About Hypertension Monitoring Equipment | Cardiology

What is hypertension monitoring equipment?

Hypertension monitoring equipment is a self-monitoring tool that is included in the care of hypertensive patients and is recommended by the main guidelines. Blood pressure is the most common preventable cause of cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence compared to in-office monitoring supports the benefits of MPHP for the patient: including better BP control, white coat blood pressure diagnosis, and cardiovascular risk assessment.

Also, LMWH is cheaper and easier to maintain than 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). All LMWH devices require authentication; however, incorrect readings have been found on a large number of monitors. The new technology involves a longer inflatable area within the cuff, surrounding the arm, increasing the “acceptable range” of placement and thus reducing the effect of cuff placement on reading accuracy, thus overcoming the limitations of current equipment.

Why hypertension monitoring equipment is so important?

Hypertension monitoring is recommended by doctors, physician assistants, nurses, and other health professionals for a variety of reasons, including effectiveness:

  • Constantly learn about an essential indicator of your overall health.
  • Tell your doctor to better understand and control your (high) blood pressure
  • See how you respond to medications
  • Helps diagnose and control blood pressure.
  • Helps identify your heart risk
  • A complete picture of heart health

Additionally, many factors can affect your hypertension, including physical activity, emotional fluctuations, medications, and stress, so it is important to monitor your blood pressure regularly at home.

When hypertension monitoring equipment is required?

Follow your doctor’s instructions on when and how often to check your blood pressure.

Be aware that some factors can cause a temporary increase in hypertension. As a result, blood pressure generally rises:

  • Stress
  • Smoking
  • Cold temperatures
  • Exercise
  • Caffeine
  • Certain drugs

Avoid any of these things you can do when taking your blood pressure. Also, try to measure your blood pressure at the same time every day.

Types of hypertension monitoring equipment

Aneroid blood pressure monitor

  • It is also known as manual blood pressure monitors.
  • These are commonly used by doctors.
  • The setup for this monitor includes a stethoscope, cuff, squeeze bulb, and medical meter.
  • The configuration is very extensive and much larger than other types of monitors
  • The readings are very accurate.

Digital blood pressure monitor

  • It is also known as electronic or automatic blood pressure monitors.
  • These monitors are available with a wrist or arm cuff, however, having a cuff provides more accurate results.
  • They are very easy to use as you need to wrap the cuff around your arm/wrist and click the button on the monitor.
  • The blood pressure measurement is displayed on a digital screen.
  • The cuff may not fit properly around the arm/wrist. Therefore, the measurement may not be very accurate and it is recommended to take 2 to 3 readings to get an accurate blood pressure measurement.

Finger blood pressure monitor

  • This monitor is based on the latest technology.
  • This is ideal for those who need to have their blood pressure checked frequently.
  • The patient should place their index finger on the finger cuff, which will lift automatically.
  • These monitors are lightweight and portable.
  • However, they do not give accurate results and the patient must exercise caution when using these monitors.
  • Take the measurement 2-3 times to get the most accurate results.

Pediatric blood pressure monitor

  • These monitors are used to monitor blood pressure in young children.
  • It comes with an LCD screen that shows readings.
  • With the increase in blood pressure and the esophagus in children, the demand for these blood pressure monitors is high.

Benefits of hypertension monitoring equipment

Whether you suffer from high blood pressure (also known as hypertension) or want to keep track of your health, a blood pressure monitor is a must at home to keep your numbers in check.

Home monitors are typically digital and the entire measurement process is almost automated. Here’s how to use hypertension monitoring: put the cuff around your arm or wrist, turn on the device, and inflate the cuff to start the measurement, deflection when the measurement is taken. When finished, the final reading will appear on the screen.

The average reading should be 120 for systolic and 80 for diastolic. If your blood pressure monitor readings are consistently higher or lower than this, you may want to consider discussing it with your GP.


Your doctor can diagnose by monitoring your hypertension. This is a simple test that only takes a few minutes. Typically, an inflatable upper arm cuff with a pressure gauge is used. Your doctor or another medical professional will place a blood pressure cuff on your arm above the elbow. The cuff tightens and inflates around the upper arm. After getting a measurement, the cuff will shrink and your doctor will remove it.

Two numbers make up your blood pressure reading, which is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg):

  • Systolic pressure, number one, measures the pressure at which the heart beats and pushes blood through the vessels. Reading less than 120 is normal; More than 140 readings (more than 135 if you have diabetes).
  • Diastolic pressure, number two, measures the pressure between beats. A diastolic reading less than 80 is normal; 90 indicates high blood pressure.

Departments to consult for this condition

  • Department of Cardiology
General Topics

Overview of Neurology General Precautions | Neurology

What are neurology general precautions?

Neurology precautions: Neurology is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of diseases of the brain and nervous system. The brain body’s control center is the place where our thoughts originate and our memories are stored. It regulates movement and speech, processes sensory information, regulates hormonal secretion, and produces our emotions. A healthy brain works quickly and automatically as a new computer. But conditions or injuries that affect the brain can cause a wide variety of symptoms that affect a person’s ability to remember, move, speak, or use their senses. Treatments for brain diseases vary in symptoms, from medication to rehabilitation, minimally invasive procedures, or open surgery.

The brain, spinal cord, and nerves make up the nervous system. Together they control all the functions of the body. When something is wrong with your nervous system, you have trouble moving, speaking, swallowing, breathing, or learning. You may also have problems with memory, senses, or mood.

There are more than 600 neurological diseases. There are main types:

  • Diseases caused by wrong genes, such as Huntington’s disease and muscular dystrophy
  • Problems with the developing nervous system, such as spina bifida
  • Degenerative diseases, where nerve cells are damaged or die, such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease
  • Diseases of the blood vessels supplying the brain, such as stroke
  • Injuries to the spinal cord and brain
  • Seizure disorders such as epilepsy
  • Cancer like brain tumors
  • Infections such as meningitis

Neurologists use specialized tests of mood, vision, speech, strength, sensation, coordination, reflexes, and gait to diagnose the most complex conditions. Although general neurologists are not surgeons, they do perform some procedures for examination purposes, including:

  • Pelvic puncture to diagnose cerebrospinal fluid, also known as a lumbar puncture
  • An electromyogram, or EMG, is a test that examines how muscles respond to nerve signals.
  • Nerve conduction study or NCS that measures the speed and strength of electrical activity in the nerve
  • The neurological exam may include a CT scan or CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and/or electroencephalography (EEG).

