General Topics

Overview of Neurology General Precautions | Neurology

What are neurology general precautions?

Neurology precautions: Neurology is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of diseases of the brain and nervous system. The brain body’s control center is the place where our thoughts originate and our memories are stored. It regulates movement and speech, processes sensory information, regulates hormonal secretion, and produces our emotions. A healthy brain works quickly and automatically as a new computer. But conditions or injuries that affect the brain can cause a wide variety of symptoms that affect a person’s ability to remember, move, speak, or use their senses. Treatments for brain diseases vary in symptoms, from medication to rehabilitation, minimally invasive procedures, or open surgery.

The brain, spinal cord, and nerves make up the nervous system. Together they control all the functions of the body. When something is wrong with your nervous system, you have trouble moving, speaking, swallowing, breathing, or learning. You may also have problems with memory, senses, or mood.

There are more than 600 neurological diseases. There are main types:

  • Diseases caused by wrong genes, such as Huntington’s disease and muscular dystrophy
  • Problems with the developing nervous system, such as spina bifida
  • Degenerative diseases, where nerve cells are damaged or die, such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease
  • Diseases of the blood vessels supplying the brain, such as stroke
  • Injuries to the spinal cord and brain
  • Seizure disorders such as epilepsy
  • Cancer like brain tumors
  • Infections such as meningitis

Neurologists use specialized tests of mood, vision, speech, strength, sensation, coordination, reflexes, and gait to diagnose the most complex conditions. Although general neurologists are not surgeons, they do perform some procedures for examination purposes, including:

  • Pelvic puncture to diagnose cerebrospinal fluid, also known as a lumbar puncture
  • An electromyogram, or EMG, is a test that examines how muscles respond to nerve signals.
  • Nerve conduction study or NCS that measures the speed and strength of electrical activity in the nerve
  • The neurological exam may include a CT scan or CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and/or electroencephalography (EEG).

Benefits of physical activity in neurology precautions

Researchers have recently found a strong link between physical exercise and the prevention or delay of neurodegenerative symptoms, including a failure in motor skills and mental ability in patients with impaired neuro-diseases such as MS and Alzheimer’s.

A review by Harutoshi Sakakima suggests that physical exercise acts as a prototypical preconditioning stimulus that provides brain-protective effects and is a safe and viable treatment option to provide endogenous neuroprotection in acute and chronic stroke patients.

A randomized study examining the effects of balance training with electromyogram-activated functional electrical stimulation (EMG-activated FES) to improve static balance, dynamic balance, and activation of the ankle muscles suggest positive results in stroke patients.

Exercise improves the physical and mental well-being of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Patients exercise moderately for 60 minutes a week. Compared with patients who did not exercise, patients who exercised were less prone to depression, shorter distances, shorter falls, and then placed in nursing homes.

Patients with exercise-induced neurological disorders may experience decreased stiffness as well as relapse of muscle reduction and atrophy.

Research has shown that exercise improves gait, balance, tremors, flexibility, grip strength, and motor coordination in patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Once patients cannot meet, there is a decrease in their nervous state. Recent research suggests a possible mechanism for this decline: a study in mice suggests that the production and maintenance of healthy neurons require less physical activity to transport organs. The authors say: “The overall results support the existence of a link between exercise and muscle utilization and metabolism in the brain, and thus provide valuable new information that clarifies how conditions such as underload and underload exist lack of movement. With some neurological diseases, it can affect nerve stem cell symptoms and contribute to the negative manifestations of these conditions. ”

Barriers to physical activity of neurological precautions

  • 35% -95% are associated with chronic fatigue and depression
  • The severity of the disease
  • Pre-existing comorbid conditions
  • Lack of motivation
  • Cognitive and learning skills
  • Social and environmental; Program costs, transportation routes, access, family support, social policies, and social stigma

Barriers to health and fitness facilities;

  • Lack of awareness of disability among fitness professionals
  • Hot climates cause overheating
  • Access to the bathroom
  • The temperature of the pools is very cold and people cannot move fast to go to war
  • Fear of falling
  • Safety issues like wet floors in locker rooms, poorly maintained equipment, and inappropriate hosts in pool areas

Prescription exercise:

  • The best way to achieve these benefits is to exercise consistently. People who have been involved in exercise programs with Parkinson’s for more than six months have shown significant gains in functional balance and mobility compared to the duration of two to ten weeks, regardless of the intensity of the exercise.
  • A specialist doctor must carry out a risk assessment and detection before participating in any physical activity program.
  • For aerobic exercise, it is recommended to dedicate 10 minutes or more (30 minutes 5 times a week) 150 minutes (2.5 hours a week) to moderate-intensity exercises.
  • Exercises are progressive muscle-strengthening activities that engage the main muscle groups of the body 2 or more days a week.

