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About Ayurvedic treatments for neurological problems | Neurology

What are Ayurvedic treatments for Neurological problems?

The manifestations of neurological problems depend on how and which part of the nervous system is affected: central or peripheral, or there are combined disorders.

The central part includes both brains: the brain and the spinal cord. They process information about what is happening in the body, as well as control and coordinate all its reactions and functions. This applies both to the organism internally and to its contacts with the environment. This is implemented with the assistance of the peripheral part of the nervous system.

It is a continuation of the brain and includes the nerves of the body, its divisions/cervical, shoulders, lumbar, and other / and ganglia. Through them, brain impulses are conveyed to the limbs and various organs, and feedback is returned.

Neurological problems are disorders that can occur anywhere in this chain. The brain, for example, can become inflamed, since meningitis is an inflammation of the outer layer, and encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain matter itself. Many other diseases are associated with the brain: atherosclerosis, depression, phobia, epilepsy, autism, personality disorders, etc.

The most frequent inflammations of the peripheral part of the nervous system are radiculitis and plexitis, which can be in the cervical, thoracic or waist areas since the pain block the movement of the hands or legs. A nerve can be affected and this condition is called neuritis, and if some nerves are affected it is called polyneuritis.

In Ayurveda, the vital Vata energy is directly responsible for the nervous system, for the transmission of brain signals to the organs, for the senses, feelings, and thoughts. It is established at birth with the other two energies: Pitta and Kapha since each of them is responsible for specific processes in the body. The three energies are established in a specific proportion and maintain a certain balance between them. If one of the energies becomes unbalanced, the functions of certain organs are altered and the organism develops diseases. In the case of Vata, these are neurological diseases.

Ayurvedic treatment for neurological problems

A bad lifestyle and stress make you feel exhausted and tired. It leads to other problems called nerve weakness. Feeling unwell, depressed, and nervous weakens your immune power. Here are some tips to follow if you suffer from nervous weakness.

Oil massages

Oil massages are very helpful in getting rid of any weakness. Massage your body with almond oil and relax your muscles. It is the best health tonic for weakness. Improve the blood circulation of your body.

Exercise routine

You spend hours shaping your body, but the fact is, your nervous system needs a workout, too. Meditation, yoga, and aerobics are some of the exercises that will help keep your nervous system healthy.

Use of herbs

Ashwagandha and Ginseng are very helpful in relieving stress. It is considered the best brain tonic in Ayurveda.

Eat well

It is good to always keep your body and mind healthy. Make sure your diet includes dairy products, meat, and fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, etc. Eat plenty of berries because they contain sodium, iron, and phosphorus that help strengthen your nerves. Always drink plenty of water to ignore dehydration.

Two herbs that best support the neurological problems

Ashwagandha and Brahmi are Ayurvedic pharmacy’s two best friends. They support and calm your mind. They are the best Ayurvedic medicine to strengthen the nerves. You should consider this herbal duo in your routine. They offer you a sense of deep compassion and nurturing. According to Ayurvedic herbology, Abhyanga (self oil massage) with these two herbs is a simple and safe practice.

The nervous system affects every feeling, breath, experience, and decision in your life. Most of you focus on physical imbalances, however, Ayurveda actually targets the mind as the reason for all of your imbalances.

Ashwagandha

Supports your nervous system providing vitality, warmth, and strength. This plant is strong and robust, with a thick woody stem and large leaves. The root is the most widely used part of herbal preparations. You could call it a great health tonic for weakness. Ashwagandha is made up of two words Ashva and Gandha. Ashva means horse and Gandha represent smell. So Ashwagandha means the smell of a horse. Thus, it gives you stamina and strength like a stud. Other benefits of Ashwagandha in Ayurvedic medicine are:

  • Stabilization of mood
  • Rejuvenate brain cells
  • Memory support
  • Stabilize blood sugar
  • Immune support
  • Fight stress

Brahmi

It is an excellent brain tonic in Ayurveda. The word Brahmi has a lot of sense in Sanskrit. She is considered the goddess of creative potential. Offers support for your mind’s ability to remember and learn. Brahmi is light, oily, and bitter in nature. It is a delightful rejuvenator for the immune system, the attention, and the nervous system.

