Information About Vascular Surgeons | Cardiology

What do vascular surgeons do?

Vascular surgeons are highly trained specialists in the treatment of diseases of the vascular system. Your blood vessels, the cells that carry oxygen-rich blood, and the veins that carry blood back to your heart, are the pathways of your circulatory system. Without blood flowing smoothly, your body will not function. Conditions such as hardening of the arteries can create “traffic jams” in your circulatory system, blocking blood flow to any part of the body.

Some vascular surgeons specialize in one or two types of vascular interventions, so their patients receive these treatments. Vascular surgeons are trained in everything: open and complex surgery and minimally invasive endovascular procedures. Some patients need one, others need another, and most do not need surgery. Vascular surgeons are “treatment agnostic,” meaning they prefer no treatment to another. Patients can be assured that they will receive the best treatment for their particular needs.

Some types of surgeons come into your life to perform a procedure, make sure you are healed, and then leave; That is their role. The avascular surgeon can be someone who treats you continuously for decades. The vascular surgeon often has long-term relationships with patients because the vascular disease is a chronic disease. If you have vascular disease, you can trust a vascular surgeon to take care of your chronic health and consider all of your options.

When should you see a vascular surgeon?

Typically, patients are referred to a vascular surgeon by their primary care physician. Sometimes patients are presented to a vascular surgeon after an unexpected hospitalization. You may be referred to a vascular surgeon if you see your regular doctor for leg pain and find out, for example, if you have the peripheral arterial disease. If you are in a high-risk category: smoker, diabetic, and/or hypertensive, you may be a candidate to start a relationship with a vascular surgeon.

Diagnosis of vascular disease

To make a diagnosis, your vascular surgeon will begin by talking with you about your medical history, lifestyle, and symptoms and doing a physical exam. If necessary, your surgeon may order additional tests, including:

Ankle-brachial index: This is used to check the severity of PAD. During this test, blood pressure is measured in both hands and ankles, which are then compared.

Ultrasound: Ultrasound can be used to diagnose many conditions. This test uses sound waves to create images of your blood vessels and is commonly used to diagnose aneurysms, carotid artery disease, and varicose veins.

What do vascular surgeons treat?

The arteries carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Atherosclerosis means that these vessels are narrow and blocked by fatty cholesterol deposits. Like vessels, narrow limbs cause limb pain when exercising. A patient with a narrow leg artery will have pain in the calf when walking. This is called intermittent claudication.

As these contractions intensify, pain can occur during rest. Lastly, if an artery is completely blocked, the part of the body that supplies that artery can be irreversibly damaged. If it happens to an organ, it is pale, pulseless, cold, numb, and frozen.

Vascular surgeons specialize in this limited treatment:

Aneurysms: Some blood vessels, especially arteries, swell and pop like a balloon. These localized arterial bulges are called aneurysms.

Venous disease: Veins carry blood from the arteries back to the heart.

Vein problems are inflamed: Varicose veins and vascular surgeons work to repair or remove these abnormal veins.

Leg ulcer: Leg ulcers are often associated with poor blood supply. They can become infected and require surgical treatment. Again, vascular surgeons specialize in this.

  • Circulation conditions
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • Hamburger disease
  • Carotid artery disease
  • Critical limb ischemia
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Peripheral vascular disease
  • Raynaud’s phenomenon
  • Renovascular hypertension
  • Varicose veins
  • Vascular dysfunction

The procedures are performed by vascular surgeons:

Angioplasty: This involves unblocking a narrow or blocked blood vessel. Usually, a wire passes through a narrow passage in the artery. A small deflated balloon is screwed into the narrowest space in the cable. Inflates when in a narrow section, which opens the container.

Stent placement: He goes into a very tight space, except to place a small wire cage on the balloon. As the balloon inflates, it expands the cylindrical wire cage and keeps the container open after the balloon is deflected and removed.

Embolectomy: This involves removing the clot from the blood vessels. It is usually an open surgical technique.

Bypass operation: Surgical bypass often occurs when a vessel becomes irreversibly narrowed or blocked. A new section of the vessel (often a vein or other artery) attaches to the narrow side of the original vessel and literally bypasses the blockage.