Benefits of physical activity in neurology precautions

Researchers have recently found a strong link between physical exercise and the prevention or delay of neurodegenerative symptoms, including a failure in motor skills and mental ability in patients with impaired neuro-diseases such as MS and Alzheimer’s.

A review by Harutoshi Sakakima suggests that physical exercise acts as a prototypical preconditioning stimulus that provides brain-protective effects and is a safe and viable treatment option to provide endogenous neuroprotection in acute and chronic stroke patients.

A randomized study examining the effects of balance training with electromyogram-activated functional electrical stimulation (EMG-activated FES) to improve static balance, dynamic balance, and activation of the ankle muscles suggest positive results in stroke patients.

Exercise improves the physical and mental well-being of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Patients exercise moderately for 60 minutes a week. Compared with patients who did not exercise, patients who exercised were less prone to depression, shorter distances, shorter falls, and then placed in nursing homes.

Patients with exercise-induced neurological disorders may experience decreased stiffness as well as relapse of muscle reduction and atrophy.

Research has shown that exercise improves gait, balance, tremors, flexibility, grip strength, and motor coordination in patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Once patients cannot meet, there is a decrease in their nervous state. Recent research suggests a possible mechanism for this decline: a study in mice suggests that the production and maintenance of healthy neurons require less physical activity to transport organs. The authors say: “The overall results support the existence of a link between exercise and muscle utilization and metabolism in the brain, and thus provide valuable new information that clarifies how conditions such as underload and underload exist lack of movement. With some neurological diseases, it can affect nerve stem cell symptoms and contribute to the negative manifestations of these conditions. ”

Barriers to physical activity of neurological precautions

  • 35% -95% are associated with chronic fatigue and depression
  • The severity of the disease
  • Pre-existing comorbid conditions
  • Lack of motivation
  • Cognitive and learning skills
  • Social and environmental; Program costs, transportation routes, access, family support, social policies, and social stigma

Barriers to health and fitness facilities;

  • Lack of awareness of disability among fitness professionals
  • Hot climates cause overheating
  • Access to the bathroom
  • The temperature of the pools is very cold and people cannot move fast to go to war
  • Fear of falling
  • Safety issues like wet floors in locker rooms, poorly maintained equipment, and inappropriate hosts in pool areas

Prescription exercise:

  • The best way to achieve these benefits is to exercise consistently. People who have been involved in exercise programs with Parkinson’s for more than six months have shown significant gains in functional balance and mobility compared to the duration of two to ten weeks, regardless of the intensity of the exercise.
  • A specialist doctor must carry out a risk assessment and detection before participating in any physical activity program.
  • For aerobic exercise, it is recommended to dedicate 10 minutes or more (30 minutes 5 times a week) 150 minutes (2.5 hours a week) to moderate-intensity exercises.
  • Exercises are progressive muscle-strengthening activities that engage the main muscle groups of the body 2 or more days a week.

Tips for the patient

  • Always be prepared before starting your exercise routine and cool down at the end.
  • If you plan to work 30 minutes, start with 10-minute sessions and increase your workload.
  • Exercise your facial muscles, jaw, and tone whenever possible.
  • Sing or read aloud, exaggerating the movements of your lips.
  • Make faces in the mirror.
  • Chew food vigorously and avoid swallowing large pieces. Instead, chew each piece for at least 20 seconds.
  • Try water exercises like water aerobics. They are usually easier on the joints and require less balance.
  • Work in a safe environment. Avoid slippery floors, poor lighting, rugs, and other potential hazards.
  • If you have difficulty keeping your balance, exercise to hold onto a bar or train. If you are having trouble standing or getting up, try exercising on the couch rather than on the floor or mat.

Above all, choose a hobby or activity that you enjoy and keep doing it. Some clues:

  • Gardening or walking or swimming or water aerobics or yoga or tai chi
  • Rest your muscles for at least a day between strength training sessions
  • Activities should be done with moderate intensity. Moderate-intensity physical activity is usually a 5 or 6 on a scale of 10, and your heart rate will increase. As a general rule of thumb, if you do a moderate-intensity activity, you can speak during the activity, but not sing the song.

Types of Stress Testing Equipment | Cardiology

What is stress testing equipment?

A stress testing equipment (sometimes called a violence test) is a deliberately intensive or comprehensive test to determine the stability of a system, complex infrastructure, or a given entity. These are tests to observe results, often beyond normal operational capacity, to the point of failure. The reasons include:

  • To determine breaking points or limits of safe use
  • Planned features are being confirmed
  • The mathematical model is accurate enough to estimate breakpoints or safe use limits to verify
  • To test the constant operation of a component or system outside of standard use
  • To determine failure modes (how the system fails)

The word “stress” may have a more specific meaning in some industries, such as physics, so stress testing can sometimes have a technical meaning, in the example of a material fatigue test.

Alternate names

  • Stress test
  • Treadmill test
  • Stress EKG
  • Stress ECG
  • A nuclear stress test
  • Stress echocardiogram

What are the stress tests?

Stress testing equipment shows how well your heart can handle physical activity. Your heart beats faster and faster while you exercise. Some heart defects are easy to find when your heart is working hard. During a stress test, your heart will be monitored while you exercise on a treadmill or stationary bike.

If you are not healthy enough to exercise, you will be given medication that will make your heart beat faster and stronger, just like you exercise. If you have trouble completing the stress test at regular intervals, this means that the blood flow to your heart is reduced. Decreased blood flow is due to many different heart conditions, some of which are very serious.

Why do I need it?