Separately from these two herbs, the repetition of Abhyanga is also beneficial. It is generally practiced before bathing. You have to massage your joints, arms, etc. with oil for quick benefits. You can choose to brush your skin dry. After you finish dry brushing from head to toe, apply some warm oil to your body to nurture the intention.

Causes of neurological problems

  • Inflammation of the nerves
  • Interrupted nerve impulse due to accumulation of toxins
  • Nerve injury
  • A layer of damaged nerves
  • Neurotransmitter alteration
  • Invasion of malignant tumors in nerve cells
  • A pinched or compressed nerve

Symptoms of neurological problems

Sensory symptoms:

  • Tingling sensation
  • Burning,
  • Itching and numbness
  • Decreased vision
  • Temporary loss of smell
  • Hearing loss
  • Loss of taste and touch

Motor symptoms:

  • Poor coordination
  • Muscle loss
  • Muscular weakness
  • Paralysis

In Ayurvedic treatment for nervous weakness, multiple methods are used to keep your nervous system healthy. Ayurvedic herbal remedy has no side effects on the whole body.

The method includes Ayurvedic therapies, natural herbs, a healthy diet, yoga, and exercise.

Healthy diet and lifestyle

Diet and lifestyle modifications are essential to strengthen your nerves. A healthy or well-balanced nutritious diet plays an integral role in Ayurvedic treatment for nervous weakness. Some foods are recommended to improve the nervous system.

Diet

Eat leafy greens: Leafy greens contain high amounts of B complex, vitamin C, vitamin E, and magnesium. These nutrients strengthen your nerves and improve the functions of your nervous system.

Broccoli and Avocado: Add broccoli and avocado to your diet because it is rich in vitamin K. Vitamin K improves cognitive abilities and strengthens the brain’s nervous system. It prevents the alteration of neurotransmitters.

Almonds, walnuts, and pumpkin seeds: These three ingredients contain essential nutrients like omega-3, zinc, copper, magnesium, iron, and vitamin E. This prevents nerve weakness disorders.

Lifestyle

  • Avoid drinking alcohol and smoking
  • Get enough rest and sleep every day
  • Training some yoga asanas and deep breathing exercises (pranayama) regularly
  • Avoid non-vegetarian foods because they release harmful toxins in the body
  • Avoid eating street food, junk food, oily, and high in fat

Natural herbs

  • Several herbs are useful for treating problems related to the nervous system.|
  • Ashwagandha and inflammation: Ashwagandha is an anti-inflammatory agent. Ashwagandha is one of the essential herbs used in Ayurvedic treatment for nervous weakness. Reduces pain and inflammation of the nerves. Reduces stress and anxiety.
  • Cranberry Leaves: This herb is mainly used to treat cell damage, improve blood circulation and diarrhea, etc. in the case of nervous system problems, it improves cognitive abilities, improves vision, and reduces inflammation of the nerves.
  • Dandelion Roots and Leaves: Dandelions are rich in antioxidants and have inflammatory properties. It prevents the accumulation of toxins in the nerves and reduces inflammation.
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Treatment

About Homeopathic treatment for Neurology disorders | Neurology

What are neurological disorders?

Neurological disorders or neurological ailments are certain conditions or problems of the brain, spine, and nerves along with disorders associated with the central nervous system in general. Neurological ailments can become extremely severe at times, which can result in creating serious problems for affected individuals. To know the names of the most common neurological disorders or ailments, read carefully.

  • Alzheimer disease
  • Brain tumor
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Concussion
  • Dementia
  • Disc disease of the lower back or neck
  • Epilepsy
  • Migraine
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Neuralgia
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Psychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, severe depression
  • Convulsions
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Career
  • neurological ailments

The homeopathic treatment of diverse types of neurological ailments aims to provide a deeper cure so that pretentious individuals can lead as normal a life as possible. This is exactly what homeopathy does so that people affected by neurological disorders can effectively manage symptoms.