Information About Invasive Cardiologist | Cardiology

What is an invasive cardiologist?

An invasive cardiologist (also known as an interventional cardiologist) is a minimally invasive procedure to identify abnormalities of the human heart. Invasive cardiology processes are generally minor surgeries that require penetrating the patient’s skin for treatment. It uses open or slightly invasive surgery to identify or treat structural or electrical abnormalities within the structure of the heart.

Invasive cardiologists do a variety of slightly invasive procedures to diagnose and treat cardiovascular disease.

Education and training of Invasive cardiologists

Invasive cardiologists are physicians who have been specifically trained in the tools and techniques to diagnose or treat cardiovascular disease or defects. Like most doctors, these doctors usually go through medical school first. After completing medical school, they will spend an additional seven to eight years of training to specialize in invasive cardiology. They will also need to complete a certification in internal medicine if they ultimately want to become board certified as a cardiologist.

This process involves completing:

  • An average of four years in medical school
  • A three-year residency in internal medicine or pediatrics if you wish to specialize in working with children
  • A three-year communion in cardiology where they work with physicians and gain additional unconventional training in cardiology, prevention, diagnosis, and patient care
  • A one to two-year invasive (interventional) cardiology fellowship for additional specialized training

What does an invasive cardiologist do?

Invasive cardiologists are a subspecialty of cardiology like interventional cardiologists. Invasive cardiologists are qualified to diagnose and treat conditions such as coronary artery disease, vascular disease, acquired structural heart disease, congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, and congenital heart disease.

To understand your overall heart health and any problems, the invasive cardiologist will appraisal your medical records, medical history, and symptoms. Tests such as X-rays, blood tests, or electrocardiogram (ECG) may be done if these tests have not already been done before your visit. These types of tests help determine the problem.

Additionally, an invasive cardiologist is capable to perform minimally invasive tests to further identify or treat structural or electrical abnormalities in the structure of the heart or arteries that other cardiologists may not be talented to perform. Performing these minimally invasive tests helps the invasive cardiologist to properly diagnose and treat his patients. Invasive cardiologists must be prepared to respond to emergencies immediately, as their services may be needed quickly to prevent a patient from having a heart attack.

Common types of invasive cardiology

Angioplasty: When plaque clogs arteries, it is difficult for blood to flow normally. Angioplasty inserts a small balloon into the blocked vein and pushes the plate against the walls, allowing more blood flow.

Stent placement: The placement of a stent is usually performed in conjunction with angioplasty. A cardiac stent is a small metal coil that permanently holds a blocked vein open.

Cardiac catheterization: In a cardiac catheterization procedure, a cardiologist guides a catheter (a catheter is a thin, medical-grade tube used for a wide range of functions in the medical field) into the heart to complete diagnostic tests and perform diagnostic procedures. treatment as follows.

  • Balloon angioplasty: The cardiologist guides a catheter with a small balloon at the tip to the affected artery. The plaque is pushed against the artery wall by inflating the balloon against it, which helps to restore blood flow in the artery.
  • Catheter ablation: Here, a catheter delivers radiofrequency energy (it is comparable to microwave energy) to eradicate a small part of the heart tissue that is causing a fast and irregular heartbeat. Ending this tissue helps heal your heart’s steady rhythm. This procedure solves the problem that originates in the pulmonary veins.
  • Coronary stents: A catheter is used to inject a small, mesh-shaped metal tube into the area of the constricted coronary artery. Medications can also be delivered to the heart through stents which can reduce the risk of blocked arteries.

Electrophysiology studies: Using an electrode-tipped catheter, a cardiologist measures the heart’s electrical impulses, identifies the precise location of the injured heart muscle, and delivers small electrical impulses to affect heart rhythm problems to learn more about them.

Electrical cardioversion procedure: Using a low-voltage electrical current that is delivered to the chest via patches or paddles, a cardiologist can restore the heart rate to an average rate. The procedure is used in conjunction with a short-acting anesthetic.

Integrated devices: Modern cardiologists use several small battery-powered devices that can be implanted close to the heart to treat complex heart rhythm disorders. Some of the tools that are used are:

  • Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD): ICDs constantly monitor the heart rhythm and deliver an electrical current to regulate it when abnormalities are detected. The device calibrates the current to react differently when slowing down is required or when defibrillation is required to restore the heart rhythm to a stable rhythm.
  • Implantable pacemakers: These pacemakers help keep the heart from dropping below the recommended pulse. Pacemakers also include heart rate sensors that can track and stabilize the pulse as needed.

Additionally, the invasive approach is performed to treat

  • Coronary artery bypass surgery
  • Coronary angiography
  • Electrophysiology studies
  • Arrhythmia ablation
  • Valve replacement surgery right heart catheterization permanent pacemaker insertion
  • Implantable automatic (Acid), Cardiac defibrillators, and More

Symptoms, Causes and Risks of Heart attack | Cardiology

What is a heart attack?

Heart attack means the death of a part of the heart muscle due to loss of blood supply. Blood is usually cut off when a blood clot blocks the artery that supplies the heart muscle. When part of the heart muscle dies, a person experiences chest pain and electrical instability of the heart muscle tissue.

Other names

  • Myocardial infarction (MI)
  • Acute myocardial infarction (AMI)
  • Acute coronary syndrome
  • Coronary thrombosis
  • Coronary occlusion

Signs, symptoms, and Complications

If you experience these heart attack warning signs do not wait to get help. Some heart attacks are sudden and severe. Take care of your body and call a physician if you experience it.

Chest discomfort: Most heart attacks have discomfort in the middle of the chest for more than a few minutes, or it may go away and come back. It can feel like uncomfortable stress, squeezing, fullness, or pain.

Discomfort in other parts of the body: Symptoms include pain or discomfort in one or both arms, back, neck, jaw, or abdomen.

Shortness of breath: It occurs with or without chest discomfort.

Other signs: There are other signs such as cold sweats, nausea, or a mild headache.

Damage to the heart during a heart attack often leads to complications, which can lead to further complications. Arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythms), heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and valve problems are the most common complications.

Causes of heart attack

When one or more of your coronary arteries become blocked it leads to a heart attack. Over time, fatty deposits, including cholesterol, form substances called plaques, which can narrow the arteries (atherosclerosis). This condition, called coronary artery disease, causes many heart attacks.

  • During a heart attack, a plaque breaks down and leaks cholesterol and other substances into the bloodstream. Blood clots at the site of the break. If the clot is large, it can block blood flow through the coronary artery, depriving the heart of oxygen and nutrients (ischemia).
  • You may have a partial or complete blockage of the coronary artery.
  • Complete inhibition means you have an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
  • Partial occlusion means you have a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).
  • Diagnosis and treatment can vary depending on what type you have.
  • Another cause of heart attack is a narrowing of the coronary artery, which blocks blood flow to the heart muscle. Using tobacco and illicit drugs such as cocaine can lead to fatal seizures.
  • COVID-19 infection can also damage your heart and lead to a heart attack.

Risk factors of heart attack

The risk factors of a heart attack include:

Smoking: Chemicals in tobacco smoke can damage blood cells. They can also damage the function of your heart and the structure and function of your blood vessels. This damage increases your risk of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the formation of a waxy substance called plaque in the arteries. Over time, the plaque hardens and narrows the arteries.

It restricts the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body. Ischemic heart disease occurs when plaque forms in the arteries that supply blood to the heart, called the coronary arteries. Over time, heart disease can lead to chest pain, heart attack, heart failure, arrhythmia, or death. Smoking increases the risk of heart disease when combined with unhealthy blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and other risk factors such as being overweight or the esophagus.

High blood pressure: Blood pressure is measured by estimating the pressure of the blood flowing through your arteries against the walls of those arteries. During a heart attack, blood flow to some part of the heart muscle is restricted or cut off because the blood clot blocks the artery. Without the necessary blood supply, the affected part of your heart will not receive the oxygen it needs to function properly.

High blood cholesterol: When you have high cholesterol in your blood, it forms on the walls of your arteries, causing a process called atherosclerosis, a form of heart disease. The arteries are narrow and slow or block blood flow to the heart muscle. Blood carries oxygen to the heart and if not enough blood and oxygen get to the heart, you can experience chest pain. If the blood supply to part of the heart is completely cut off, the result is a heart attack.

There are two forms of cholesterol known to most people low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad” cholesterol) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL or “good” cholesterol). These are the ways that cholesterol travels through the blood. The main source of arterial occlusion plaque is LDL. HDL works to remove cholesterol from the blood.

Overweight and obesity: His arrhythmia appears to be associated with a fatal heart attack. Inflammation is a major factor in cardiovascular disease, researchers say, and esophagitis is now increasingly recognized as an inflammatory condition.

An unhealthy diet: When it comes to heart disease risk, what you eat is yourself. Poor diet contributes to cholesterol and triglycerides, high blood pressure, diabetes, and balance. Several important studies provide compelling evidence that diet also affects the risk of complete coronary heart disease and heart attack.

Lack of routine physical activity: Not getting enough physical activity can lead to heart disease even for people who do not have other risk factors. It also increases the risk of developing other heart disease risk factors, including esophagitis, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes.

High blood sugar due to insulin resistance or diabetes: The blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart and blood vessels can be damaged by high blood glucose from diabetes. If you have diabetes for a long time, you are more likely to get heart disease. People with heart disease are more prone to heart attack than with diabetes.

The most common causes of death in adults with diabetes are heart disease and stroke. Adults with diabetes are almost twice as likely to die of heart disease or stroke than those with diabetes. The good news is that the steps you take to manage your diabetes can also help reduce your risk of heart disease or stroke.

Risk factors such as arrears, high blood pressure, and high blood sugar can occur together. When they do, it is called metabolic syndrome. In general, a person with metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to have heart disease, and a person five times more likely to have diabetes than a person without metabolic syndrome.

Diagnosis of heart attack

Tests to diagnose a heart attack include:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): This first test done to diagnose a heart attack records electrical signals as they pass through your heart. Adhesive patches (electrodes) are attached to your chest and limbs. Signals are recorded as waves displayed on the monitor or printed on paper. Because the injured heart muscle does not normally conduct electrical impulses, an ECG shows that a heart attack has occurred or is in progress.
  • Blood tests: Some heart proteins will slowly leak into your bloodstream after a heart attack from a heart attack. Emergency room doctors take samples of your blood to check for these proteins or enzymes.

Treatments for heart attack

If your doctor suspects a heart attack, you can treat it immediately:

  • Aspirin to prevent blood clots
  • Nitroglycerin to relieve chest pain and improve blood flow
  • Oxygen therapy

Once your doctor has diagnosed a heart attack, they will prescribe medication. They may recommend surgery if necessary.

  • Give your medicine: The medicine drug is called thrombolytic. It helps to clot the blood that clogs the coronary artery.
  • Do a coronary angiography: X-ray of the blood vessels.
  • Do an angioplasty or stent: Angioplasty involves inserting a small balloon into an artery in your arm or leg. The balloon threads the artery to the heart. The balloon pushes the open black coronary arteries. A small metal rod called a stent can be placed in the clogged artery to keep the artery open.
  • Do coronary artery bypass surgery: If angioplasty and/or stenting is not appropriate, you may need this major surgery. Your doctor will remove a healthy vein from your leg or artery from your upper body. He or she will bypass around the blockage in your coronary artery. This allows blood to flow around the blockage.

Cardiac screening

  • If screening tests reveal coronary artery disease, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk for heart attack or exacerbated heart disease. Your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, exercise, and smoking cessation. Medications may also be required. Medications can treat risk factors for coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, and low blood flow.
  • A negative cardiac CT for calcium scoring means that no calcification has been found in your coronary arteries, indicating that there is no coronary artery disease or not being seen by this technique. Under these conditions, you are less likely to have a heart attack in the next two to five years.
  • A positive cardiac CT for calcium scoring means you have CAD regardless of what symptoms you are experiencing. Calcification is expressed as the total calcium score. A score of 1 to 10 indicates minimal evidence of CAD, 11 to 100 indicates mild evidence, 101 to 400 indicates moderate evidence of disease, and a score of more than 500 indicates extensive evidence of disease.
  • Your calcium score can help assess the likelihood of myocardial infarction (heart attack) in the years to come and help your doctor decide whether you should take preventative medicine or take other measures such as diet and exercise to reduce your risk of a heart attack.
  • If there is coronary artery disease, lifestyle changes, medications, and if necessary, medical or surgical procedures in stages to reduce the person’s risk of heart attack and manage symptoms.
  • Angioplasty and stenting: In an angioplasty procedure, a balloon-tipped catheter is used to guide a long, thin plastic tube into the coronary artery and to propel the vessel into a narrow or obstructed area. The balloon is then inflated, inflated, and removed to open the vessel. During angioplasty, a small wire mesh tube called a stent can be placed permanently in the newly opened artery to help keep it open. There are two types of stents: bare stents (wire mesh) and drug-eluting stents.
  • Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG): CABG is a surgical instrument used to re-circulate blood around diseased vessels. During this surgery, a healthy artery or vein from other parts of the body connects or sticks to the coronary artery, bypassing the barrier, creating a new way for oxygen-rich blood to flow to the heart muscle.

Prevention of heart attack

  • Control your blood pressure: It is important to check your blood pressure regularly, once a year for most adults, and if you have high blood pressure. Take measures, including lifestyle changes to prevent or control high blood pressure.
  • Keep your cholesterol and triglyceride levels under control: High cholesterol clogs your arteries and increases the risk of coronary artery disease and heart attack. Lifestyle changes and medications (if needed) can lower your cholesterol. High levels of triglycerides increase the risk of coronary artery disease, especially in women.
  • Stay at a healthy weight: Obesity increases your risk of heart disease. They are associated with high blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as other heart disease risk factors, including high blood pressure and diabetes. Controlling your weight will reduce these risks.
  • Eat a healthy diet: Foods high in sodium, saturated fats, and added sugars should be consumed in limited quantities. Eat plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The dash diet is an example of an eating plan that can help you lower your blood pressure and cholesterol, which can reduce your risk of heart disease.
  • Get regular exercise: Exercise has many benefits such as strengthening your heart and improving your circulation. It can help you maintain a healthy weight and lower cholesterol and blood pressure. All of these can reduce your risk of heart disease.
  • Limit alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption can increase your blood pressure. It also adds extra calories, which can lead to weight gain. Both of these increase your risk of heart disease. Men should not have more than two alcoholic beverages per day and women should not have more than one.
  • Don’t smoke: Cigarette smoking raises your blood pressure and increases your risk of heart attack and stroke. If you do not smoke, do not start. If you smoke, quitting will reduce your heart disease. You can talk to your healthcare provider to help to find the best way to exit.
  • Manage stress: Stress is one of the causes of to increase in the risk of heart disease. It raises your blood pressure. Severe stress can “trigger” a heart attack. Also, some common ways to deal with stress, such as overeating, overeating, and smoking, are bad for your heart. Some of the ways that can help you manage your stress are exercise, listening to music, focusing on those who are calm or relaxed, and meditating.
  • Manage diabetes: Having diabetes doubles the risk of diabetic heart disease. This is because, over time, Blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart and blood vessels can be damaged by high blood sugar. So, it is important to get tested for diabetes, and if you have it, you need to keep it under control.
  • Make sure that you get enough sleep: If you do not get enough sleep, you will increase your risk of high blood pressure, esophagus, and diabetes. Those three things increase the risk of heart disease. 7 to 9 hours of sleep a night is required for adults. Make sure you have good sleep habits. If you have frequent sleep problems, consult your healthcare provider. One problem, sleep apnea, is that people often stop breathing during sleep. It can impair your ability to relax well and increase your risk of heart disease. If you think you may have it, ask your doctor about a sleep study. If you have sleep apnea, make sure you get treatment for it.