Your doctor will use this stress testing equipment:

  • Find out if you have coronary heart disease and need more tests
  • Helps assess symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or palpitations to see if they are coming from the heart
  • Identify abnormal heart rhythms
  • Helps you develop a safe exercise program
  • See how well your heart valves are working

Types of stress testing equipment

Types of stress testing equipment are:

  • Exercise stress test
  • Stress test without exercise
  • Nuclear stress test

Exercise stress test:

During the stress test, the doctor aims to find out how tired the patient is by their heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and various levels of physical activity. This test also includes an electrocardiogram (ECG or ECG) test. It is a simple test that records the electrical activity of the heart. This will help the doctor understand how well the heart is working.

The ECG shows how fast the heart is beating. It also analyzes the heart rate and measures the strength and timing of electrical signals as they pass through each part of the heart. The wires with the electrodes were attached to the patient’s chest, arms, shoulders, and legs. Eventually, the patient will need to suck into the mouthpiece.

Stress test without exercise:

If a person is unable to exercise as is involved in the stress test, the physician may use medications to induce the same process. A technician attaches electrodes to his chest, legs, and arms using adhesive patches.

They place the intravenous (IV) line in the patient’s hand and dispense medications through this line. The medications stimulate the heart and cause side effects similar to those experienced during exercises, such as redness or shortness of breath.

Nuclear stress test:

If the first symptoms persist or worsen, the doctor may recommend a nuclear stress test. Provides a more detailed and accurate assessment of the patient’s heart. The procedure is the same, but the color is injected into the patient’s hand which shows the heart and blood flow in the image.

It also shows areas of the heart where blood is not flowing. This indicates stagnation. This can be captured by x-rays, or single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), or cardiac positron emission tomography (PET). Two sets of photographs are taken, each of which lasts between 15 and 30 minutes. The first is taken after exercise and the second when the body is at rest, the next day or the next day.

Risk factors for stress testing equipment

Stress testing equipment is generally considered safe, especially if it is performed in a controlled environment under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

However, there are some rare risks:

  • Heart attack
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Collapsing
  • Chest pain
  • Fainting

However, the risk of experiencing these reactions during the test is low because your doctor will examine you beforehand for problems. People who are at risk for these complications, such as those with advanced coronary heart disease, are rarely asked to be tested.

Results of stress testing equipment

If the information gathered from your stress testing equipment shows that your heart function is normal, you do not need additional testing. However, if the results are normal and your symptoms get worse, your doctor may recommend a nuclear stress test or other stress tests that includes an echocardiogram before and after exercise to increase blood flow to your heart.

These tests are more accurate and provide more information about your heart function, but they are also expensive. If the results of your stress test indicate that you may have coronary artery disease or show arrhythmia, your doctor will use the information to develop a treatment plan. You may need additional tests, such as a coronary angiogram.

If you take a stress test to decide on treatment for heart disease, your doctor will use the results to plan or change your treatment.

General Topics

About Ayurvedic treatments for neurological problems | Neurology

What are Ayurvedic treatments for Neurological problems?

The manifestations of neurological problems depend on how and which part of the nervous system is affected: central or peripheral, or there are combined disorders.

The central part includes both brains: the brain and the spinal cord. They process information about what is happening in the body, as well as control and coordinate all its reactions and functions. This applies both to the organism internally and to its contacts with the environment. This is implemented with the assistance of the peripheral part of the nervous system.

It is a continuation of the brain and includes the nerves of the body, its divisions/cervical, shoulders, lumbar, and other / and ganglia. Through them, brain impulses are conveyed to the limbs and various organs, and feedback is returned.

Neurological problems are disorders that can occur anywhere in this chain. The brain, for example, can become inflamed, since meningitis is an inflammation of the outer layer, and encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain matter itself. Many other diseases are associated with the brain: atherosclerosis, depression, phobia, epilepsy, autism, personality disorders, etc.

The most frequent inflammations of the peripheral part of the nervous system are radiculitis and plexitis, which can be in the cervical, thoracic or waist areas since the pain block the movement of the hands or legs. A nerve can be affected and this condition is called neuritis, and if some nerves are affected it is called polyneuritis.

In Ayurveda, the vital Vata energy is directly responsible for the nervous system, for the transmission of brain signals to the organs, for the senses, feelings, and thoughts. It is established at birth with the other two energies: Pitta and Kapha since each of them is responsible for specific processes in the body. The three energies are established in a specific proportion and maintain a certain balance between them. If one of the energies becomes unbalanced, the functions of certain organs are altered and the organism develops diseases. In the case of Vata, these are neurological diseases.

Ayurvedic treatment for neurological problems

A bad lifestyle and stress make you feel exhausted and tired. It leads to other problems called nerve weakness. Feeling unwell, depressed, and nervous weakens your immune power. Here are some tips to follow if you suffer from nervous weakness.

Oil massages

Oil massages are very helpful in getting rid of any weakness. Massage your body with almond oil and relax your muscles. It is the best health tonic for weakness. Improve the blood circulation of your body.

Exercise routine

You spend hours shaping your body, but the fact is, your nervous system needs a workout, too. Meditation, yoga, and aerobics are some of the exercises that will help keep your nervous system healthy.

Use of herbs

Ashwagandha and Ginseng are very helpful in relieving stress. It is considered the best brain tonic in Ayurveda.

Eat well

It is good to always keep your body and mind healthy. Make sure your diet includes dairy products, meat, and fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, etc. Eat plenty of berries because they contain sodium, iron, and phosphorus that help strengthen your nerves. Always drink plenty of water to ignore dehydration.

Two herbs that best support the neurological problems

Ashwagandha and Brahmi are Ayurvedic pharmacy’s two best friends. They support and calm your mind. They are the best Ayurvedic medicine to strengthen the nerves. You should consider this herbal duo in your routine. They offer you a sense of deep compassion and nurturing. According to Ayurvedic herbology, Abhyanga (self oil massage) with these two herbs is a simple and safe practice.

The nervous system affects every feeling, breath, experience, and decision in your life. Most of you focus on physical imbalances, however, Ayurveda actually targets the mind as the reason for all of your imbalances.