Tips for the patient

  • Always be prepared before starting your exercise routine and cool down at the end.
  • If you plan to work 30 minutes, start with 10-minute sessions and increase your workload.
  • Exercise your facial muscles, jaw, and tone whenever possible.
  • Sing or read aloud, exaggerating the movements of your lips.
  • Make faces in the mirror.
  • Chew food vigorously and avoid swallowing large pieces. Instead, chew each piece for at least 20 seconds.
  • Try water exercises like water aerobics. They are usually easier on the joints and require less balance.
  • Work in a safe environment. Avoid slippery floors, poor lighting, rugs, and other potential hazards.
  • If you have difficulty keeping your balance, exercise to hold onto a bar or train. If you are having trouble standing or getting up, try exercising on the couch rather than on the floor or mat.

Above all, choose a hobby or activity that you enjoy and keep doing it. Some clues:

  • Gardening or walking or swimming or water aerobics or yoga or tai chi
  • Rest your muscles for at least a day between strength training sessions
  • Activities should be done with moderate intensity. Moderate-intensity physical activity is usually a 5 or 6 on a scale of 10, and your heart rate will increase. As a general rule of thumb, if you do a moderate-intensity activity, you can speak during the activity, but not sing the song.

Information About Interventional Cardiologist | Cardiology

What is an Interventional cardiologist?

An interventional cardiologist is a cardiologist who has one to two years of additional education and training in diagnosing and treating cardiovascular diseases as well as congenital (congenital) and catheter-based procedures for structural heart conditions, such as angioplasty and stenting.

What kinds of procedures do interventional cardiologists do?

Cardiac catheterization

This test assesses the presence, size, and location of plaque deposits in the arteries, the strength of the heart muscle, and the function of the heart valves. During cardiac catheterization, the catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the leg or wrist and gently guided into the heart. Contrast dye is injected into the coronary arteries so the cardiologist can detect the movement of blood through the arteries and chambers of the heart.

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

The goal of PGI, also known as angioplasty, is to open the coronary artery to restore blood flow. PCI is a procedure scheduled for the emergency treatment of a heart attack patient or adequate blood flow to the heart. The cardiologist selects the most suitable tool to repair the cardiac vessels based on the specific anatomy of the patient.

Balloon angioplasty

Balloon angioplasty improves blood flow to the heart. The balloon-tipped catheter is guided into the blocked artery. The balloon inflates the blocked area and opens the arterial walls.


This procedure uses a special spray device to open hardened blockages in the coronary arteries. Atherectomy is often performed during balloon angioplasty. In many cases, a stent is then inserted into the blockage.

Stent implantation

After balloon angioplasty or atherectomy, a small metal coil or mesh tube called a stent may be placed in the artery. The stent is placed at the end of a catheter, inserted through a blood vessel in the leg or wrist, and guided to the heart, where the newly opened arteries do not collapse.

What is the difference between an interventional cardiologist and a cardiologist?


Cardiologists must complete a residency in internal medicine after obtaining a medical degree. After residency, it will take two years to complete a fellowship in cardiology. The standard role of cardiologists is to act as non-invasive cardiologists and recommend lifestyle changes, such as performing diagnostic tests and treating patients by prescribing medication or improving their condition.

Those who train to become invasive, non-interventional cardiologists can do similar work with patients but are also eligible to undergo medical tests for arterial blockages. However, non-interventional invasive cardiologists do not perform the procedures performed by interventional cardiologists.

Job responsibilities of a cardiologist:

  • Evaluation of the cardiovascular and cardiac health of patients
  • Explain the results of ECGs and other tests
  • Refer patients to other specialists
  • Cardiac catheterizations (invasive, interventional non-cardiologists only)

Interventional cardiologists

Interventional cardiologists spend three years completing a fellowship in Interventional cardiology after graduating from medical school, completing a residency in Internal medicine, and completing a fellowship in cardiology. Interventional cardiologists often work in hospitals and can work at any time of the day or night on weekends or weekends. They can treat patients with conditions like heart disease or clogged arteries. Interventional cardiologists need to have good communication and leadership skills so that they can work effectively when performing procedures with other medical professionals. They also benefit from being physically fit and capable because they can stand longer and the procedures often require precision.

