What Is a Pharmacological Stress Test Used For? | Cardiology

What Is A Pharmacological Stress Test?

The pharmacological stress test is a diagnostic test used to evaluate blood flow to the heart. During the pharmacological stress test, a small amount of a radioactive tracer is injected into a vein. A special camera, called a gamma camera, detects the radiation from the tracer to produce computer images of the heart.

In combination with medication, the pharmacological stress test can help determine if there is adequate blood flow to the heart during activity versus rest. The drug does not increase the heart rate. The drug widens the blood vessels leading to the heart, which increases blood flow, thereby simulating exercises for patients unable to exercise on a treadmill.

Why may I need a pharmacological stress test?

You may need a pharmacological stress test if you have heart-related symptoms but cannot exercise. Caregivers may also use a pharmacological stress test to do any of the following:

  • Find the cause of symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and weakness
  • Monitor or diagnose a heart condition, such as heart disease or an irregular heartbeat (abnormal heart rhythm)
  • Check your risk of heart attack
  • Decide if you can have surgery for another health condition

Test procedure

  1. An intravenous (IV) line will be started to allow the technician to inject Cardiolite (the radioactive substance). Cardiolite is a radiological tracer used in computer imaging of your heart that will be taken later. Cardiolite is not a drug or dye and it causes no known side effects or symptoms. After about 45-60 minutes, you will be set up under the camera and asked to lie on your back with your arms over your head for 15-20 minutes.
  2. The second part of your test is the “stress” part. The exercise technician will place electrodes (small patches) on your chest, wrists, and ankles. The lead wires will then be connected to the electrodes.
  3. You will lie on your back for about 20-45 minutes, as you are not required to take this pharmacological stress test. An electrocardiogram (EKG) and blood pressure will be obtained to ensure that there are no major abnormalities preventing the test.
  4. The pharmacological agent (usually Persantine or Lexisan) will be administered for four minutes through the IV line. This medication allows your blood vessels to dilate (increase in size).
  5. There are possible side effects of this drug, such as feeling warm, redness, headache, nausea, or chest pain. If you experience any of these symptoms, a drug called aminophylline may be given intravenously to reverse the symptoms.
  6. After Persantine or Lexiscan has been injected, the second injection of Cardiolite will be given through an IV.
  7. It is your responsibility to inform the testing technician of any symptoms that develop (headache, chest pain, dizziness, lightheadedness, shortness of breath). If any abnormal responses are present, the test may be stopped and/or aminophylline administered.
  8. Then a short recovery period is performed with continuous heart rate, EKG, and blood pressure monitored periodically. Once these measurements get close to the initial or comfort values, you will be disconnected from the screen.
  9. About one hour after the brassantine or Lexiscan injection and the cardio lite injection, you will be taken to the nuclear medicine department to have a second series of images of your heart. You will lie on your back with your arms above your head for 15-20 minutes. You may likewise be approached to lie on your stomach for an extra 15-20 minutes for the second arrangement of pictures.
  10. The cardiologist and nuclear medicine doctor will review and interpret the pharmacological stress test for a follow-up visit or for re-direction to your referring doctor.
  11. Leave approximately 3-4 hours for your procedure as long wait times are required between each step of pharmacological stress testing. Waiting time is necessary to ensure good under-camera images.

What may keep me from having a stress test?

  • You are having an asthma attack
  • You have used a medication containing dipyridamole in the past 24 hours. Dipyridamole is a blood thinner
  • Ask your care provider for more information about medicines that may contain dipyridamole
  • You have consumed foods or drinks containing caffeine in the past 12 hours
  • Your heart rate is 40 beats per minute or less
  • You have a low blood pressure reading
  • You suffer from uncontrolled high blood pressure

Risks and Complications

Like many tests, this pharmacological stress test has some risks. They may include:

  • Shortness of breath or wheezing
  • Fainting, dizziness, or fatigue
  • Rise or fall in blood pressure
  • Nausea or headache
  • Heart attack or stroke (rare)
  • Abnormal heartbeat or heart rate

Diagnosing heart disease with a pharmacologic stress test

A pharmacological stress test helps your primary care physician analyze and oversee coronary illness by:

  • Evaluate symptoms such as chest pain or shortness of breath in patients at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD)
  • Find out how well stents or bypass grafts work in patients diagnosed with CAD
  • Help diagnose heart failure

If the pharmacological stress test results are abnormal, this indicates that the patient has a blockage in a coronary artery. After being reviewed by a cardiologist, this may require more work [examination]. A drug stress test is as good as a stress test at identifying coronary artery disease – a study of 117 heart patients who underwent both types of tests found that when the tests are performed properly, the results are strikingly similar.

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How Yoga Can Boost Your Nervous System? | Neurology

Yoga for a strong nervous system

While physical health is very significant, keeping the nervous system strong plays an important role in causal the overall health of our bodies. Shaky hands and legs, constant pain in the head and face, high blood pressure are some of the first signs of neurological conditions. Our lifestyle plays an important role as it directly affects our body. Nerves act like wires in our body.

Information is circulated to the brain about what is happening in the body. When these nerves stop working properly, it is considered a neurological defect. This nerve problem is temporary at times and sometimes becomes a lifelong problem. Swami Ramdev, in a special program on India TV, has shared some yoga asanas and pranayamas that are very effective in strengthening the nervous system.