Supports your nervous system providing vitality, warmth, and strength. This plant is strong and robust, with a thick woody stem and large leaves. The root is the most widely used part of herbal preparations. You could call it a great health tonic for weakness. Ashwagandha is made up of two words Ashva and Gandha. Ashva means horse and Gandha represent smell. So Ashwagandha means the smell of a horse. Thus, it gives you stamina and strength like a stud. Other benefits of Ashwagandha in Ayurvedic medicine are:

  • Stabilization of mood
  • Rejuvenate brain cells
  • Memory support
  • Stabilize blood sugar
  • Immune support
  • Fight stress


It is an excellent brain tonic in Ayurveda. The word Brahmi has a lot of sense in Sanskrit. She is considered the goddess of creative potential. Offers support for your mind’s ability to remember and learn. Brahmi is light, oily, and bitter in nature. It is a delightful rejuvenator for the immune system, the attention, and the nervous system.

Separately from these two herbs, the repetition of Abhyanga is also beneficial. It is generally practiced before bathing. You have to massage your joints, arms, etc. with oil for quick benefits. You can choose to brush your skin dry. After you finish dry brushing from head to toe, apply some warm oil to your body to nurture the intention.

Causes of neurological problems

  • Inflammation of the nerves
  • Interrupted nerve impulse due to accumulation of toxins
  • Nerve injury
  • A layer of damaged nerves
  • Neurotransmitter alteration
  • Invasion of malignant tumors in nerve cells
  • A pinched or compressed nerve

Symptoms of neurological problems

Sensory symptoms:

  • Tingling sensation
  • Burning,
  • Itching and numbness
  • Decreased vision
  • Temporary loss of smell
  • Hearing loss
  • Loss of taste and touch

Motor symptoms:

  • Poor coordination
  • Muscle loss
  • Muscular weakness
  • Paralysis

In Ayurvedic treatment for nervous weakness, multiple methods are used to keep your nervous system healthy. Ayurvedic herbal remedy has no side effects on the whole body.

The method includes Ayurvedic therapies, natural herbs, a healthy diet, yoga, and exercise.

Healthy diet and lifestyle

Diet and lifestyle modifications are essential to strengthen your nerves. A healthy or well-balanced nutritious diet plays an integral role in Ayurvedic treatment for nervous weakness. Some foods are recommended to improve the nervous system.


Eat leafy greens: Leafy greens contain high amounts of B complex, vitamin C, vitamin E, and magnesium. These nutrients strengthen your nerves and improve the functions of your nervous system.

Broccoli and Avocado: Add broccoli and avocado to your diet because it is rich in vitamin K. Vitamin K improves cognitive abilities and strengthens the brain’s nervous system. It prevents the alteration of neurotransmitters.

Almonds, walnuts, and pumpkin seeds: These three ingredients contain essential nutrients like omega-3, zinc, copper, magnesium, iron, and vitamin E. This prevents nerve weakness disorders.


  • Avoid drinking alcohol and smoking
  • Get enough rest and sleep every day
  • Training some yoga asanas and deep breathing exercises (pranayama) regularly
  • Avoid non-vegetarian foods because they release harmful toxins in the body
  • Avoid eating street food, junk food, oily, and high in fat

Natural herbs

  • Several herbs are useful for treating problems related to the nervous system.|
  • Ashwagandha and inflammation: Ashwagandha is an anti-inflammatory agent. Ashwagandha is one of the essential herbs used in Ayurvedic treatment for nervous weakness. Reduces pain and inflammation of the nerves. Reduces stress and anxiety.
  • Cranberry Leaves: This herb is mainly used to treat cell damage, improve blood circulation and diarrhea, etc. in the case of nervous system problems, it improves cognitive abilities, improves vision, and reduces inflammation of the nerves.
  • Dandelion Roots and Leaves: Dandelions are rich in antioxidants and have inflammatory properties. It prevents the accumulation of toxins in the nerves and reduces inflammation.

About Homeopathic treatment for Neurology disorders | Neurology

What are neurological disorders?

Neurological disorders or neurological ailments are certain conditions or problems of the brain, spine, and nerves along with disorders associated with the central nervous system in general. Neurological ailments can become extremely severe at times, which can result in creating serious problems for affected individuals. To know the names of the most common neurological disorders or ailments, read carefully.

  • Alzheimer disease
  • Brain tumor
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Concussion
  • Dementia
  • Disc disease of the lower back or neck
  • Epilepsy
  • Migraine
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Neuralgia
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Psychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, severe depression
  • Convulsions
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Career
  • neurological ailments

The homeopathic treatment of diverse types of neurological ailments aims to provide a deeper cure so that pretentious individuals can lead as normal a life as possible. This is exactly what homeopathy does so that people affected by neurological disorders can effectively manage symptoms.

Causes of Neurological Ailments

The brain and spinal cord are protected with various membranes that are insulating in nature. Now, these membranes are vulnerable to both pressure and force. Peripheral nerves are those that are quite deep under the skin and are also vulnerable to damage. Therefore, any damage to these membranes, nerves, brain, or spinal cord can result in a neurological disorder. These ailments can result in affecting the entire neurological pathway or just a single neuron. Only a very small alteration in the structural pathway of the neuron can result in its malfunction. Some of the important causes of neurological diseases are as follows:

  • Causes related to the individual’s lifestyle
  • Various types of infections can cause neurological ailments
  • Genetics plays a vital role in causing these neurological ailments
  • Some nutrition-related conditions, such as deficiency of a vital nutrient, vitamin, etc., can lead to a neurological disorder
  • External factors and environmental conditions or influences also contribute to neurological ailments
  • Physical injuries can lead to numerous neurological disorders

Homeopathic treatment

Homeopathy designs a suitable and effective treatment plan for the treatment of people affected by any neurological disorder or ailment so that both positive and satisfactory results are obtained. Certain homeopathic medicines used for the treatment of different types of neurological ailments are the ones mentioned below:

  • Causticum is an extremely effective solution for multiple sclerosis and is also useful in chronic paralytic infections
  • Gelsemium is the best homeopathic medicine for motor paralysis which acts quickly on the nervous system when there are tremors, dizziness, drowsiness, and so on.
  • Oxalic acid is a very effective medicine for cerebral and posterior sclerosis of the spine along with shooting or spasmodic pains in different parts of the body.
  • Phosphorus acts as a great remedy for atrophy as well as for softening the brain or spinal cord.
  • Kalium bromatum is indicated for neurological ailments that arise from extremely serious situations.
  • Aconite is used for ailments that arise from some sudden shock.
General Topics

Overview of Heart Failure in Children | Cardiology

What is heart failure in children?