Causes of Neurological Ailments

The brain and spinal cord are protected with various membranes that are insulating in nature. Now, these membranes are vulnerable to both pressure and force. Peripheral nerves are those that are quite deep under the skin and are also vulnerable to damage. Therefore, any damage to these membranes, nerves, brain, or spinal cord can result in a neurological disorder. These ailments can result in affecting the entire neurological pathway or just a single neuron. Only a very small alteration in the structural pathway of the neuron can result in its malfunction. Some of the important causes of neurological diseases are as follows:

  • Causes related to the individual’s lifestyle
  • Various types of infections can cause neurological ailments
  • Genetics plays a vital role in causing these neurological ailments
  • Some nutrition-related conditions, such as deficiency of a vital nutrient, vitamin, etc., can lead to a neurological disorder
  • External factors and environmental conditions or influences also contribute to neurological ailments
  • Physical injuries can lead to numerous neurological disorders

Homeopathic treatment

Homeopathy designs a suitable and effective treatment plan for the treatment of people affected by any neurological disorder or ailment so that both positive and satisfactory results are obtained. Certain homeopathic medicines used for the treatment of different types of neurological ailments are the ones mentioned below:

  • Causticum is an extremely effective solution for multiple sclerosis and is also useful in chronic paralytic infections
  • Gelsemium is the best homeopathic medicine for motor paralysis which acts quickly on the nervous system when there are tremors, dizziness, drowsiness, and so on.
  • Oxalic acid is a very effective medicine for cerebral and posterior sclerosis of the spine along with shooting or spasmodic pains in different parts of the body.
  • Phosphorus acts as a great remedy for atrophy as well as for softening the brain or spinal cord.
  • Kalium bromatum is indicated for neurological ailments that arise from extremely serious situations.
  • Aconite is used for ailments that arise from some sudden shock.
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Treatments for Functional Neurological Disorder | Neurology

What is a functional neurological disorder?

Functional neurological disorder (FND) is a medicinal condition in which there is a problem with the operative of the nervous system and how the brain and body send and/or receive signals, rather than a structural disease process such as multiple sclerosis or a stroke. The functional neurological disorder can encompass a wide variety of neurological symptoms, such as limb weakness or seizures.

A functional neurological disorder is a condition at the interface between the specialties of neurology and psychiatry. Conventional tests, such as brain MRIs and EEGs, are usually normal in patients with functional neurological disorders. This has historically led to both doctors and researchers neglecting the disease.

However, it has now been established that functional neurological disorder is a common cause of disability and distress, which can overlap with other problems such as chronic pain and fatigue. Encouraging studies support the possible reversibility of functional neurological disorder with specifically designed treatments. New scientific findings are influencing the way patients are diagnosed and treated, which is creating a general shift in attitudes towards people with functional neurological disorders.

Older ideas that functional neurological disorder is “totally psychological” and that diagnosis is made only when someone has normal tests have changed since the mid-2000s. New understanding, including modern neuroscientific studies, has shown that FND it is not a diagnosis of exclusion. It has specific clinical features of its own and is a disorder of nervous system functioning in which many perspectives are needed. These vary greatly from person to person. In some people, psychological factors are important, in others they are not.

Signs and symptoms of functional neurological disorder

Patients with a functional neurological disorder can experience a wide range and combination of physical, sensory, and/or cognitive symptoms. The most common include:

Motor dysfunction

  • Functional weakness/paralysis of the limbs
  • Functional movement disorders; including tremors, spasms (dystonia), jerky movements (myoclonus), and trouble walking (gait disorder)
  • Functional speech symptoms; including whispering (dysphonia), slurred speech, or stuttering

Sensory dysfunction

  • Functional sensory disturbance includes altered sensation; eg numbness, tingling, or pain in the face, torso, or extremities. This often occurs on one side of the body
  • functional visual symptoms; including vision loss or double vision

Episodes of altered consciousness

  • Dissociative (non-epileptic) seizures, fainting spells, and fainting spells: These symptoms may overlap and may look like epileptic seizures or blackouts (syncope)

Symptoms often fluctuate and can vary from day to day or be present all the time. Some patients with a functional neurological disorder may experience a substantial or even complete remission followed by sudden relapses of symptoms.

Patients with the functional neurological disorder often experience other physical and psychological symptoms, but they may not be present. These include chronic pain, fatigue, trouble sleeping, memory symptoms, bowel and bladder symptoms, anxiety, and depression.

Causes functional neurological disorder

The exact cause of the functional neurological disorder is unknown, although ongoing research is beginning to provide suggestions on how and why it develops. Many different predisposing factors can make patients more susceptible to FND, such as having another neurological condition, experiencing chronic pain, fatigue, or stress. However, some people with functional neurological disorders do not have any of these risk factors.