Yoga asanas for a strong nervous system

  1. Vakrasana: It helps to facilitate digestion and regulates the secretion of digestive juices.
  2. Ustrasana: Helps reduce thigh fat, strengthens shoulders and back, expands the abdominal region and improves breathing.
  3. Gomukhasana: It is very beneficial in the treatment of chronic knee pain, it strengthens the spine and abdominal muscles. It also helps improve chest activity.
  4. Yoga Mudra Asana: This asana helps to eradicate migraine headaches and sinus problems. It also helps treat liver and kidney diseases.
  5. Mandukasana: This asana helps treat constipation problems and strengthens immunity. Mandukasana also helps control diabetes and cholesterol.
  6. Halasana: It helps to cure back pain, infertility, insomnia, sinusitis, thyroid problems and menstruation.
  7. Uttanpadasana: Helps treat heartburn, indigestion and constipation. It also cures back pain and improves reproductive organs.

Five yoga poses to calm the nervous system

There seems to be a frenzied cloud above, raining stress and anxiety almost everywhere. Your name? Coronavirus. Did you know that yoga is one of the best ways to relieve stress and anxiety? Yeah, that’s right. Rendering to the American Anxiety and Depression Connotation, 31.1 per cent of adults in the US will suffer from an anxiety disorder at some point in their lives. And with COVID-19 causing so much stress, worry, and restlessness, it might be time to take a closer look at yoga, especially during these uncomfortable days.

Stress and anxiety trigger the release of cortisol and adrenaline in the body. That creates an imbalance of the sympathetic nervous system (your fight or flight response) that can lead to an increased risk of illness and disease. A daily yoga practice can help counteract these adverse reactions, increase relaxation, and restore balance to the body and mind. It is also good that it induces a sense of tranquillity and well-being. That’s something many of us would trade an essential paper product for!

Child’s pose (Balasana)

All levels of yogis adopt the child’s pose, also known as the “resting” posture when they are between challenging poses. This allows a pause in the breath and time to reflect on the thoughts that appear during the practice. Many express a sense of comfort in this posture, relieving symptoms of anxiety.

Tree pose (Vrikasana)

Also known as the standing pose, this posture is a great way to focus the mind on one point, called the “dristi point,” that dominates a busy mind. Balancing body weight on one leg requires a calm mind, gentle breathing, and constant focus. The physical nature of this pose fundamentally takes you away from anxious thoughts because you take your mind elsewhere.

Legs up the wall pose (Viparita Karani)

This is the best pose to restore body and mind. This pose not only provides immediate relief to the lower back, but it effectively relieves anxiety symptoms. The best place to perform this pose is in a quiet place in your home where there are few distractions, perhaps a serene and comfortable hiding place.

Bridge Pose (Setu Bandha Sarvangasana)

A light inversion posture can be both energizing and restorative, depending on how it is performed. When the sacrum is supported by a blockage, it is more therapeutic and revitalizing.

Crocodile pose (Makarasana)

The crocodile pose facilitates diaphragmatic breathing and relaxation, which are vital to overall health and well-being. It also correlates with the harmonious functioning of the nervous system by triggering the relaxation response. The abdomen rests on the floor, which generates an expansion into the lower back and ribs. This is an excellent pose for insomnia, it reduces stress on the shoulders and spine and improves bad posture habits. It also helps regulate blood pressure and anxiety.

How yoga can stimulate your nervous system

The human body is something really incredible. It has so many different systems working 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to keep us alive and well. And most of the time we are completely ignorant of what goes on behind the scenes. But what makes everything run smoothly? If you want, who is the director of this incredible performance?

Your driver tonight is……

The nervous system is a large ancient electrical circuit that constantly communicates between the different parts of our body. Every second, thousands of messages are transmitted from one place to another around us as we go about our daily activities. These nerve signals collect information from every part of our body and orchestrate the right reactions to create a wonderful concert that is our body and its functions. Most of us will have learned in school that the brain makes our muscles work through nerves and that we can recognize the names of some of the nerves.

Our nervous system has five different parts: the brain and spinal cord (also called the central nervous system). system), the peripheral nerves, the enteric nervous source and our autonomic nervous system. They are all made up of nerves that carry electrical messages throughout the body to control their various functions but each has a specific function and yoga can affect each one differently. Let’s start with the autonomic nervous system.

Two sides of your autonomic nervous system 

Have you heard of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems? Together they create the autonomic nervous system. The sympathetic side of the system is the one that produces the fear, fight and flight reaction that was so important in keeping cavemen alive when faced with ferocious animals. Basically, when we find ourselves in a life-threatening situation, we get a flood of hormones that prepare us for anything. Our heart rate increases, our blood pressure rises, our muscles are alert, and our senses are heightened. In other words, our body is prepared to fight, or run, for our life.

Yoga to cure current illness

Ideally, these two systems balance each other so that for each moment of fight and flight there is a time of calm and subsequent settlement and the body returns to balance. Unfortunately, modern life with its stresses and pressures has a tendency to cause much more of a fight-and-flight response without much calm to balance us. This results in a gradual dominance of the sympathetic over the parasympathetic with resulting health problems such as elevated blood pressure, elevated heart rate, increased muscle tension, digestive problems, headaches, and poor sleep patterns.


Uses and Types of Defibrillators | Cardiology

What Is Defibrillators?

Defibrillators are devices that restore a normal heart rhythm by sending an electrical impulse or shock to the heart. They are used to prevent or correct arrhythmias when the heart rate is uneven or too slow or too fast. Defibrillators can also restore the heart rate if the heart suddenly stops.

Different types of defibrillators work in different ways. Automated Outdoor Defibrillators (AEDs) have been developed in many public places to save the lives of people facing sudden cardiac arrest. Even untrained spectators can use these devices in an emergency.

Other defibrillators can prevent sudden death in people at high risk for malignant arrhythmia. These include implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), which are surgically placed inside your body, and portable cardioverter defibrillators (WCDs), which are worn over the body. Getting used to living with a defibrillator takes time and effort, and it is important to be aware of the potential risks and problems.