The most common cause of heart failure in children is congestive heart failure, in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body’s organs. The heart continues to pump, but not as efficiently as a healthy heart. In general, heart failure reflects a progressive underlying heart condition.

For a child to grow and develop, the heart needs to maintain a normal pumping function, providing adequate blood flow throughout the body. However, sometimes a child’s heart may not function normally. The term “cardiac arrest” describes a dysfunctional heart. This does not mean that the heart has stopped working, but that it is not working.

Heart failure in children is caused by smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and faulty heart valves. It can occur in newborns, young children, young children, and adolescents for other reasons. Because heart failure has different causes and outcomes, it is important to identify how it is diagnosed, treated, and cured in young children.

How is heart failure in children identified?

Heart failure in children is often accompanied by shortness of breath, poor diet, poor growth, excessive sweating, or low blood pressure. Sometimes heart failure can be similar to other problems, such as colic, pneumonia, or other respiratory infections.

Parents often notice that it takes a long time to feed the baby or that they are not interested in feeding after a short time. If the heartbeat is caused by a very fast heartbeat, parents may experience a rapid heartbeat through the chest wall while the baby is sleeping or resting peacefully.

Older children and teens can quickly complain of fatigue, especially if the virus infection damages the heart muscle.

Causes of heart failure in children

Heart failure is more common in children with certain congenital heart defects (congenital heart defects). These include defects like holes in the heart, which increase blood flow from one side of the heart to the other. It alters the dynamics of blood flow and weakens one side of the heart. The heart then becomes unable to support blood flow, resulting in further deterioration of heart function.

Other types of heart problems, such as cardiomyopathy, can also cause heart failure, a condition that affects the pumping function of the heart. Some non-heart problems, such as kidney failure, are caused by changes in the body’s fluid balance or hormonal changes that lead to high blood pressure.

Risk factors for heart failure in children

  • Smoking
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • The high blood level of cholesterol
  • Physical inactivity
  • Obesity
  • Family history of early-onset heart disease

Symptoms of heart failure in children

Symptoms are slightly different for each child. They can include:

  • Swelling of the feet, ankles, calves, abdomen, liver, and cervix (edema)
  • Difficulty breathing, especially with rapid breathing, shortness of breath, or excessive coughing
  • Poor diet and weight gain (in babies)
  • Feeling tired
  • Excessive sweating when eating, playing, or exercising
  • Irritated

Older children may also have:

  • Weight loss
  • Passing out
  • Chest pain

The severity of the symptoms depends on how much the heart’s pumping ability is affected.

The symptoms of heart failure are similar to those of other conditions. See your child’s healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

Diagnosis of heart failure in children

Your child’s doctor will obtain a complete medical history and physical exam by asking questions about your child’s appetite, breathing patterns, and energy level. Other diagnostic procedures for heart failure may include:

  • Blood and urine tests
  • Chest X-ray: A diagnostic test that uses invisible X-rays to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): A test that records the electrical activity of the heart shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmia or dysrhythmia) and can detect problems with the heart muscle.
  • Echocardiogram (echo): A noninvasive test that uses sound waves to study the movement of the heart’s chambers and valves. The echo sound waves create an image on the monitor when the ultrasound transducer passes over the heart.
  • Cardiac catheterization (cath): Assault test that inserts a small catheter into the heart from the groin or arm. It allows the different pressures within the heart to be measured to help detect heart failure. Also, a heart tissue biopsy can be obtained to determine the root cause of heart failure.

Treatment for heart failure in children

Treatment of heart failure in children depends on the cause of the problem. Most heart defects resolve on their own over time, and some can resolve with medication. Sometimes surgery or other procedures may be necessary. In some cases, your child may need a combination of therapies.   


For some heart problems, children can take medicine after they get better. Medicines sometimes need to be taken for many years or even the child’s entire life.


Heart surgery can provide a lifelong cure for certain heart conditions. The cardiac surgeon will discuss the risks and benefits with you in detail. Sometimes surgery can be delayed until your child is older and stronger, which means they will be able to tolerate the surgery better. Depending on the condition of your child, multiple operations may be required.

In very rare cases where surgery, procedures, or medications do not help, children may need a heart transplant.

Other procedures

Some procedures involve placing a narrow tube called a catheter into the heart through a vein to treat a heart defect. Your child will be given general anesthesia for this procedure.


All results depend on the cause. If the bleeding is constant due to a structural problem of the heart, the result is excellent.

Children with large ventricular septal defects, whose pores are small or surgically closed, can lead normal lives. Children with more complicated congenital heart disease may have more variable outcomes.

Older children with cardiomyopathy can progress if the cause of the cardiomyopathy is not reversible. The key to managing heart failure is making a proper diagnosis, staying in contact with a cardiologist, and taking prescribed medications daily.

General Topics

Common Neurological Problems in Children | Neurology

What are neurological problems in children?

The brain is one of the most important and delicate organs in the human body. Neurological problems in children are those caused by dysfunction of the brain or nervous system and result in psychological or physical symptoms depending on the area of the brain involved, leading to disorders.

The human brain begins to develop when the child is in the womb and continues through childhood through adolescence. Brain cells are formed mainly before birth, although nerve connections do not develop until later. Neurological disorders have a wide spectrum and can have a variety of causes, complications, symptoms, and outcomes. All neurological conditions involve the nervous system that comprises the brain and spinal column. The nervous system panels everything in the human body, including movement, vision, and hearing. Symptoms and results depend on the area of the brain that has been damaged.

These conditions can affect people of all age groups; however, few neurological conditions present only during the early years of development. They can manifest as birth defects or, in some cases, symptoms are diagnosed only during the child’s later years. Most of these neurological signs and symptoms are found when a child misses a developmental milestone or has a brain injury or infection. Brain-related complaints, such as headaches, are sometimes temporary and are often ignored. However, symptoms like constant dizziness or weakness that appear unexpectedly without any explanation or cause can be indications of neurological conditions.

Symptoms of neurological problems in children

Some common symptoms of pediatric neurological disorders are:

  • Partial or complete paralysis
  • Muscular weakness
  • Partial or total loss of sensation
  • Convulsions
  • Difficulty reading and writing
  • Poor cognitive abilities
  • Pain
  • Decreased alertness

Effects of neurological problems in children

Neurological disorders in children can occur for many reasons and can have a wide range of effects on the baby and her family. Autism, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, brain injuries, and headaches are some of the common neurological disorders in childhood.


Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that refers to impaired social interaction, impaired communication skills along a repetitive pattern of behavior.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

It is a common neurological disorder that makes it difficult for a child to be attentive and unable to control impulses.


This is a condition that makes it difficult for children to coordinate physical movements.


It refers to the learning disability in children and they find it difficult to read, write, etc.

Cerebral palsy

This is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a child’s motor skills and is caused by brain damage that occurs before or during birth. It usually occurs during pregnancy when the fetus does not grow properly or develops brain damage. Proper treatment and therapies can help improve the condition.

Causes of neurological problems in children

Many neurological disorders are “congenital,” meaning they were present at birth. But some of the disorders are “acquired,” which means they developed after birth. Those with an unknown cause are called “idiopathic.”

  • Congenital Causes (present at birth)
  • Pre/perinatal Causes
  • Acquired Causes (developed after birth)

Types of neurological problems in children

There are many nervous system disorders here that require clinical attention from a physician or other healthcare professional. A few are listed in the following directory, for which we have provided a brief overview.

  • Acute spinal cord injury
  • Alzheimer disease
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • Ataxia
  • Bell’s palsy
  • Brain tumors
  • Brain aneurysm
  • Epilepsy and seizures
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome
  • Headache
  • Head injury
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Lumbar disc disease (herniated disc)
  • Meningitis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Neurocutaneous syndromes
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Stroke (brain attack)
  • Cluster headaches
  • Tension headaches
  • Migraines
  • How a migraine occurs
  • Diagnosis and treatment of migraines
  • Encephalitis
  • Septicemia
  • Types of muscular dystrophy and neuromuscular diseases
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Stroke overview
  • Risk factors for stroke
  • Types of stroke
  • Effects of stroke
  • Stroke rehabilitation

Treatment for neurological disorder in children

Neurological problems in children refer to the condition that affects the brain and nervous system. In other words, it is caused by dysfunction in a part of the brain or nervous system. Disorders involve the brain, spine, or nerves, and symptoms depend on the site of damage and vary accordingly. Physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms may occur that affect control movement, communication, vision, hearing, or thinking, etc.

Neurological problems in children generally occur in the early years of development and can be diagnosed at birth. The disorder can occur as birth defects or during a child’s later years. Symptoms of neurological disorders in children appear for the following reasons:

  • Development problems
  • Harmful infection
  • Brain damage
General Topics

About Nervous System Disorders in Children | Neurology

What are nervous system disorders in children?

The nervous system disorders in children control everything in the human body that we do, including breathing, walking, thinking, and feeling. This system is made up of our brain, spinal cord, and all the nerves of our body, and It may consist of two major parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

The central nervous system: Which consists of the brain and spinal cord, is known as the central nervous system  

Peripheral nervous system: The peripheral nervous system is made up of nerves that separate from the spinal cord and extend to all parts of the body.

Principal organs of the nervous system disorders in children, In addition to the brain and spinal cord, include the following:

  • Eyes
  • Ears
  • Sensory organs of taste
  • Sensory organs of smell
  • Main causes of nervous system disorders

The nervous system is unprotected to various disorders and can be damaged by the following:

  • Trauma
  • Infections
  • Degeneration
  • Structural defects
  • Tumors
  • Blood flow disruption
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Inborn genetic or metabolic problems
  • Toxic exposures or direct effects of drug exposures

Nervous system disorders in children are mentioned in the following:

Major common symptoms of nervous system disorders in children. However, Every child may experience different symptoms and disorders which will cause different symptoms to occur. Symptoms may include:

  • Delays in developmental milestones
  • Increase or lack of growth in head size
  • Changes in activity, reflexes, or movements
  • Lack of coordination
  • Changes in the level of consciousness or mood
  • Muscle rigidity, tremors, or seizures
  • Muscle wasting and slurred speech

The symptoms of nervous system disorders in children may resemble medical problems. Always consult your child’s doctor for a diagnosis.

Delays in developmental milestones

Children reach developmental milestones at their own pace, while others move faster than others. Two siblings from the same family can reach milestones at different speeds.

Short, temporary delays are not usually the cause of an alarm, but a continuous delay or multiple delays in reaching milestones can be a sign that later life may be challenging.

The delay in reaching milestones in language, thinking, social, or motor skills is called developmental delay.

Developmental delay can occur for a variety of reasons, including heredity, complications during pregnancy, and preterm delivery. The cause is not always known.

If you suspect that your child may have a developmental delay, talk to your pediatrician. Developmental delay sometimes refers to an underlying condition that can only be diagnosed by a doctor.

Once you are diagnosed, you can plan early treatments or other interventions to help your child progress and become an adult.

Increase or lack of growth in head size

The increase in head size can be any of the following:

  • Benign familial macrocephaly (family orientation toward a large head size)
  • Canavan disease (a condition that affects the body’s breakdown and how it uses a protein called aspartic acid)
  • Hydrocephalus (fluid formation inside the skull that causes swelling of the brain)
  • Bleeding inside the skull
  • A disease in which the body cannot break down long chains of sugar molecules (Harler or Morquio syndrome)

Changes in activity, reflexes, or movements

Most reactions involve multiple synapses on the reflex arc. The stretch reflex is abnormal, with no internal neuron in the arch, with a single synapse between the associated nerve fiber and motor neurons (see movement below: regulation of muscle contraction). The flexor reflex, which removes an organ from a damaging stimulus, contains at least two interneurons and three synapses.

There are also long-term changes in reflexes that can be observed in experimental spinal cord transfers in cats. Repeated stimulation of the skin below the level of the lesion, such as rubbing the same area for 20 minutes every day, causes a change in the delay of some reflexes (interval between the start of the stimulus and the start of the response), a decrease and eventual disappearance of the response. This procedure takes several weeks and, with daily stimulation, shows that one reflex response can be changed to another. Repetitive activation of synapses increases their effectiveness, causing a permanent change. When this repetitive stimulus stops, synaptic functions regress and reflex responses return to their original form.

Lack of coordination

Coordination disorder (one of the main nervous system disorders in children) is an impairment of motor skills characterized by a coordinated movement that affects gait, speech, the ability to swallow, eye movements, and other generally voluntary movements. The medical term for this condition is ataxia.

When you abuse drugs, the medications can affect your motor function and affect your daily life. Each movement you perform involves the use of a specific group of muscles. The cerebellum is the cardinal part of the brain that controls these muscle groups. Coordination error occurs when communication between the brain and other parts of the body is disrupted.

Changes in the level of consciousness or mood

Our level of consciousness, or level of awareness of our surroundings, affects our mental functioning in various ways. For simplicity, there are two categories of consciousness: normal waking consciousness (NWC) and altered state consciousness (ASC). ASC is the spectrum of sleep, coma, drugs/alcohol, or meditation. In the case of drugs/alcohol and meditation, ASC can be started intentionally or it can occur without awareness, such as daydreaming, memory, coma, or sleep. A condition of severely altered consciousness but with few signs of self-awareness or awareness of the environment. Consciousness is subject to fluctuations in degree and consistency, but it can reproduce. Different forms of minimal consciousness are defined:

Minimal awareness is characterized by linguistically mediated behavior, such as more order-following, verbalization.

Emerges from the minimal state of consciousness to the use of functional objects and functional communication.

Specific behaviors of the minimum state of consciousness: localization to pain stimuli, non-reflective movement patterns, stabilization and search for visual stimuli, intelligent vocalization, inconsistent following of orders, yes / unreliable responses, and some inconsistent manipulation of objects. Minimally conscious is sometimes an intermittent state between coma and full consciousness.

Muscle rigidity, tremors, or seizures

Myoclonic seizures are characterized by brief, spasmodic spasms of a muscle or group of muscles. They often occur with atonic seizures, which cause sudden muscle weakness. Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic seizures (SMA-PME) is a neurological condition that causes a combination of muscle weakness and atrophy (atrophy) and uncontrolled muscle seizures and spasms (myoclonic seizures). Vibration is the sudden and uncontrolled rhythmic movement of a part or part of your body. Vibration can occur in any part of the body, at any time. It is usually the result of a problem controlling the movement of the brain muscles.

Tremors are not always serious, but in some cases, they can indicate a serious disorder. Most tremors are not easily treated, but they often go away on their own.

Muscle wasting and slurred speech

Muscle atrophy, also known as muscle atrophy, is a loss of muscle tissue due to reduced mobility or an underlying disease. Many neuromuscular and chronic inflammatory diseases are closely associated with muscle weakness, skeletal muscle wasting, and muscle fatigue. Depending on the root cause, muscle wasting can partially or completely waste it.

Symptoms of muscle atrophy:

Muscle atrophy reduces the basic strength needed to perform daily activities. Common symptoms associated with muscle atrophy are:

  • Loss of muscle coordination
  • Weakness or numbness in the limbs
  • Weak balance when running
  • The weakness of the extremities
  • The general feeling of fatigue and illness
  • Progressive weakness
  • Facial weakness
  • Little by little she loses her memory

Treatment of muscle atrophy depends on the root cause of muscle damage and the condition. Muscle waste treatment options:

Physical therapy: The physical therapist teaches some exercises that facilitate the movement of the arms and legs.

Ultrasound therapy: Sound waves are used to treat chronic pain conditions, improve muscle circulation, and promote tissue healing.

Surgery: The doctor will perform surgery if any contraction (stiffness or contraction of the connective tissue) causes the deformity to cause muscle atrophy.

Departments to consult for this condition

  • Department of Neurology

Overview of Cardiac Surgeon | Cardiology

What is a cardiac surgeon?

A cardiac surgeon is also known as a cardiothoracic surgeon or cardiovascular surgeon. The cardiac surgeon is a doctor who specializes in surgical procedures on the heart, lungs, esophagus, and other organs of the chest. This includes surgeons called cardiac surgeons, cardiovascular surgeons, general thoracic surgeons, and congenital cardiac surgeons.

Cardiac surgery is the specialty of medicine for the surgical treatment of pathologies of the heart and thoracic aorta. The spectrum of modern heart surgery can be understood through its late 19th-century history. Since then, cardiac surgery has evolved thanks to the work of many dedicated cardiac surgeons offering even more treatments for different heart conditions. This development continues to this day.

Most of the time, the diagnosis of heart disease begins with your primary care physician, who will refer you to a cardiologist. If your cardiologist decides that you need surgery, he or she will refer you to a heart surgeon who will be a new member of your heart health team.

What does a cardiac surgeon do?

Cardiac surgeons play an important role in the health care team. They work on diseases that occur in the organs within the chest and in the skeletal structures and tissues that make up the chest cavity.

The diagnosis of heart disease begins with the patient’s primary care physician, who then refers the patient to a cardiologist. If your cardiologist decides that you need surgery, he or she will refer you to a cardiothoracic surgeon who will be a new member of your heart health team.

Cardiac surgeons work on diseases that occur in the organs within the chest and in the skeletal structures and tissues that make up the chest cavity.

Difference between a cardiologist and cardiac surgeons

The cardiologist has completed a residency in internal medicine and a fellowship in cardiology. They specialize in the medical or endovascular treatment of heart problems. The cardiac surgeons have completed the general surgical residency and the cardiothoracic fellowship. They specialize in the surgical treatment of cardiac and pulmonary cysts and other intrathoracic problems.

The cardiologist generally evaluates patients with heart problems, manages heart failure, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and can perform echocardiography and endovascular work such as cardiac catheterization and stenting.

The cardiac surgeons remove lungs and other intrathoracic tumors, replace or repair heart valves, and perform other intrathoracic surgical procedures, including bypass grafts and aneurysm repair.

Types of cardiac surgeries

Common types of cardiac surgeries are:

  • Catheter ablation: This procedure uses radio waves or coagulation to silence an abnormal area of ​​the cardiovascular system. The abnormal area is often found during the electrophysiology study. This procedure breaks the problematic electrical circuit that causes an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).
  • Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG): In CABG, the most common heart surgery, the surgeon takes a healthy artery or vein from other parts of the body and connects it to supply blood past the blocked coronary artery. The grafted artery or vein bypasses the blocked part of the coronary artery, creating a new path for blood to flow to the heart muscle. This often happens in more than one coronary artery during a single surgery. CABG is sometimes called heart bypass surgery or coronary artery bypass surgery.
  • Heart transplant: A surgical option to treat advanced heart failure, a condition that occurs when the heart cannot pump enough oxygenated blood to meet the needs of the body’s organs.
  • Heart valve replacement: Heart valve surgery and procedures are performed to repair or replace a heart valve that is not working properly due to valvular heart disease (also known as heart valve disease). Heart valve surgery is open-heart surgery in the chest, through the breastbone. It is a major operation that takes two hours or more and can take several weeks to recover. There are newer and less invasive procedures suitable for certain types of heart valve disease, but they are only performed in a few hospitals.
  • Insertion of a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD): Pacemakers and implantable cardiovascular defibrillators (ICD) are small devices that feed the heart through thin, flexible wires called leads. They are placed under the skin, under the collarbone. In most cases, we can place the devices on a patient with minimally invasive techniques (overnight or overnight).
  • Congenital heart surgery: Corrective surgery to correct or treat a genetic heart defect.
  • Valve surgery: Heart valve surgery is open-heart surgery to replace or repair one of the four heart valves. Heart valves regulate one-way blood flow through the four chambers of your heart. Think of them as doors that open and close to allow blood to pass through.
  • Mycctomy/myotomy: This is an operation that surgically removes a thickened wall of the heart. It is used when medications can no longer control the symptoms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

The procedure of cardiac surgeon

Special tubes with a deflated balloon attached to the coronary arteries are threaded. The balloon is inflated to expand blocked areas where blood flow to the heart muscle is reduced or cut off. Often combined with the placement of a stent (see below), it helps open the artery and reduces the chance of another blockage. The body is considered less aggressive because it is not kept open. It ranges from 30 minutes to several hours. You need to stay in the hospital overnight.

Reasons for the procedure are:

  • Hugely increases blood flow through the blocked artery.
  • Decreases chest pain (angina).
  • Increases the strength of physical activity that has been restricted by angina or ischemia.
  • It can also be used to open the jugular and cerebral arteries to prevent stroke.

Future of cardiac surgeon

The future of cardiac surgery will have the potential to improve surgical techniques, innovate treatments, and diversify practice. However, personal development and education often stop slowly or completely after completing the training due to the reluctance of some experienced students to learn new techniques.

Cardiac surgeons must challenge this archetype by enhancing cardiac surgical residency through training methods and expanding clinical skill sets in open, minimally invasive, and percutaneous techniques, simulation training, and recruiting the best and brightest young practitioners. Cardiac surgeons must retrain, stay on the cutting edge of technological advancements, actively participate in future research, and continue to thrive in the ever-changing field of cardiac surgeons.


An Introduction to Neuropalliative Care | Neurology

What is neuropalliative care?

Neuropalliative care helps children with serious medical conditions. Caregiving can help families set goals and make treatment decisions for children.

Palliative medicine, by definition, describes medical care that focuses on relieving symptoms, discomfort, or stress caused by a serious illness. Traditionally, this has meant supporting children with cancer. It is also estimated that almost half of the children who can benefit from palliative care services live with neurological, degenerative, or genetic conditions.

Neuropalliative care is designed to meet the ongoing needs of children with chronic neurodevelopmental deficiencies such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular dystrophy, and spina bifida. Neuropathic care does not mean life-long care or palliative care; Ultimately, it improves the child’s enjoyment of life and spends more time with the family.

Neuropalliative care is an important resource for patients and families confronting severe brain injury. Although many clinicians equate brain injury with certain death or futility, survivors have substantial needs that might be met by palliative care expertise. This chapter suggests that the boundaries of palliative medicine include those with severe brain injury, most notably those in the minimally conscious state and that with this nosological expansion practitioners of palliative care reflect carefully on often nihilistic attitudes directed towards patients with disorders of consciousness. This chapter establishes how to better meet the needs of these patients and their surrogates, reviewing definitional criteria for the vegetative and minimally conscious states, highlighting advances in diagnostic and therapeutic interventions (such as neuroimaging, drugs, and deep brain stimulation), and considering what neuroprosthetic devices tell us of the capacity of patients to experience-and functionally communicate-pain, distress, and suffering.

Support for neuropalliative care

Many of our patients with neurological disorders experience chronic, life-changing conditions due to their diagnosis.

Neuropathic care focuses on the physical and psychological management of neurological conditions, supporting family, friends, and caregivers affected by the patient’s diagnosis and prognosis.

Patients affected by the following conditions can benefit from assisted care:

  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • Huntington’s disease
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Muscular dystrophies
  • Parkinson’s disease (PD)

Our care for Neuropalliative care

We work with your current providers to create a roadmap for your care. Starting conversations early in managing your illness can prepare you and your loved ones well for the road ahead.

Our program includes the following:

  • Physical, mental, and cognitive problems, including memory, pain, and anxiety
  • Counseling for spiritual, social, and psychological problems related to your illness
  • Transitions in Future Planning and Care: End-of-Life Options, Advance Instructions, and Palliative Care
  • Access to social resources
  • Communication between caregivers and patients
  • Caregiver support and rest 

Conditions Neuropalliative care treatment

Neuropalliative care consultations are useful for children or adolescents:

  • Experiences that cause physical symptoms, such as recurring pain, shortness of breath, or trouble eating
  • You have new or chronic health problems that require long-term maintenance
  • Shows signs of deteriorating health
  • We are faced with important care decisions in months or years
  • They were hospitalized for a long time with no clear discharge goals
  • Experience multiple hospitals in six months
  • You live with a life-limiting condition or have been recently diagnosed
  • Have concerns related to physical, spiritual, or emotional needs
  • Palliative care can help families develop strategies to address medical crises, illnesses, and interventions