By the time FND begins, studies have shown that there can be triggers such as a physical injury, infectious disease, panic attack, or migraine that can give someone the first experience of symptoms. These symptoms usually go away on their own.

However, in FND the symptoms “get stuck” in a “pattern” in the nervous system. This “pattern” is reflected in altered brain function. The result is a genuine and disabling problem, which the patient cannot control. The goal of treatment is to “retrain the brain,” for example, by unlearning abnormal and dysfunctional movement patterns that have developed and re-learning normal movement.

One way to think about FND is to think of it as a “software” problem on a computer. The “hardware” is not damaged, but there is a problem with the “software”, so the computer does not work, it does not work properly. Conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is usually normal in FND unless the person has another neurological condition.

Functional brain scans (fMRI) are beginning to provide early evidence of how the brain fails in FND. Functional magnetic resonance imaging shows changes in FND patients who look different from healthy patients without these symptoms, as well as from healthy people who “pretend” to have these symptoms.

Functional imaging is still a research tool and is not sufficiently developed to be used in the diagnosis of FND. The scans support what patients and researchers already know: These are genuine disorders in which there is a change in how the brain works, which is beyond the control of the person with FND.

Diagnosis of functional neurological disorder

The diagnosis of a functional neurologic disorder depends on the positive features of the history and examination.

Positive features of functional softness on examination include the Hoover sign, when there is the weakness of hip extension that regularizes with contralateral hip flexion, and the abductor thigh sign, thigh abduction weakness which is normalized with the abduction of the contralateral thigh. Signs of functional tremors include entrainment and distraction.

The trembling patient should be asked to copy the rhythmic movements with one hand or one foot. If the tremor on the other hand follows the same rhythm, stops, or if the patient has trouble copying a simple movement, this may indicate a functional tremor.

Functional dystonia usually presents with an inverted ankle stance or with a clenched fist. Positive features of dissociative or nonepileptic seizures include prolonged immobile unresponsiveness, long-lasting episodes (> 2 minutes), and dissociative symptoms before the seizure. These signs can be usefully discussed with patients when making the diagnosis.

Patients with functional movement disorders and limb faintness may experience the onset of symptoms triggered by an episode of acute pain, bodily injury, or physical trauma. They may also experience symptoms when faced with a psychological stressor, but this is not the case for most patients. Patients with functional neurological disorders are more likely to have a history of another disease, such as irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pelvic pain, or fibromyalgia, but this cannot be used to make a diagnosis.

FND does not show up on blood tests or structural brain images, such as MRI or CT. However, this is also the case for many other neurological conditions, so negative investigations should not be used alone to make the diagnosis. However, FND can occur along with other neurological diseases, and tests can show nonspecific abnormalities that confuse clinicians and patients.

Treatment for a functional neurological disorder

There is no best treatment for a conversion disorder. A physician is likely to provide support and reassurance and tailor treatment goals to the specific situation.

Most doctors will explain the limits of what the physical exam and tests could show about symptoms. They try to avoid confronting the individual with the idea that the symptoms are “false”, because the symptoms are often distressing and are not under the control of the person. It is helpful to avoid overly intrusive and uncomfortable medical tests, while still monitoring symptoms.

Symptoms occasionally go away on their own after the stress has been reduced, the conflict has been resolved, or the family or public has responded with concern and support.

If symptoms do not recover relatively quickly, more vigorous rehabilitation may be required. Physical or occupational therapy can be helpful.

Psychotherapy can deliver relief, although there is no evidence that one type of therapy is more effective than another. Many therapists will focus on encouragement and motivational interviewing, with the goal of improving functioning.

If the source of the conflict or stress can be determined, it can be helpful to know what triggered the symptoms. For instance, the person may be in conflict about leaving home, starting a new job, or having a first child.

In psychotherapy, the person can learn to cope with conflict or withdraw from the source of distress. In either case, the physical symptoms can go away. Performance remains a higher priority than knowledge.

As with psychotherapy, there is no single drug that is best for this disorder. Medication can be helpful in treating an underlying problem with anxiety or depression.

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Symptoms of Central Nervous System Depression | Neurology

What is central nervous system depression?

Central command brain. It commands his lungs and lungs to breathe and his heart to beat. It controls all the other parts of your body and mind, how you feel, and interacts with the world around you. The spinal cord maintains nerve impulses, allowing your brain to communicate with the rest of your body.

When the functions of the CNS slow down, this is called central nervous system depression. Slowing down a bit is not dangerous. Of course, sometimes it even helps. But if it slows down too much, it can quickly turn into a fatal event. People should use sleeping pills, pain relievers, and other CNS depressants with caution.

A person can benefit from taking the correct dose of central nervous system depression patients, such as opioid pain relievers. However, an overdose of these drugs can reduce CNS activity to dangerous levels. The CNS contains the brain and spinal cord. It regulates many bodily functions, including breathing and the heart, sending messages through the spinal cord between the brain and other nerves.

It plays a role in essential physiological processes:

Involuntary processes: These do not require conscious thought. These regulate vital organs such as the heart, lungs, and stomach. They are responsible for functions that include digestion and blood circulation.

Voluntary processes: These include conscious thinking. They allow people to move their arms and legs or blink. Central nervous system depression patients are drugs and other substances that slow down the CNS. Most central nervous system depression patients work by increasing the chemistry of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which inhibits or slows the transmission of messages between cells. 

Symptoms of central nervous system depression

Mild CNS decline can make you feel less anxious and more relaxed. Therefore, central nervous system depression patients are used to treat anxiety and insomnia. People with CNS depression have various overdose symptoms. Factors affecting the impact of CNS depression:

  • Type and dose of a substance
  • The severity of illness or injury
  • The size of the person
  • The individual’s medical history
  • Mild symptoms
  • Mild symptoms of CNS depression
  • Lack of coordination and little sense of space.
  • Muscular weakness
  • sloth
  • Dizziness
  • Disorientation
  • Speaks slow or stutters
  • Short piri or shallow breathing
  • Heart rate decreased slightly
  • Constipation
  • Dry mouth
  • Volatility and anxiety
  • Unhappy
  • Blurred, altered, or double vision
  • Severe symptoms
  • Symptoms of acute CNS depression:
  • Decreased heart rate
  • Respiratory rate less than 10 breaths per minute
  • Severe confusion or memory loss
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Lack of criteria
  • Blue lips or fingers
  • Irritability and aggression
  • Cold or clammy skin
  • Sudden and intense mood change
  • Slow reactions

If a person has any of these symptoms, they should seek medical attention immediately. Lastly, severe symptoms can lead to unresponsiveness, coma, and death.

Long-term effects: Continued use of some CNS depressants is harmful in the long term because the body cannot excrete these substances.

Effects can include:

  • Thinking, memory, and judgment problems.
  • Confusion and confusion
  • Muscular weakness
  • Loss of coordination
  • Speak slow

Also, a person may need more and more medications to experience the same benefits. This leads to a greater dependence on needs. Some people may need rehabilitation treatment to stop taking medicine.

Severely depressed CNS can lead to forgetfulness or coma. Without prompt treatment, it can be fatal.

Causes central nervous system depression?

Some drugs affect the neurotransmitters in your brain, causing brain activity to decrease. It makes your breathing slow and shallow. Slow heart rate.

Common causes of central nervous system depression are the use of drugs, medications, or alcohol. Initially, they cause a mild stimulating effect or a sensation of pleasure. But make no mistake about it, these substances are CNS depressants. Some specific antidepressants:

Barbiturates: They are sometimes prescribed before surgery. They can also be used as anticonvulsants. Because they are so powerful, they are not currently prescribed for anxiety and insomnia.

Medicines of this group:

  • Mephoborbital (Mabral)
  • Sodium Pentobarbital (Nembutal)
  • Phenobarbital (luminal sodium)
  • Benzodiazepines

These medications, which are considered safer than barbiturates, are prescribed to treat anxiety and insomnia. There are many benzodiazepines, which you may have heard of:

  • Alprazolam (Genox)
  • Diazepam (volume)
  • Triazolam (holcian)
  • Opiates
  • They are usually prescribed for pain. Common opioids include:
  • Codeine
  • Hydrocodone (Vicodin)
  • Morphine (Kadian)
  • Oxycodone (Percocet)
  • Heroin is also an opiate.
  • Sleeping pills
  • Some sleep aids also fall into this category. In addition to:
  • Eszopiclone (Lunesta)
  • Jaleplan (Sonata)
  • Zolpidem (Ambien)

In small doses, these medications can slow down brain function and cause a feeling of calm or sleepiness. An overdose can reduce your heart and breathing rates. Risk when the CNS slows down too much, which can lead to loss of consciousness, coma, and death.

Combining alcohol with other central nervous system depression patients improves its effectiveness and, in many cases, can be fatal.

Medical causes: Central nervous system depression can also be caused by serious health events.

Chronic medical conditions can lead to CNS depression. These include:

  • Diabetes
  • Thyroid problems
  • Liver disease
  • Nephropathy

Direct injury to the brain can also cause CNS depression. These include:

  • Brain aneurysm
  • Tumor
  • Career
  • Infection
  • Injury from a fall or accident.

Any event that causes a decrease in blood flow and oxygen to the brain, such as a severe heart attack, can also lead to CNS depression.

Other reasons

Many other things in your environment can cause central nervous system depression when ingested or inhaled. One of those products is a chemical found in a wide variety of consumer goods, including ethylene glycol, antifreeze, and de-icing products. When taken, this chemical is toxic to the CNS, kidneys, and heart. It can cause serious health problems, including death.

The risk factor of central nervous system depression

When people use CNS depressants, it can be dangerous for several reasons:

  • Dependence
  • Withdrawal symptoms when use is discontinued
  • Overdose
  • Long-term adverse effects

Abuse can occur if one person uses another person’s action medications, takes more than the recommended dose, or uses medications that have not been prescribed by a doctor.

Combining ingredients: The combination of central nervous system depression patients, for example, alcohol with sleeping pills is dangerous. The combination of CNS depressants, opioids, and alcohol increases its effectiveness. There can be serious adverse reactions and fatal consequences.

Sometimes a person may not realize that there is an overdose risk when using opioid pain relievers and then drinking alcohol. First, people should check with their doctor to see if it is safe to take medications for CNS depression and any of the following:

Alcohol:

  • Over-the-counter medications with symptoms similar to pain relievers
  • Allergy medications
  • Sleeping aids
  • Tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants (TCAs) also exacerbate the effects of CNS depressants, especially drowsiness.

Dependence and withdrawal: Some CNS depressants become less effective over time, causing the person to feel the need to take larger doses. If they stop using the drug, the original symptoms will return more severe than before. A person who wants to stop using a CNS depressant should do so gradually to avoid adverse effects. Your doctor can help you do this.

Overdose: Central nervous system depression overdose can happen by accident, but people sometimes choose to take more than the recommended dose for a “severe” effect. This can lead to an overdose and death. People deliberately take high doses of these drugs to end their lives.

A person can recover from an overdose, but research in the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology shows that some people continue to have problems with daily functioning after leaving the hospital.

Long-term effects: Some types of central nervous system depression can also have long-term effects, causing someone to have trouble thinking, confusion, speech problems, loss of coordination, and muscle weakness. Addiction to CNS depressants can see a person’s social and family problems, difficulties at work, and the inability to work on a daily basis.

Opioid Crisis: Some Statistics

Since 2000, more than 300,000 Americans have died from opioid overdoses. Data from 2016 estimated at least 64,000 overdose deaths from overdose, the highest number ever recorded in the United States.

Treatment for central nervous system depression

Serious symptoms of central nervous system depression include loss of consciousness, coma, and death. Anyone with these symptoms needs immediate medical attention. Treatment of CNS depression or CNS depression overdose depends on the ingredients.

Some CNS medications contain antidotes that can reverse their effects. These include naloxone for opioid overdose and flumazenil for benzodiazepine overdose. A person may need emergency care if they do not know they are overdosing on CNS depression, especially after accidentally abusing their medicine or due to a medical problem.

Anyone with signs of CNS depression or an overdose in someone else should call emergency services or the local Poison Control Center for guidance.

In these cases, treatment may include:

  • Monitors a person’s heart and breathing rate.
  • Giving oxygen through an oxygen mask or respirator
  • Give stimulant medications to increase a person’s heart rate

Prevention of central nervous system depression

If you have a medical condition that causes central nervous system depression, talk to your doctor. Discuss the best way to maintain your health and how to identify complications from your illness in advance.

When your doctor prescribes an action ointment, make sure you understand its purpose and how long it will take. Ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain the potential risks.

To reduce the chances of CNS depression due to substances, follow these tips:

  • