stop using the drug, the original symptoms will return more severe than before. A person who wants to stop using a CNS depressant should do so gradually to avoid adverse effects. Your doctor can help you do this.

Overdose: Central nervous system depression overdose can happen by accident, but people sometimes choose to take more than the recommended dose for a “severe” effect. This can lead to an overdose and death. People deliberately take high doses of these drugs to end their lives.

A person can recover from an overdose, but research in the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology shows that some people continue to have problems with daily functioning after leaving the hospital.

Long-term effects: Some types of central nervous system depression can also have long-term effects, causing someone to have trouble thinking, confusion, speech problems, loss of coordination, and muscle weakness. Addiction to CNS depressants can see a person’s social and family problems, difficulties at work, and the inability to work on a daily basis.

Opioid Crisis: Some Statistics

Since 2000, more than 300,000 Americans have died from opioid overdoses. Data from 2016 estimated at least 64,000 overdose deaths from overdose, the highest number ever recorded in the United States.

Treatment for central nervous system depression

Serious symptoms of central nervous system depression include loss of consciousness, coma, and death. Anyone with these symptoms needs immediate medical attention. Treatment of CNS depression or CNS depression overdose depends on the ingredients.

Some CNS medications contain antidotes that can reverse their effects. These include naloxone for opioid overdose and flumazenil for benzodiazepine overdose. A person may need emergency care if they do not know they are overdosing on CNS depression, especially after accidentally abusing their medicine or due to a medical problem.

Anyone with signs of CNS depression or an overdose in someone else should call emergency services or the local Poison Control Center for guidance.

In these cases, treatment may include:

  • Monitors a person’s heart and breathing rate.
  • Giving oxygen through an oxygen mask or respirator
  • Give stimulant medications to increase a person’s heart rate

Prevention of central nervous system depression

If you have a medical condition that causes central nervous system depression, talk to your doctor. Discuss the best way to maintain your health and how to identify complications from your illness in advance.

When your doctor prescribes an action ointment, make sure you understand its purpose and how long it will take. Ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain the potential risks.

To reduce the chances of CNS depression due to substances, follow these tips:

  • Tell your doctor about other medications you take and any other medical conditions you have, including problems with addiction.
  • Follow directions for taking your medications. Never increase the dose without consulting your doctor. Consult with your doctor when you want to stop taking the medication.
  • When taking CNS depressants, don’t drink alcohol or take other medications that are also CNS depressants.
  • Inform your doctor if you’re having troubling side effects.
  • Never share prescription medications with others. Store medicines, alcohol, and other potentially hazardous materials safely away from children and pets.
General Topics

Structures and Diseases of Central Nervous System | Neurology

What is the central nervous system (CNS)?

The central nervous system (CNS) is a division of the nervous system whose function is to analyze and integrate various Intra and extra-personal information, as well as to generate a coordinated response to these stimuli. Simply put, the CNS is the supreme command center of the body.

The central nervous system consists of two organs that are continuous with each other; the brain and spinal cord. They are enveloped and protected by three layers of meninges, and enclosed within two bony structures, the skull, and spinal column, respectively. The brain is made up of the cerebrum, subcortical structures, the brainstem, and the cerebellum.

The spinal cord continues downward from the brainstem and extends through the vertebral canal. By analyzing the information and preparing the appropriate body responses, parts of the brain and spinal cord communicate with each other through many neural pathways. Once the final output is ready, they transmit it to the rest of the body through the nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which come directly from them.

More specifically, the brain emits 12 cranial nerves supplying the head, neck, and thoracic and abdominal viscera, while the spinal cord emits 31 pairs of spinal nerves. The spinal nerves complement the innervation of the viscera, as well as the rest of the body that is not supplied by the cranial nerves (upper and lower extremities).

Structure of the central nervous system

The CNS has three main components: the brain, spinal cord, and neurons (or nerve cells).

Brain: The brain controls many of the body’s functions, including sensation, thinking, movement, consciousness, and memory. The superficial of the brain is known as the cerebral cortex. The surface of the bark appears irregular thanks to the grooves and folds of the tissue. Each groove is known as a groove, while each stroke is known as a turn.

Most of the brain is known as the cerebrum and is responsible for things like memory, speech, voluntary behaviors, and thinking. The brain is divided into two hemispheres, a right hemisphere, and a left hemisphere. The right hemisphere of the brain controls movements on the left side of the body, while the left hemisphere controls movements on the right side of the body.

Although some functions tend to lateralize, researchers have found that there are no “left brain” or “right-brain” thinkers, as the old myth implies. Both sides of the brain work together to produce various functions. Each hemisphere of the brain is then divided into four interconnected lobes:

  • The frontal lobes are related to higher cognition, voluntary movements, and language
  • The occipital lobes are associated with visual developments
  • The parietal lobes are associated with the processing of sensory information
  • The temporal lobes are associated with hearing and interpreting sounds, as well as the formation of memories

Spinal cord: The spinal cord connects to the brain through the brain stem and then down the spinal canal, located inside the vertebra. The spinal cord carries info from various parts of the body to and from the brain. In the case of some reflex movements, responses are controlled by spinal pathways without involving the brain.

Neurons: Neurons are the construction blocks of the central nervous system. Billions of these nerve cells can be found through the body and communicate with each other to crop physical responses and actions. Neurons are the body’s information superhighway. It is estimated that 86 billion neurons can be found in the brain alone.

Protective structures: Since the central nervous system is so important, it is protected by a number of structures. First, the entire CNS is encased in bone. The brain is threatened by the skull, while the spinal cord is protected by the vertebra of the spinal column. The brain and spinal cord are covered with a protective tissue known as the meninges.

The entire central nervous system is also immersed in a substance known as cerebrospinal fluid, which forms a chemical environment that allows nerve fibers to transmit information effectively, as well as offering another layer of protection against possible damage.

All about the central nervous system

White and gray matter

The central nervous system can be unevenly divided into white and gray matter. As a very general rule, the brain consists of an outer cortex of gray matter and an inner area that houses tracts of white matter.

Both types of tissue encompass glial cells, which defend and support neurons. White matter consists mainly of axons (nerve projections) and oligodendrocytes – a type of glial cell – while gray matter consists predominantly of neurons.

Central glial cells

Also called neuroglia, glial cells are often called provision cells for neurons. In the brain, they outnumber nerve cells from 10 to 1. Without glial cells, developing nerves are often lost and struggle to form functional synapses. Glial cells are found in both the CNS and the PNS, but each system has different types. The following are brief descriptions of the glial cell types of the CNS:

  • Astrocytes: These cells have frequent projections and anchor neurons to their blood supply. They also control the local environment by eliminating excess ions and recycling neurotransmitters.
  • Oligodendrocytes: Responsible for the creation of the myelin sheath – this thin layer lines nerve cells, allowing them to send signals quickly and efficiently.
  • Ependymal cells: Which line the brain’s spinal cord and ventricles (fluid-filled spaces), create and secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and keep it circulating using their whip-like cilia.
  • Radial glia: Acts as a scaffold for new nerve cells during the creation of the embryo’s nervous system.

Cranial nerves

The cranial nerves are 12 pairs of nerves that arise directly from the brain and pass-through holes in the skull instead of traveling along the spinal cord. These nerves gather and send information between the brain and parts of the body, mostly the neck and head. Of these 12 pairs, the olfactory and optic nerves arise from the forebrain and are measured as part of the central nervous system:

  • Olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I): Transmit information about odors from the upper section of the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulbs at the base of the brain.
  • Optic nerves (cranial nerve II): Carry visual information from the retina to the primary visual nuclei of the brain. Each optic nerve consists of about 1.7 million nerve fibers.

Central nervous system disorders

Nervous system disorders can involve the following:

  • Vascular disorders, such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, and extradural hematoma and hemorrhage
  • Contagions, such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and epidural abscess
  • Structural illnesses, such as brain or spinal cord injury, Bell’s palsy, cervical spondylosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, brain or spinal cord tumors, peripheral neuropathy, and Guillain-Barré syndrome
  • Useful disorders, such as headache, epilepsy, dizziness, and neuralgia
  • Deterioration, such as Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s chorea, and Alzheimer’s disease

Central nervous system diseases

The following are the main causes of disorders affecting the CNS:

  • Trauma: Depending on the site of injury, symptoms can range widely from paralysis to mood disorders.
  • Infections: Some microorganisms and viruses can invade the CNS; these contain fungi, such as cryptococcal meningitis; protozoa, counting malaria; bacteria, as is the case with leprosy, or viruses.
  • Degeneration: In some cases, the spinal cord or brain can debase. An example is Parkinson’s disease, which involves the gradual degeneration of dopamine-producing cells in the basal ganglia.
  • Structural defects: The most common instances are birth defects; including anencephaly, where parts of the skull, brain, and scalp are missing at birth.
  • Tumors: Both cancerous and non-cancerous tumors can move parts of the central nervous system. Both types can cause damage and produce a variety of symptoms depending on where they develop.
  • Autoimmune disorders: In some cases, a person’s immune system can base an attack on healthy cells. For example, acute dispersed encephalomyelitis is considered by an immune response against the brain and spinal cord, which attacks myelin (the insulation of nerves) and thus destroys the white matter.
  • Stroke: A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to the brain; the resulting lack of oxygen causes tissue to die in the affected area.
General Topics

Symptoms and Treatment for Brain Stem Stroke | Cardiology

What is a brain stem stroke? 

The brain stem stroke regulates breathing, eye movement, facial movement, heart rate, and blood pressure. Sitting just above the spinal cord, the brain stem controls your breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. It also controls your speech, swallowing, hearing, and eye movements. Impulses sent by other parts of the brain travel through the brain stem on their way to various body parts.

We’re dependent on brain stem function for survival. A brain stem stroke threatens vital bodily functions, making it a life-threatening condition. When the blood supply to a part of the brain is cut off, a stroke occurs because the blocked artery or blood vessels are leaking. The brainstem is located at the base of the brain and is responsible for receiving and transmitting information throughout the body.

The brain stem regulates essential bodily functions, namely:

  • Breathing
  • Swallow
  • Eye movement
  • Facial movement and sensation
  • Listening
  • Heart rate
  • Blood pressure
  • Brain stem strokes affect a person’s basic bodily functions and can lead to chronic problems.

Symptoms of brain stem stroke

Dizziness and loss of balance are common symptoms of a stroke. Because the brain stem regulates different types of motor functions, strokes in this area of the brain can cause a wide variety of symptoms. Brainstem strokes affect important bodily functions, including:

  • Breathing
  • Swallow
  • Heart rate

The brain stem receives different signals from the brain and sends them to different parts of the body. Brainstem strokes interrupt these signals, so people may experience physical symptoms, such as numbness or weakness in the face, arms, or legs.

Other common symptoms of a stroke:

  • Dizziness
  • Loss of balance
  • Vertigo
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Trouble speaking or swallowing
  • Headache
  • Confusion

Stroke syndromes of the brain system

Some stroke syndromes of the brain system have an unrelated set of symptoms because their control is in small concentrated areas of the brain system that share the same blood supply.

Ondine’s curse: Ondine’s curse due to a lower spinal injury affects voluntary breathing.

Weber syndrome: Weber syndrome is a stroke of the midbrain that causes weakness in the front of the body, which is accompanied by weakness of the eyelids and weakness of eye movements.

Blockage syndrome: Blockage syndrome affects strokes and leads to complete paralysis and inability to speak, the ability to move consciousness, and intact eyes. This may be due to a very abnormal salt and fluid balance.

Wallenberg syndrome: Also known as a lateral spinal syndrome, Wallenberg syndrome causes sensory deficits of the face on the same side as stroke and sensory deficits of the body.

Types of brain stem stroke 

There are two main types of strokes, both of which affect the brain stem:

Ischemic stroke:

  • Ischemic strokes occur when blood clots form in narrow arteries in the head or neck and cut off the blood supply to an area of the brain.
  • Ischemic strokes are the most common type, accounting for 87% of all strokes. About 10% of all ischemic strokes affect the brain stem.
  • A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a mini-stroke or warning stroke, when the blood supply to the brain is briefly interrupted. TIAs cause milder symptoms than full ischemic strokes, and most symptoms clear up within an hour.

Brain-vascular hemorrhagic accident:

  • Brain bleeding or hemorrhage occurs when weak blood vessels leak or open, creating swelling and pressure. This stress damages the tissues and cells of the brain.
  • Hemorrhagic strokes are less common than other types of strokes but account for 40 percent of all stroke deaths.

Risk factors of brain stem stroke

High blood pressure increases the risk of stroke. Anyone can have a stroke, but specific genetic factors such as family history, gender, race, and age put some people at higher risk for stroke than others. Women have more strokes than men and are more likely to die from a stroke than men.

Some risk factors specific to women:

  • Use of hormone replacement therapies
  • Long-term use of birth control pills in combination with other risk factors such as smoking
  • The pregnancy
  • People of African American and Hispanic descent are also at risk for stroke.
  • Most strokes occur in people over the age of 65. However, research suggests that the rate of stroke hospitalizations and the presence of risk factors for stroke in young children has increased significantly.

Medical conditions that increase the risk of stroke:

  • Hypertension
  • High cholesterol
  • Atrial fibrillation (AFib)
  • Diabetes
  • is blackberry
  • Heart disease (CVD)
  • Lifestyle risk factors

People cannot control genetic factors, but they can control lifestyle factors that increase the risk of stroke. Behaviors that increase the risk of high blood pressure or clotting increase the risk of stroke.

Behaviors that increase the risk of stroke:

  • Smoke tobacco
  • Excessive drinking
  • Consumption of illicit drugs
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Lack of food 

Diagnosis of brain stem stroke

Brain stem stroke is a fatal medical emergency. If you have symptoms that indicate a stroke, your doctor may order imaging tests such as an MRI, CT scan, Doppler ultrasound, or angiogram. The cardiac function test may include an EKG and an echocardiogram. Additional diagnostic procedures may include blood tests, as well as kidney and liver function tests. 

Treatment for brain stem strokes

When an ischemic stroke occurs, the first line of treatment is clotting or drawing the blood. If a stroke is diagnosed quickly, blood thinners can be given. If possible, a catheter can be used to clot during a procedure called an embolectomy. In some cases, angioplasty and stenting are used to widen and keep the artery open. Bleeding For a stroke, the bleeding must stop.

Sometimes a clip or coil is placed over the aneurysm to stop the bleeding. Medications to reduce clotting may also be needed. During this time, your medical team will need to take extra steps to keep your heart and lungs working. Brain stem stroke is a medical emergency. You need immediate treatment to save lives and reduce the risk of permanent complications.

Treatment depends on the type, location, and severity of the stroke:

Ischemic stroke: In the treatment of ischemic stroke, blood flow is restored through clotting. The methods include the following:

  • Anticoagulant drugs, such as tissue plasminogen activator (T-PA), help dissolve clots and restore blood flow to the affected area.
  • Antiplatelet drugs such as warfarin. The doctor may prescribe aspirin if a person has a lower risk of having a heart attack or stroke and bleeding. Current guidelines do not recommend the use of aspirin as in the past.
  • Endovascular therapy, which is a surgical procedure that involves the use of mechanical reclaimers to clot the blood.
  • Other devices, such as balloons or stents, can be used to open narrow blood vessels and improve blood flow.

Brain-vascular hemorrhagic accident: Treatment of hemorrhagic strokes focuses on controlling bleeding and reducing stress on the brain. Treatment methods:

  • Give medicine to control blood pressure and prevent seizures.
  • Spiral embolization, which is a surgical procedure that helps blood to clot in a weakened vessel. Clotting reduces bleeding and prevents blood vessels from reopening.
  • Once bleeding in the brain has been controlled, doctors can perform surgical procedures to prevent the ruptured blood vessel from bleeding again.

Prevention of brain stem strokes

It is estimated that 80 percent of strokes are preventable. People can reduce their risk of stroke by making the following lifestyle changes:

  • It controls the levels of lipids and cholesterol
  • Control blood pressure with medications and behavior changes
  • Manage medical conditions like diabetes
  • Give up smoking
  • Eat a diet low in fat and sodium
  • Make sure you have plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables in your diet
  • At least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise per week or at least 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic exercise per week
  • Restoration and perspective
  • Brain stem stroke can lead to serious chronic problems. Medications and behavior changes can help reduce the risk of future strokes.
  • Physical therapy improves muscle strength and coordination and ultimately helps people regain lost motor skills.
  • Speech and language and occupational therapy can help people improve their cognitive skills, such as memory, problem-solving, and judgment.
  • Some people with stroke and severe disabilities need counseling to adjust.
General Topics

Heart Disease in children & Infants | Cardiology

What is heart disease in children?

Heart disease is very difficult when touched by adults, but it is especially tragic in children. The effect of heart diseases in children is more. These include congenital heart defects, viral infections that affect the heart, and heart disease acquired in childhood due to a genetic disease or syndrome. The good news is that with the advancement of medicine and technology, many children with heart disease are living full and active lives.

Types of heart diseases in children

Here is the most common heart disease in children which are following:

1. Congenital heart disease

If your child has a congenital heart defect, it means that your baby was born with a problem with the structure of his heart. Some congenital heart defects in children are simple and do not require treatment. Other congenital heart defects in children are more complex and require multiple surgeries over many years.

Knowing about your child’s congenital heart defect can help you understand the situation and what to expect in the months and years to come.

Signs & symptoms

In some cases, symptoms of congenital heart disease do not appear until after birth. Newborns with heart defects may experience:

  • Blue lips, skin, fingers, and toes
  • Shortness of breath or trouble breathing
  • Difficulties in eating
  • Low birth weight
  • Chest pain
  • Growth retardation

In other cases, symptoms of a congenital heart defect do not appear until many years after birth. As symptoms develop, they can include:

  • Abnormal heart rhythms
  • Dizziness
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Epilepsy
  • Inflammation
  • Fatigue

2. Atherosclerosis

The formation of fat and cholesterol in the arteries causes the arteries to harden and narrow, increasing the risk of heart disease, stroke, and cardiac arrest. Children can be diagnosed with atherosclerosis just like adults.

Arteries are muscular tubes that carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to tissues throughout the body. When the tubes are narrow, they cannot carry blood throughout the body and less blood reaches the tissues.

Signs & Symptoms

Symptoms of your coronary arteries:

Pain or pressure in the upper body, including the chest, arms, neck, or jaw. This is called angina.

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Symptoms of the arteries that supply blood to your brain:
  • Numbness or weakness in your arms or legs
  • It is very difficult to speak or understand the speakers.
  • Relax facial muscles
  • Paralysis
  • Intense headache
  • Difficulty seeing with one or both eyes.
  • Symptoms related to the arteries in your arms, legs, and pelvis:
  • Leg pain when walking
  • Numbness
  • Symptoms of the arteries that supply blood to the kidneys:
  • Hypertension
  • Renal insufficiency

3. Arrhythmias

Arrhythmia means any change in the normal rhythm of the heartbeat. If your child has an arrhythmia, her heart may be beating too fast or too slow, or she may have extra or extra beats. Arrhythmia can occur from a physical condition such as heart failure in response to external factors such as fever, infection, and certain medications. Crying and playing also briefly change a child’s heart rate.

Signs & Symptoms

Children with arrhythmia may not have any symptoms. For those who do, these are the most common symptoms:

  • You feel weak
  • Feeling tired
  • Feel your heartbeat (palpitations)
  • Low blood pressure
  • She feels dizzy
  • Epilepsy (syncope)
  • Not eating or eating well

The symptoms of an arrhythmia may be similar to other heart conditions or problems. Make sure your child sees their healthcare provider for a diagnosis

4. Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease is a disease in which the blood vessels become inflamed, most often in young children. It is one of the leading causes of heart disease in children. But it can be treated if doctors find it early. Most children recover without problems.

Signs & Symptoms

Kawasaki disease begins with a fever over 102 degrees and lasts for at least five days. Other signs and symptoms may include:

  • The rash can appear anywhere on the body but is most severe in the diaper area
  • Red, bloody eyes without pus, discharge, or scabs
  • Swelling and tenderness of the gland (lymph node) on one side of the neck
  • Swelling of the hands and feet with redness of the palms and soles of the feet
  • Very red, swollen, and chapped lips; Strawberry-like tongue with rough red spots
  • Significant irritability and confusion
  • Peel fingers and toes (2 to 3 weeks after onset of fever)

5. Heart murmurs

The heart murmur is the extra or abnormal sounds caused by the turbulent blood flowing through the heart. Murmurs range from 1 to 6, depending on how loud they are. One is a very low murmur. Six means a very loud murmur.

Signs & Symptoms

If you have a benign heart murmur, commonly known as an innocent heart murmur, you have no other signs or symptoms. The abnormal heart murmur doesn’t cause any other obvious signs or symptoms, just put aside the unusual sound your doctor hears when listening to your heart with a stethoscope. If you have these signs or symptoms, they may indicate a heart problem:

  • Skin that appears blue, especially on the fingers and lips
  • Sudden swelling or weight gain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Chronic cough
  • Enlarged liver
  • Dilated jugular veins
  • Lack of appetite and lack of normal growth (in babies)
  • Heavy sweating with little or no effort
  • Chest pain
  • Dizziness
  • Epilepsy

6. Pericarditis

Pericarditis is an inflammation or infection of the pericardium, a thin sac around the heart. There is a small amount of fluid between the inner and outer layers of the pericardium.

When the pericardium is inflamed, the amount of fluid between its two layers increases, compressing the heart and interfering with the heart’s ability to function properly.

Signs & Symptoms

The following are common symptoms of pericarditis. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms can include chest pain:

  • Sensation especially behind the breastbone and sometimes the clavicle (clavicle), below the neck and left shoulder
  • Sharp, stabbing pain in the middle or left side of the chest increases when the child breathes deeply
  • Low fever
  • Irritated
  • Fatigue
  • Lack of appetite
  • Arrhythmia

Children may not be able to describe themselves as having “chest pain” or explain how they feel. Sometimes children may express specific symptoms such as irritability, loss of appetite, or fatigue.

7. Rheumatic heart disease

Arrhythmia means any change in the normal rhythm of the heartbeat. If your child has arrhythmia, her heart may be beating too fast or too slow, or she may have extra or extra beats. Arrhythmia can occur from a physical condition such as heart failure in response to external factors such as fever, infection, and certain medications. Crying and playing can also briefly change a child’s heart rate.

Signs & Symptoms

Rheumatic fever can be due to:

  • Carditis: inflammation of the heart muscle and heart tissue. Carditis causes a rapid heart rate, fatigue, shortness of breath, and exercise intolerance. It is the most serious of symptoms and can have long-term health effects. About 50 percent of people with rheumatic fever develop carditis
  • Arthritis: Swelling, redness, and pain in the joints, especially in the knees, ankles, elbows, and wrists. It is a common symptom and occurs in about 70 percent of people with rheumatic fever
  • Itchy rash without a splash
  • Subcutaneous nodules – small, tight lumps under the skin
  • Fever
  • Chorea: Involuntary movement of limbs

Overview of Cardiothoracic Surgeon | Cardiology

What is a cardiothoracic surgeon?

The cardiothoracic surgeon performed a type of specialized surgery that involves procedures on the organs of the chest, such as the heart, lungs, and esophagus. According to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS), the term “cardiothoracic surgeons” is an inclusive term.

The terms “cardiac surgeon” and “thoracic surgeon” are interchangeable.

The cardiothoracic surgeon can be used to treat many conditions, including:

  • Coronary artery disease (blockage of the arteries)
  • Lung cancer
  • Emphysema
  • Hyoid hernia
  • Swallowing disorders

The cardiothoracic surgeon involves a variety of procedures, including open chest operations, laparoscopic procedures, and robot-assisted surgery.

Treatments are performed by a cardiothoracic surgeon

Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG): During this procedure, arteries or veins from other parts of the body join with the coronary arteries to relieve angina and reduce the risk of death from coronary artery disease. The grafts bypass narrow or clogged sections of arteries to improve the blood supply to the heart muscle.

This procedure can save lives in patients who do not have good candidates for percutaneous catheter techniques (coronary angioplasty and stenting) or ongoing medical treatment. The cardiothoracic surgeons can also perform minimally invasive and “off-pump” procedures (no cardiopulmonary bypass machine).

Mitral and aortic valve repair and replacement: Cardiothoracic surgeons are highly trained in the repair of blocked or leaking heart valves. The first option is always to preserve the local valve, but when the patient’s heart valve is severely damaged, the cardiothoracic surgeon use mechanical or tissue prostheses (including tissue implants from a human donor).

Cardiothoracic surgeons specialize in minimally invasive valve repair procedures that involve two to three-inch incisions rather than large chest incisions. For patients, these minimally invasive procedures provide an increased risk of infection, a faster recovery time, and less blood loss.

Nationally, studies have shown that only 50 percent of the mitral valves can be repaired.

Surgical treatment of aortic aneurysms and amputations: The walls of the aorta, the largest blood vessel in the body, can weaken and develop an aneurysm (dilation or bursa), leading to the rapture or rupture of the vessel walls, also known as rupture. Anyone could be a fatal emergency.

When an aneurysm or dissection is found on a chest x-ray, echocardiogram, or computed tomography (CT) scan, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cardiothoracic surgeons repair the damaged area with a special tissue graft (also known as a stent).

Cardiac support devices: The implantable tandem heart pump can also be used in patients with high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions (coronary angioplasty or stenting). This small semi-portable device can be inserted through the groin or into an artery during open-heart surgery.

Such implantable devices are in various stages of development and testing, but they provide temporary support for cardiac function and often save lives.

Lung and esophageal dissection: Both the esophagus and the lungs are affected by benign or malignant diseases that require surgical removal of damaged tissue. These procedures are less painful with very few incisions and can speed recovery time.

Radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation: Atrial fibrillation is a normal but abnormal heart rhythm that causes a fast and irregular heartbeat. These heartbeats can cause discomfort and dizziness. If left untreated, patients are at increased risk of having a stroke.

Some patients can be treated with medications or catheter procedures, while others are resistant to these interventions. Cardiothoracic surgeons minimally invasive surgery on the surface of the heart with small incisions in radio frequency waves (modified electrical energy), creating precise scar lines to avoid transient electrical impulses that cause irregular heartbeats.

How is cardiothoracic surgery done?

Your surgical team will tailor it to your health needs and the type of surgery you are performing. Here are some common types of heart surgery:

  • It keeps you awake and pain-free: The anesthesiologist will prescribe special medications to help you stay awake and pain-free during surgery.
  • Keep the airways open: The endotracheal tube (ET) is inserted into your throat and windpipe and connected to the ventilator. The fan “flutters” while you sleep. There may also be an ET tube several hours after surgery to make sure you are breathing well.
  • Reaching your heart: To obtain your heart, your surgeon will make an incision (cut) in the middle of your chest and separate your breastbone. After surgery, your surgeon will reattach your chest bones with wires or heavy stitches, followed by an incision.
  • Maintains blood circulation: For open-heart surgeries, the heart stops during the surgery and restarts when the procedure is complete. A heart-lung bypass (pump) machine is needed to do the work of the heart and lungs during surgery. However, some heart surgeries can now be performed on a beating heart. In such cases, the procedure is performed “off-pump” without the use of a CPR machine.

What should I expect during recovery?

  • Follow your doctor’s advice for pain control: Your neck may hurt and swallowing may be difficult. Your doctor can prescribe pain medication. Eating soft foods helps.
  • Take all the medications prescribed by your doctor: It may contain an antiplatelet medicine (which helps prevent blood clots).
  • Limit swelling and pain: For the first week, keep your head supported by pillows while you sleep to limit swelling.
  • Don’t drive until your doctor says it’s okay.
  • Limit strenuous activity for a few weeks: Don’t lift heavy objects and don’t exercise vigorously until your doctor says it’s okay. You can go back to work and go back to your normal activities when your doctor says it’s okay.
  • Look for features: Pay attention to some changes in how you feel, especially neck swelling or headaches on the side where the procedure was performed. Tell your doctor if you notice any of the symptoms listed below.
  • If you have a stroke: You may need additional treatment, such as medication or rehabilitation from a stroke. Ask your doctor or nurse about the Intermountain Life of Stroke Guide or TIA for more information.