Medical uses

Defibrillation is often an important step in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). CPR is an algorithm-based intervention aimed at restoring heart and lung function. Defibrillation is only indicated in certain types of cardiac dysrhythmia, particularly ventricular fibrillation (VF) and pulseless ventricular tachycardia.

The defibrillator is the newer and more compliant artery, like an occasional or dynamic electrolysis bolus (AEP). Defibrillation is not the only indication that the patient is conscientious or having a poultice. These choices electrify poorly applied by causing a dysrhythmic dance, all quenching ventricular fibrillation.

Types of defibrillators

  • Manual external defibrillator
  • Automated external defibrillator (AED)
  • Advanced Life Support Units
  • Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillators

Manual external defibrillator

More experience and training are needed to operate these defibrillators effectively. Therefore, they are common only in hospitals and in some ambulances with efficient hands. With the ECG, the trained provider determines the heart rate, then psychologically determines the pressure and timing of the shock to the patient’s chest via external paddles.

Automated external defibrillator (AED)

These are defibrillators that use computer technology, making it easy to analyze the heart rhythm and effectively determine if the rhythm is shocking. They can be found in medical facilities, government offices, airports, hotels, sports stadiums, and schools.

Advanced Life Support Units

Advanced Life Support (ALS) units are commonly used in the healthcare context. For example, these are common in ambulances and hospitals. Finally, these devices allow the medical team to monitor a person’s heart rate. If necessary, they can provide an electric shock. Most ALS units are also equipped with an AED function. This mode uses the computer to make shock recommendations based on the individual’s condition.

Other common characteristics are the ability to monitor oxygen, carbon dioxide, blood pressure, and temperature. Some units are also equipped with a heart attack warning system. While some models use paddles, electrodes are generally preferred because they are much safer for the rescuer. Not only that, the more evenly distributed the shock, the more effective it will be.

Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillators

The portable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) is a medical device used by people at risk of heart failure. For example, they are often prescribed for people who have had a recent heart attack or bypass surgery. People with circulatory disorders may also need the device.

Non-invasive WCDs have two different components: monitor and shirt, the latter of which detects and treats abnormal heart rhythms. A person gets under clothing while the monitor is moved around the waist. Properly covered, it will withstand a lot of adverse conditions. It delivers an electric shock every time a malignant rhythm is detected. Highly effective, it has a 98% first shock success rate.

Who can use a defibrillator?

You don’t need the training to use a defibrillator; anyone can use it. There are clear instructions on how to place the defibrillation pads. Assesses your heart rate and prompts you to shock only if necessary. You cannot accidentally shock, the defibrillator only allows you to shock if necessary.

In a recent survey, a third said they would be confident enough to act if they saw someone having a heart attack. With more CPR training and more awareness, we can change that.

Mechanism of action

The exact mechanism of defibrillation is not well understood. One theory is that successful defibrillation affects most of the heart, causing heart muscle failure to maintain the arrhythmia. Recent mathematical models of defibrillation provide new information on the response of heart tissue to violent electric shocks.

General Topics

Nerve Strengthening Exercises for Peripheral Neuropathy | Neurology

Techniques for nerve strengthening exercises

To get the detailed information regarding the most common techniques for nerve strengthening exercises first of all know the nervous system and its importance.

What is the nervous system?

Your nervous system is governed by your brain and spinal cord; Together they are considered the central nervous system or CNS. All nerve signals are sent to and from these areas for processing. Nerve branches with cells called neurons separate from the CNS into muscles, tissues, and organs. Neurons form connections or pathways as you learn a new task. Once a task is learned and a path is made, such as learning to walk, the task becomes easier. Since nerve pathways are produced by repeating movements and thoughts, exercise can help rebuild damaged connections.

There are three main types of exercise suitable for people with peripheral neuropathy: aerobic, balancing, and stretching. Before you start exercising, warm up your muscles with dynamic stretches like arm circles. Promotes flexibility and increases blood flow. It also increases your energy and activates your nerve signals.

Aerobic exercises

Aerobic exercises move large muscles and make you breathe deeply. It increases blood flow and releases endorphins, which act as the body’s natural pain relievers. Best practices for aerobic exercise are 30 minutes a day, regular activities at least three days a week. If you’re just starting out, try exercising for 10 minutes a day to get started.

Some examples of aerobic exercise are:

  • Walk fast
  • Swimming
  • Cycling
  • Balance training
  • Peripheral neuropathy makes your muscles and joints feel tight and sometimes weak. Balanced training increases your strength and reduces feelings of tension. Better balance also prevents waterfalls.

The first balance training exercises include leg and calf raises.

Side leg raise

  • Using a chair or counter, balance with one hand.
  • Stand slightly apart with your legs.
  • Slowly lift one leg to the side and hold it for 5-10 seconds.
  • Lower your leg at the same speed.
  • Repeat with the other leg.
  • When you are improving your balance, try this exercise without holding the counter.
  • Calf raising
  • Using a chair or counter, keep your balance steady.
  • Raise your heels two feet off the ground so you can stand on your toes.
  • Get off slowly.
  • Repeat for 10 to 15 repetitions.

Stretching exercises

Stretching increases your flexibility and warms up your body for other physical activities. Routine stretching also reduces the risk of injury during exercise. Common techniques are the calf stretch and the seated tendon stretch.

Calf stretched

  • Place one leg behind you while pointing your leg forward.
  • Lean one foot forward with the opposite foot and slightly bend your knee.
  • Step forward with your front leg while placing your heel on your back leg planted on the ground.
  • Hold this stretch for 15 seconds.
  • Do three times per leg.

Seated tendon stretch

  • Sit on the edge of the chair.
  • Extend one leg in front of you as shown above the toes.
  • Bend your opposite knee with your foot flat on the ground.
  • Place your chest on your straight leg and keep your back straight until you feel the muscle stretch.
  • Hold this position for 15 to 20 seconds.
  • Do three times per leg.

Take a break

When was the last time you stopped to relax? As the saying goes, the best exercise is to take a break from the routine. Breaks can be very helpful when you need to be in a monotonous state for hours on end for your work.

Certain relaxation activities, like playing golf or basketball, can cause pinched nerves. Even the simple act of texting, when repeated, can cause it. It is important to know the limits of your body.

Walk and run

Walking and jogging on a daily basis can have a positive effect on your nervous system. Both types of exercise promote cognitive and muscle function and can prevent the degeneration of nerve cells in your brain, says the Franklin Institute. If you are a man, resistance training is more beneficial than pause training, but the opposite may be true for women. According to a March 2011 study published in the Annals of Anatomy, modest daily treadmill training can have a significant impact on axon growth and optimal connection direction. In male mice, the researchers found that running slowly and patiently produced a lot of growth of axons with precise connections. In contrast, female rats responded better to high-intensity leisure exercise.

Adjust your workstation

If you are looking for a way to treat your pinched nerve, make changes to your workstation. The ergonomic workstation can be of great help to your posture and pain.

The standing workstation is one answer for many adults in the United States who experience back pain. It moves the spine and keeps it straight. You can buy a variety of standing desks online, most of which go from sitting to standing when the button is pressed.

Adjusting your workstation is like trying to change chairs. Ergonomic office chairs are available in-store and online. Test and fix your office changes for a while to see what works best for you.

Use heat and ice packs

It is true that this is a relaxing tip: take a hot bath. That pinched nerve can cause muscle tension. When you put some heat in that area, the muscles surrounding the nerve relax and relax.

The best thing about heat treatment is that not only does it look great, but it also increases blood flow. That means it speeds up your healing process. Please note that it is better to heat for 10-15 minutes at intervals.

Thermal packs aside, ice packs are also great for reducing inflammation. This is an ideal remedy if you have muscle aches or stress. As with heating pads, a maximum of 15 minutes of contact time is sufficient.

Leg raise

This is a good reason to buy a new footstool or fancy ottoman. If you have a pinching sensation of the nerves in your lower back, it is a good idea to lift your legs. Check to see if both knees and hips are flexed at 90 degrees.

If you don’t have a footrest, there is another option. Put some pillows under your knees while sitting. That way, your legs are still elevated at the angle.

If you still have some pain, lie down. You can do this in bed or on the couch. Bring your knees to your chest. Before going to sleep, keep your body on your side. Raise the other leg by placing a pillow between the legs. This will help you sleep a little better.

Enjoy a pain-free lifestyle

On a regular basis, these 6 exercises can help you get rid of pinched nerve pain. These are just a few of the self-care exercises. If you find that the pain is too much, you should consult a spine specialist.

Did you enjoy reading? Check out our other blog posts for more information on spinal conditions. The benefits of good posture are discussed here.


Cardiac Imaging Equipment – an Overview | Cardiology

What Is Cardiac Imaging Equipment?

Cardiac imaging equipment i.e., As innovative technology advances in the medical field, there is also the possibility of inadvertently visualizing the heart and its vascularity. The practice of modern cardiovascular medicine requires not only the diagnosis but also the management of various cardiovascular diseases, as well as the guidance of invasive procedures.

These cardiac imaging equipment methods include myocardial perfusion imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) by echocardiography and nuclear scintigraphy. The Cardiac imaging method par excellence for visualizing the coronary arteries remains the invasive technique of coronary angiography by coronary catheterization.

Each model can be used individually or in combination as cardiac imaging equipment, depending on the desired diagnostic requirements. These studies are now commonly used in conjunction with the medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests including cardiac imaging equipment to define the practice of modern cardiovascular medicine.

In addition, the appropriate guidelines for the use of these cardiac imaging equipment techniques are now standardized to optimize diagnosis and cost-effectiveness and to evaluate the ideal imaging technique to be used in specific patient situations to minimize risk to the patient. Cardiac imaging tests can explain the structure and function of the heart.

Standard imaging tests & equipment used

Here are the Cardiac imaging tests

  • Chest x-ray
  • CT
  • MRI
  • Echocardiography

Chest x-ray

Chest x-rays are often used as a starting point in diagnosing the heart. Posterior and lateral views provide insight into the atrial and ventricular size and shape and pulmonary vasculature, although additional testing including Cardiac imaging tests is almost always necessary for accurate classification of the structure and function of the heart.


The scanner uses a series of x-ray images along with a body relief contrast dye to provide the most detailed images of the heart and surrounding structures. It provides accurate cardiac visualization and analysis in 30 seconds. UC San Diego Health has three high-definition 64-slice CT scanners.

These 64-slice scanners take images of the heart between beats, providing clearer and more detailed images of the heart that could not be obtained with previous technology.

These advanced CT scanners can deliver radiation only when needed during heart snapshots, further reducing the patient’s exposure to radiation. Since high levels of radiation can cause lifelong health problems, the goal is to get the best quality images with the lowest radiation.


Magnetic resonance imaging which is one of the parts of Cardiac imaging tests visualizes the heart by detecting hydrogen atoms using superconducting magnets, especially those attached to water and fat molecules. These hydrogen atoms are called nuclear spin.

Although the direction of this spin is usually random, the spin can be aligned by a strong magnetic field. When the arrangement of these hydrogen atoms is temporarily altered, faint electromagnetic signals are emitted, which can be detected and used to create a reflection of the heart.

MRI can measure the size, shape, function, and characteristics of heart tissue in a single session. It can reproduce more than echocardiography with low interobserver variability, allowing for more precise reference ranges to better distinguish health from disease.

Additional benefits of cardiac MRI include the ability to detect scarring in the heart using late growth of gadolinium and detect other abnormalities in the heart muscle, such as infiltration of iron or amyloid protein. The drawbacks of MRI include the potential for lengthy protocols and claustrophobia.

Also, some types of pacemakers cannot be scanned by MRI by some people who have metal implants, such as defibrillators, although most modern pacemakers are safe to use with an MRI scanner. Other metallic structures, such as prosthetic valves and coronary stents, are usually not problematic.


The biological effects of diagnostic ultrasound have been documented in experimental studies conducted at the molecular, cellular, and animal levels.17 The effects depend on the characteristics of the sound wave, the sensitivity of the exposed tissue, and the duration of exposure. Effects can be broadly classified as thermal and mechanical effects. With current diagnostic ultrasound technology, biological effects are unlikely to occur directly through the heating of tissues.

Among the mechanical effects of ultrasound, the potential risk is cavitation: formation of microbubbles and rhythmic oscillations produced from gases dissolved in living tissue. The mechanical indicator of the acoustic cavity is developed as an ICT and is displayed as a safety parameter on modern ultrasound machines.

Tissues containing gas-filled contrast agents may show capillary rupture when exposed to ultrasound, but so far there is no evidence that patients or clinical staff pose a significant health risk due to the condition. Exposure to medical ultrasound.

Here are the types of Cardiac imaging tests which are clearly explained how these Cardiac imaging tests are conducted.


What does a 24-hour Holter Monitor detect? | Cardiology

What is a holter monitor?

The Holter monitor is a small, battery-powered medical device that measures your heart’s activity, such as rate and rhythm. Your doctor may ask you to use one if they need more information about how your heart is working than a routine electrocardiogram (EKG) can provide.

A 24-hour Holter monitor is a continuous test to record your heart rate and rhythm for 24 hours. You wear a Holter monitor for 12 to 48 hours while going about your regular daily routine. This device has electrodes and electrical wires just like a regular EKG, but it has fewer leads. It can detect not only your heart rate and rhythm but also when you feel chest pain or symptoms of an irregular heartbeat or an irregular heartbeat.

The Holter monitor test is sometimes called a mobile ECG. There are different kinds of gadgets that can be utilized to gauge heart movement for longer time frames.

Why holter monitor?

In the event that you have signs or manifestations of a heart issue, for example, an unpredictable heartbeat (arrhythmia) or unexplained blacking out, your PCP may arrange a test called an electrocardiogram. An EKG is a short, non-invasive test that uses electrodes attached to your chest to check your heart’s rhythm.

However, sometimes, the EKG doesn’t detect any abnormalities in your heart rhythm because you are only connected to the device for a short time. If your signs and symptoms indicate that an irregular heartbeat may be causing your condition, your doctor may recommend that you wear a Holter monitor for a day or so. Over this time, the Holter monitor may be able to detect an irregularity in your heart rhythm that the EKG cannot detect.

Your doctor may also order a Holter monitor if you have a heart condition that increases your risk of developing an abnormal heart rhythm. Your doctor may suggest wearing a Holter monitor for a day or two, even if you don’t have any symptoms of an abnormal heartbeat.

How would I prepare for a holter monitor?

  • Your health care provider will explain the procedure and you can ask questions.
  • You do not need to fast (neither eat nor drink).
  • Depending on your medical condition, your healthcare provider may require another specific preparation.

What happens during a holter monitor?

Holter monitor is generally recorded on an outpatient basis. Procedures may vary depending on your condition and the practice of your healthcare provider.

In general, Holter screen recording follows this process:

  • You will be asked to remove any jewelry or other items that may interfere with the reading.
  • You will be asked to undress from the waist up so that the electrodes can be attached to your chest. The technician will ensure your privacy by covering you with a sheet or gown and only exposing the necessary skin.
  • The areas where the electrode stains are placed are cleaned, and in some cases, the hair may be shaved or trimmed so that the electrodes are closely attached to the skin.
  • Electrodes will be attached to your chest and abdomen. The Holter monitor will be connected to the electrodes by wires. The small screen box may be worn over your shoulder like a shoulder bag or around your waist or it may be attached to a belt or pocket.
  • Find out if you will have to change the batteries in the display. Make sure you know how to do this and that you have extra batteries on hand.
  • Once you are connected to the monitor and given instructions, you can return to your usual activities, such as work, housework, and exercise, unless your health care provider tells you otherwise. This will allow your healthcare provider to identify issues that may only occur with certain activities.
  • You will be asked to keep a diary of your activities while wearing the screen. Write down the date and time of your activities, especially if any symptoms, such as dizziness, heart palpitations, chest pain, or other previously encountered symptoms, occurred.

After the procedure

Once your observation period is over, you will return the device to your doctor’s office, along with the notes you kept while wearing a Holter monitor. Your doctor will compare data from the recorder and the activities and symptoms you noted.

What are the risks of a Holter monitor?

The Holter monitor is an easy way to assess heart function. The risks associated with a Holter monitor are rare. It can be difficult to keep the electrodes attached to your skin, and you may need extra tape. It can be uncomfortable when removing sticky electrodes and tape. If the electrodes are run for a long time, they may cause tissue breakdown or skin irritation at the application site. There might be different dangers relying upon your particular ailment. Make certain to talk about any worries with your medical care supplier before wearing the screen.

Certain factors or circumstances may interfere or affect the results of a Holter monitor. These include, but are not limited to:

  • Near magnets, metal detectors, high-voltage electrical wires, and electrical appliances such as razors, toothbrushes, and microwave ovens. Cell phones and MP3 players can also interfere with signals and they should be at least 6 inches away from the display box.
  • Smoking or using other forms of tobacco
  • Certain medications
  • Excessive sweating, which may cause the strings to loosen or fall off

Understanding the results

After the test period, the person returns to their doctor to have the screen removed. Provide any notes for the doctor to review and the doctor will consider screen readings and the person’s notes when making a diagnosis.

Holter monitor readings may reveal an underlying heart condition, new symptoms, and potential triggers. It may also help show the problems caused by medications. A person may have to wait for one to two weeks for the test results.

General Topics

Homeopathic Remedies for Nervous System Disorders | Neurology

What are homeopathic remedies for the nervous system?

Homeopathy is complementary medicine. It is used as an alternative and natural treatment for certain diseases. This includes anxiety. There are many homeopathic remedies for anxiety, including club moss, pulsatilla, aconite, and others. Much research has been done to determine if homeopathy works for anxiety. Homeopathy has been used for more than two centuries and many people claim that it works.

However, reports on homeopathic remedies can be flawed, unscientific, or biased. For this reason, homeopathy remains an alternative approach outside of the mainstream. However, it has some merits, including the placebo effect, when used as a treatment for anxiety. Homeopathy also has few side effects if it is administered safely and correctly.

Homeopathic remedies for the “nervous system”

  • Ignatia Amara: The homeopathic remedy Ignatia Amara (Ign.) Comes from the San Ignacio bean, which is the seed of Ignatia Amaris, a climbing shrub native to China, the Philippines, and Indonesia.
  • Avena Sativa: Avena Sativa homeopathic remedy is made from wild oats and is found in the species that include the cereal grains and seeds of this plant.
  • Raw Coffea: Just like coffee kills the nerves, Coffea Cruda relaxes them, relieving many stress-related symptoms as you go along, including hypersensitivity, jittery, sharp headaches, and of course insomnia due to an overactive mind. , arousal, caffeine, or coffee.

Homeopathic remedies for neurological disorders (demyelinating diseases)

The human body has a very intricate nervous system, which is made up of a network of nerves. The nervous system, which contains the motor nervous system, the sensory nervous system, and the autonomic nervous system, performs several important functions in the human body. Therefore, any problem related to the nervous system requires a careful examination to determine the diseases and prescribe the drug to the patient.

Any dysfunction of the nervous system can lead to serious neurological problems such as paralysis, stroke, epilepsy, hysteria, etc. A demyelinating disease or disorder occurs due to damage to the protective covering called the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers in the brain and spine. Cable nerve impulses stop or slow down when the myelin sheath is damaged and the patient suffers from a number of neurological problems.

There are many types of demyelinating diseases. Some of the most common are multiple sclerosis, optic neuromyelitis, optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Of these, multiple sclerosis is the most common nerve disorder. It occurs due to inflammation and injury to the myelin sheath. This results in inflammation of the nerve fibers causing multiple areas of sclerosis or scarring.

Homeopathic remedies for neurological diseases

Homeopathy has excellent remedies for neurological disorders. This is because homeopathic treatment focuses on the person and their pathological condition. In addition, homeopathic medicines are prescribed after taking into account the constitutional type of the patient, such as physical, emotional, and psychological makeup and his medical history. A skilled homeopath determines all factors, including the patient’s miasmatic tendency before determining any treatment. Some of the remedies for demyelinating diseases are:

  • Causticum: it is an actual remedy for multiple sclerosis that manifests itself in chronic paralytic conditions. Symptoms are tearing, drawing pains, and severe weakness. The other indications are total paralysis of parts of the body such as vocal cords, tongue, eyelids, face, bladder, and extremities. The patient experiences vision problems and dark spots in the center of vision and restless legs with weak ankles at night.
  • Gelsemium: This is the finest known curative homeopathic treatment for motorized paralysis. It acts on the nervous system and works best when there is dizziness, tremors, drowsiness, and paralysis of the throat, larynx, and extremities. It also asks for strong indications of motor nerve problems such as muscle cramps, lack of muscle coordination, runny urine, chills, tremors, partial paralysis of the bladder, heavy eyelids, and blurred vision.
  • Oxalic Acid: Oxalic acid is an effective medication for posterior cerebral and spinal multiple sclerosis. The indications are lancinating, stabbing, and spasmodic pains in different parts of the external body. The other symptoms are muscle prostration, numbness, tingling, and back pain.
  • Phosphorus: It is the best curative for atrophy and softening of the brain and spinal cord, causing prostration, tremors, numbness, and complete paralysis. The symptoms are locomotor ataxia. Also, sensory-motor nerve paralysis can result in paralysis from the tips of the fingers to the feet. The patient experiences vulnerability to light, sound, touch, and thunder.
General Topics

Ayurvedic Treatments for Neurological disorders | Neurology

What are neurological disorders?

The manifestations of neurological disorders depend on how and which part of the nervous system is affected: central or peripheral, or there are combined disorders.

  • The central part includes both brains: The brain and the spinal cord. They process information about what is happening in the body, as well as control and coordinate all its reactions and functions. This applies both to the organism internally and to its contacts with the environment. This is realized with the help of the peripheral part of the nervous system.
  • It is a continuation of the brain and includes the nerves of the body, its divisions/cervical, shoulders, lumbar, and other / and ganglia. Finished, brain impulses are transmitted to the limbs and various organs, and response is returned.
  • Neurological diseases are disorders that can occur anywhere in this chain. The brain, for example, can become inflamed, since meningitis is an inflammation of the outer layer, and encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain matter itself. Many other neurological disorders are associated with the brain: atherosclerosis, depression, phobia, epilepsy, autism, personality disorders, etc.

Different Ayurvedic treatments for neurological disorders

Speaking of treating neurological disorders associated with Vata, we have to clarify one thing. Vata is responsible for all the movements of the body, so without that energy, the other two Doshas cannot flow in the body. Therefore, disturbances in Vata can even cause blockages in Pitta and Kapha.

And generally, when one Dosha becomes unbalanced, it also causes imbalances in the other two. Therefore, the Ayurvedic specialist must determine what are the imbalances and the extent of the deviations of the Doshas, in order to prescribe a treatment, etc., a way to restore their natural proportions that are unique to all.

From a philosophical point of view, Vata is related to wind and space, individually, with lightness, dryness, and coldness. Like everything else, these can also be balanced with their opposites. Therefore, to calm Vata, food must be heavier, oily, fluid and hot, freshly prepared, and the flavors salty, sweet.

Recommended foods:

  • Basmati rice
  • Wheat
  • Quinoa
  • Oats

Foods to avoid:

  • Corn
  • Rye
  • Barley
  • Son

Recommended fruits:

  • Raspberries
  • Strawberries
  • Figs
  • Lemons
  • Cherries
  • Plums
  • Melons
  • Pineapple and so on

Vegetables to add to the menu:

  • Carrots
  • Sweet potatoes
  • Beet
  • Asparagus
  • Cucumbers

The spices are also heating up. For example:

  • Garlic
  • Cumin
  • Ginger
  • dill

Black pepper and so on, since according to the opinion of the Ayurvedic specialist oils can be taken internally. Traditionally, you can drink a cup of ginger tea in the morning and at night before bed, a cup of turmeric milk.

Along with the Ayurvedic nutritional regimen, cleansing of toxins that accumulate in the body should also be performed as an essential part of restoring the natural state and optimal functioning of the organs. Externally it is done with the pouring of oils to warm the body, massages, herbal rubs, as well as herbal sauna.

Oils are opposed to dryness, as the most beneficial are hemp, flax, sesame, oil, ghee, and others. Internal cleansing is done with laxatives and cleansers. Treatment also includes meditation and yoga – selected asanas and exercises for neurological disorders.

General Topics

Symptoms of Heart Problems in Children | Cardiology

What Is The Pediatric Heart Condition (heart problems in children)?

Pediatric heart disease usually falls into two categories: congenital heart problems, disease, or defects present at birth, and acquired heart disease that develops as a child gets older.

What is a congenital heart defect?

Congenital heart defects (CHD) occur in about 1 in 100 newborn babies as a result of the heart or blood vessels around the heart not developing properly. These heart problems, which can be mild or severe, interfere with the heart’s ability to function as it should. In India, babies are screened for severe birth defects such as heart problems within 24 hours of birth. However, some congenital heart defects, such as atrial septal defects (holes in the heart’s walls), can remain undiagnosed until adolescence or later.

A pediatric cardiologist says, “Detecting heart disease in children has been a top priority for the medical community since the invention of the stethoscope. In the current era, we have become more sophisticated in our methods of screening for heart problems, including prenatal detection of congenital heart defects and heart rhythm abnormalities.” Although you may hear that some doctors use congenital heart disease to refer to congenital heart disease, congenital heart defect is a more accurate term. Both phrases indicate the same thing.

What is acquired heart disease?

Acquired heart disease is the type we often associate with adults, but children and teens can also be affected by it. The most common acquired heart diseases in children are rheumatic heart disease and Kawasaki disease.

What is rheumatic heart disease?

Rheumatic heart disease is the most serious complication of rheumatic fever, which is a disease caused by the bacteria responsible for sore throats. Your child’s immune system can produce antibodies to fight a streptococcus infection, but in some cases these antibodies can damage the heart valves, leading to rheumatic heart disease. Non-cardiac symptoms include joint pain and swelling. A rash on the torso or arms. Skin bumps on the wrist, elbows, or knees; And rapid limb movements. Fortunately, due to the availability of drugs to combat streptococcus, rheumatic heart disease is somewhat rare in India.

What is Kawasaki disease?

Kawasaki disease is a rare disease that primarily affects children and can cause inflammation of the blood vessels in their hands, feet, mouth, lips, and throat. It also results in a fever and swollen lymph nodes. Researchers aren’t yet sure why. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), the disease is a leading cause of heart problems in up to 1 in 4 children. Most of them are under the age of five.

Treatment depends on the extent of the disease, but often includes prompt treatment with intravenous gamma globulin or aspirin (Bufferin). Corticosteroids can sometimes reduce future complications. Children with this disease often need lifelong follow-up appointments to monitor their heart health.

Symptoms of heart problems in children

 A youngster with heart problems could possibly have clear side effects. Symptoms sometimes develop slowly, over time, such as when the child becomes gradually tired. This gradual onset can delay the diagnosis. Other times, there may be a clear and noticeable change that indicates a problem with the heart, such as an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia). Symptoms of heart problems in children can vary according to the child’s age.

One in 100 babies has heart problems, which may also be called a heart defect or congenital heart disease (present from birth). Heart defects can usually be treated with medication, surgery, or other medical procedures. Most tests for heart problems are simple, quick, and painless. Most children with heart problems lead to normal, full lives with very few or no restrictions.

Signs and symptoms

Many children with heart problems appear to be healthy and have no symptoms, and their parents are unaware that they have a heart problem. If babies do develop symptoms, they often appear in the first few weeks after they are born. Common symptoms include: This is a list of the most common symptoms that may indicate a heart problem in children.

In most cases, babies with these symptoms do not have heart problems. For example, some babies naturally sweat more, and many children sweat while they sleep. The cause of palpitations maybe caffeine. Dizziness may indicate that your child is not drinking enough fluids.

However, if your child has any of these symptoms, it is important to tell the pediatrician or primary care doctor. He or she will listen to your child’s heart and perform a full medical evaluation, then decide if a referral to a pediatric cardiologist is appropriate.


  • Breathe with feeds
  • Turning blue inside the mouth (gums/tongue)
  • Sweating with feedings
  • Unconsciousness


  • Physically unable to keep up with other children
  • Breathe with activity faster than other children
  • Sweating with activity sooner than other children
  • Turning blue around the gum/tongue
  • Passing out

Older children/teens

  • Physically unable to keep up with other children
  • Breathe with activity faster than other children
  • Sweating with exercise sooner than other children
  • Turning blue around the gum/tongue
  • Chest pain with exercise
  • Passing out
  • Heart palpitations: Skipping or beating of the heart abnormally
  • Dizziness with exercise

These symptoms are caused by an insufficient supply of oxygen to the body, which occurs because the blood does not contain the usual amount of oxygen, or the heart is not pumping as well as it should.

General Topics

Prevention of Heart Disease Starts in Childhood | Cardiology

What Is Heart Disease Starts In Childhood?

You might think heart disease is a problem for adults and not for your young children. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says, obesity affects 1 in 5 children. Diet and exercise habits that began in childhood can start a heart-healthy life. Or heart damage for life.

Some of the preventable causes of heart disease in adults that begin in childhood are:

  • Obesity
  • Unhealthy diet
  • A buildup of plaque (or fat deposits) in the arteries
  • Diabetes
  • Exposure to cigarette smoke
  • Unhealthy changes in cholesterol levels
  • High blood pressure
  • Lack of physical exercise (sedentary lifestyle)

Despite the fact that the risk of heart disease can run in families, eating a healthy diet can help every child reduce their risk of developing heart disease. In the event that coronary illness runs in your family, converse with your youngster’s medical care supplier about whether their cholesterol and circulatory strain ought to be estimated normally, notwithstanding weight checking.

What can I do to prevent heart disease in my child?

There are many ways to help your child develop healthy lifestyle habits that reduce the risk of heart disease. To start, get regular medical care for your child. This means having at least a yearly physical examination. Regular medical checkups are the best way to detect and treat risks of heart disease that generally do not show symptoms, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol.

You also need to be smart about food. You can greatly reduce your child’s risk of developing heart disease by providing foods low in fat, sugar, and salt instead of processed foods, such as sausages, potato chips, and biscuits. Snack time is a good place to start. Offer baby-friendly foods, such as baby carrots, apples, or grape slices. Offer baby-sized portions of other healthy foods, such as low-fat yogurt, raisins, and peanuts. Look for baby-friendly breakfast cereals made with whole grains and low in sugar.

Set limits on less mobile entertainment. Computer, television, and video game time should not exceed one to two hours per day. Encourage exercise instead and find ways to make it enjoyable. Children five years and over should get at least 30 minutes of exercise each day. Babies may not like the idea of exercise, but they generally want to play. Encourage active play that matches your child’s interests and abilities. For example, if your child loves video games, consider moving games, which combine video games with physical activity. Better yet, involve the whole family! Join a family-friendly gym, or take a daily walk or bike ride together.

Talk to your children about healthy options and set an example. Children are more likely to develop healthy lifestyle habits if their parents teach them healthy behaviors and practice what they preach.

Healthy food, healthy hearts

A balanced diet is important for children and teenagers, not only to prevent heart disease but also to encourage healthy growth and development. A diet that prevents heart disease has three important parts. The first is to keep your daily caloric intake at the right level. Eating too many calories can cause weight gain and affect the heart, the second being fat reduction. The USDA recommends that children limit the amount of fat – especially saturated fat – that they eat. The third is a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. A good rule of thumb is to eat fruits and vegetables with a variety of colors to get a comprehensive source of nutrients.

Here are guidelines for creating a heart-healthy diet in childhood:

  • Breastfeed for as long as possible. Aim to spend an entire year, even when serving solid foods.
  • Feed your baby mostly fruits and vegetables, along with whole grains, lean protein, and low-fat dairy products. Cut back on red meat and choose leaner cuts if you decide to eat red meat.
  • Watch portion sizes. The recommended daily amounts of healthy foods for children are:
    • 2 ounces of lean protein (fish and poultry) per day for children ages 2 to 3 years, 3 ounces to 4 ounces for children 4 to 8 years old, and 5 ounces to 6 ounces for children ages 9 to 18
    • 2 cups of low-fat dairy products for children under the age of eight, and 3 cups for children ages 9 to 18
    • 5 cups of fruit
    • 5 cups of vegetables
    • 6 ounces of whole grains
  • Don’t eat junk food often. If you eat out, make healthy choices (like a grilled chicken sandwich instead of cheese bacon) and keep portion sizes reasonable.
  • Don’t give your children sugary drinks. Instead, serve water and low-fat milk.
  • Cut sweets and sweets to a minimum and consider using fresh fruit as an alternative to sweets.
  • Choose whole grains like brown rice over refined grains like white rice for more nutrients and fiber.
  • Don’t ask children to finish everything on their plate. Allow the kids to tell you when they feel full.

Healthy lifestyle, healthy heart

Many of the daily choices children and teens make affect their risk of developing heart disease. Here are some options you can encourage your children and teens to make to help protect their hearts:

  • Do about 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity most days of the week in childhood. This can be divided throughout the day into two or more periods of activity.
  • Since many kids trade activity in exchange for sitting in front of the TV or computer, keep screen time less than two hours a day.
  • Do not expose your children to cigarette smoke. Ban smoking in your home and car. Do not take your children to places where people smoke cigarettes. If you smoke, quitting smoking can help you and your children.
  • Remember that you are the most important role model for your children. Your children and teens will learn their best heart-healthy options by watching you.