Job responsibilities of an interventional cardiologist:

  • Check referrals
  • Explain procedures to patients
  • Perform procedures such as inserting stents into arteries and repairing valves
  • Follow up with patients after treatment

Is Interventional cardiology invasive?

Interventional cardiology often appears invasive but does not require surgery. A small flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into the body to repair damaged or weakened blood vessels, narrow arteries, or other parts of the structure.

Benefits of Interventional cardiologists

Increase comfort, reduce problems

Before the advent of transradial cardiac catheterizations and interventions, catheterizations were inserted through the groin to access the arterial system, causing many problems for patients. This treatment, which is still practiced by doctors who are not certified to use interventional cardiology, generates a high level of discomfort in patients.

This often increases recovery time as patients struggle with the painful consequences of the procedure. Also, due to the nature of the treatment, patients often experience bleeding, bruising, and pseudoanaemia at the surgical site along the femoral artery. Problems associated with common catheterizations, such as retroperitoneal hemorrhage, have also been shown to be fatal in some patients. Fortunately, this is not the case in interventional cardiology.


Overview of lumbar puncture (spinal tap) | Neurology

What is a lumbar puncture (spinal tap)?

A lumbar puncture (spinal tap) is acted in the lower back, in the lumbar locale. During a lumbar puncture, a needle is inserted between the two lumbar bones (vertebrae) to remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid. This is the liquid that encompasses the cerebrum and spinal rope to shield them from injury.

A lumbar puncture can help analyze genuine contaminations, for example, meningitis. Other central nervous system disorders, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and multiple sclerosis, or cancers of the brain or spinal cord. A lumbar puncture is now and again used to infuse sedation or chemotherapy drugs into the cerebrospinal liquid.

Why is a spinal tap performed?

A spinal tap may be performed to rule out an infection such as meningitis or encephalitis as a cause of epileptic seizures.

Besides used to treat epilepsy, the cerebrospinal fluid test can help diagnose disorders of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, the central nervous system that may include the brain, spinal cord, or their covering (the meninges). Examples include meningitis, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or idiopathic headache.

CSF contains glucose (sugar), proteins, and different substances found in the blood. The fluid test will show the number and types of white blood cells, glucose level, types and levels of proteins, and the presence of bacteria, fungi, or abnormal cells.

A spinal tap may also be performed:

  • Measurement of pressure around the brain and spinal cord
  • Relieve pressure in the head
  • Spinal anaesthesia
  • Inject the dye for an X-ray diagnostic test
  • Injection medications (such as baclofen)

NOTE: A cerebrospinal fluid test may not be necessary if a spinal tap is done to inject the drug.

What are the benefits of a lumbar puncture?

A lumbar puncture can help your PCP precisely analyze or preclude certain ailments, including some dangerous ailments. The sooner they diagnose the diagnosis, the faster you can get appropriate treatment. Some conditions, such as bacterial meningitis, can be fatal if you don’t get them treated quickly enough.

A lumbar puncture can likewise enable your PCP to give you a few sorts of prescriptions.

What are the risks of a lumbar puncture?

A lumbar puncture is generally safe, but there may be some risks. According to our clinic, up to a quarter of people who have a lumbar puncture develop a headache afterwards. Lying down for a few hours after the procedure may reduce your risk of headaches.

Other potential risks include pain or pain in the lower back and bleeding near the puncture site. You may feel some pain and numbness going down your legs. In rare cases, people have brainstem herniation, which is the movement of brain tissue from its normal position in your skull. This is uncommon.

Before having a lumbar puncture

Your primary care physician or medical caretaker ought to clarify what will occur and why you need a lumbar puncture.

A few days or weeks before the test:

  • You may have a CT scan or an MRI scan – to make sure you need a lumbar puncture and that it is safe to have one.
  • Tell the hospital if you are taking blood-thinning medications (anticoagulants) – such as warfarin

On the day:

  • You can eat, drink and accept prescription as would be expected
  • You will be drawn closer to sign a consent structure
  • You will usually need to undress and wear a hospital gown before the procedure – you may also want to use the toilet

How is the LP procedure performed?

Usually, patients lie on their side for the procedure. Often times, the procedure is performed while the patient is seated and leaning slightly forward.

After nearby sedation is infused into the lumbar district, a long needle is embedded between the bones of the spine (vertebrae) into the spinal waterway. (The needle is most usually positioned between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.)

Your cerebrospinal fluid pressure may then be measured and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removed for testing.

What happens after a lumbar puncture?

This helps reduce the occurrence of headaches. It will allow you to roll from side to side as long as your head is not raised. If you need to urinate, you may need to do so in a bedspread or urinal during the time you need to stay flat.

You will be asked to drink additional fluids to replace the fluids after the operation. This replaces the cerebrospinal fluid that was withdrawn during a spinal tap and reduces the chance of a headache. After you recover, you may be taken to your hospital room or discharged home. If you go home, your healthcare provider will usually advise you to rest for the rest of the day

Once you are at home, notify your service provider of any abnormalities, such as:

  • Numbness and tingling in the legs
  • Blood or pain at the injection site
  • Inability to urinate
  • Headache

In the event that the migraine endures for in excess of a couple of hours after the technique, or when the position changes, contact the Neuroradiology group with the telephone number on your release directions.

You may be required to restrict your activity for 24 hours after the procedure. Your healthcare provider may give you other specific instructions about what to do after the lumbar puncture.

Spinal tap results

The CSF samples are sent to a laboratory for analysis. Lab technicians check a number of things when examining spinal fluid, including:

  • General look: The cerebrospinal fluid is usually clear and colourless. If it is cloudy, yellow, or pink, this may indicate abnormal bleeding. Green spinal fluid may indicate an infection or the presence of bilirubin.
  • Protein (total protein and presence of certain proteins): High levels of total protein – more than 45 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL) – may indicate the presence of an infection or other inflammatory conditions. The specific laboratory qualities may fluctuate from the clinical office to the clinical office.
  • White blood cells: The cerebrospinal fluid usually contains up to 5 white blood cells (mononuclear leukocytes) per microliter. Increasing numbers may indicate infection. Specific laboratory qualities may differ from the clinical office to the clinical office.
  • Sugar (glucose): A low level of glucose in your cerebrospinal fluid may indicate an infection or other condition.
  • The presence of microscopic organisms, infections, parasites, or different microorganisms can show disease.
  • Cancer cells: Abnormal cells in the cerebrospinal fluid – such as a tumor or immature blood cells – can indicate certain types of cancer.

Lab results are combined with information obtained during the test, such as cerebrospinal fluid pressure, to help determine a possible diagnosis. A healthcare professional generally gives you results in a few days, but it may take longer. Ask when you expect to receive your test results.


Procedure, Risk Factors, and Benefits of Biopsy | Neurology

What is a biopsy?

A biopsy is a more detailed examination of a sample of tissue taken from the body. The doctor should recommend a biopsy when the initial examination indicates that the area of body tissue is not normal. Doctors call an area of abnormal tissue a lesion, tumor, or mass.

Types of biopsy

Needle biopsy: Most biopsies are needle biopsies, which means that the needle is used to access suspicious tissue.

CT-guided biopsy: The CT scan images can help doctors determine the exact location of the needle in the target tissue.

Ultrasound-guided biopsy: An ultrasound scanner can help the doctor redirect a needle to an ulcer.

Bone biopsy: Bone biopsy is used for bone cancer. This can be done using a CT scan technique or by an orthopedic surgeon.

Bone marrow biopsy: A large needle is used to insert the bone marrow into the pelvic bone. It detects blood diseases such as leukemia or lymphoma.

Liver biopsy: A needle is inserted into the liver through the skin of the abdomen and captures the liver tissue.

Kidney biopsy: Similar to a liver biopsy, a needle is inserted into the kidney through the skin on the back.

Aspiration biopsy: A needle extracts material from the dough. This simple method is also known as fine-needle aspiration.

Prostate biopsy: Several needle biopsies are taken simultaneously from the prostate gland. To reach the prostate, a tube is inserted into the rectum.

Surgical biopsy: Open or laparoscopic surgery may be required to obtain a biopsy of the tissue. A piece of tissue or an entire lump of tissue may be removed.

Risks factors of biopsy

This procedure is generally safe and causes fewer injuries.

  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Accidental injury to adjacent structures such as the lung parenchyma during intestinal or kidney during an abdominal biopsy

Purpose of biopsy

If you have symptoms that are generally associated with cancer and your doctor finds an area of concern, you may need a test to determine if the area is cancerous. It is the only way to diagnose most cancers. Imaging tests, such as CT scans and X-rays, can help identify areas of concern, but they cannot differentiate between cancer and non-cancer cells.

Biopsies are often associated with cancer, but just because your doctor ordered this procedure, it does not mean you have cancer. Doctors use biopsies to check if abnormalities in your body are due to cancer or other conditions.

Preparing for a biopsy

How to prepare for the procedure depends on the type of disease you have. For example, there are no large preparations for a fine needle biopsy in the doctor’s office. In some cases, you may need to take your clothes off and put on a dress.

Before biopsy

Ask your doctor or nurse if you can eat or drink before the test. Also, take clarification on the regular usage of medicines. For some biopsies, your doctor may want to know if you are thinning your blood or taking aspirin. The doctor should be informed about the history and current use of medicines.

Tell your doctor about any drug allergies or other medical conditions you may have. A member of your healthcare team will explain the procedure to you. You will be asked to sign a consent form stating that you understand the advantages and disadvantages of it and that you agree to perform the test. Visit the doctor if any problem is faced.

During biopsy

The doctor will perform a biopsy based on the part of your body where you may be lying on your stomach or on your back or sitting during the procedure. For some types of biopsies, you may need to hold your breath while the needle is inserted. Your healthcare team will let you know in advance what to expect in the process.

Before the procedure, you will usually receive a form of anesthesia to prevent the perception of pain. The anesthesia procedure used by the doctor depends on the type of procedure.

The following types can be used:

Local anesthesia: Local anesthesia is an injection that numbs the area where the procedure is done. You may feel a sting when your doctor injects a local anesthetic through a needle.

Conscious anesthesia: Conscious anesthesia care Medicines are used to relax you. It is usually given through an intravenous (IV) tube and is often combined with local or regional anesthesia.

General anesthesia: General anesthesia during a major procedure, such as surgery, will knock you out. If you are under regular anesthesia, you may not be aware of this procedure.

After biopsy

After taking a tissue sample, your doctor will need to evaluate it. In some cases, this can be done during the diagnostic process. However, in most cases, the sample must be sent to a laboratory for analysis. Results can take anywhere from a few days to a few weeks.

Once the results come in, your doctor may call you to share the results or ask you to come to the next appointment to discuss the next steps. If the results show signs of cancer, your doctor can determine the type of cancer and the level of aggression from your biopsy. If your biopsy is done for a cause other than cancer, the lab report should be able to guide your doctor in the diagnosis and treatment of the condition.

Even if the results are negative, if the doctor’s suspicion of cancer or other conditions remains high, you may need another biopsy or a different type of biopsy. Your doctor will be able to guide you on the best course to follow. If you have any questions about it or the results before the procedure, do not hesitate to speak with your doctor. You may want to write down your questions and bring them to your next office visit.

Analysis and biopsy results

Once your doctor obtains a tissue sample, it is sent to a laboratory for analysis. It can be chemically treated or frozen and bisected into thin sections. Sections are placed on glass slides, stained to increase contrast, and studied under a microscope. The results can help your doctor determine if the cells are cancerous. If the cells are cancerous, results can tell your doctor where the cancer is – the type of cancer.

It can also help your doctor determine how aggressive your cancer is – cancer grade. The grade is sometimes expressed as a number on a scale of 1 to 4 and is determined by how the cancer cells look under a microscope.

Low-grade (grade 1) cancers are generally less aggressive, and high-grade (grade 4) cancers are generally more aggressive. This information can help guide treatment options. Other specialized tests on cancer cells can help guide treatment options.

In some cases, such as during surgery, a pathologist will immediately examine the sample and deliver the results to your surgeon within minutes. But in most cases, the results of it will be available in a few days. Some samples take longer to analyze. Ask your doctor how long to wait for your biopsy results.


Most biopsies only require local anesthesia, which means you don’t have to stay in the hospital overnight. However, an overnight stay is sometimes required when performing a biopsy under general anesthesia. Most types of biopsies are painless once the anesthesia begins to work, although it depends on where the sample was taken.

You may experience a dull ache, which can be treated with pain relievers as recommended by your doctor or surgeon. For some types, it takes a few hours in the hospital. You will need to put on stitches or get dressed before you go.


Needle biopsy is a reliable method of obtaining tissue samples to help determine whether the nodule is benign (not cancerous) or malignant.

  • It is less aggressive than open or closed surgical biopsies, and both involve a large incision in the skin.
  • In general, the procedure is not painful and the results are accurate when the tissue sample is surgically removed.
  • Recovery time is short and patients can resume normal activities soon.
  • Any procedure that involves cutting of the skin carries a risk of infection. The risk of infection that requires antibiotic treatment is less than one in 1,000.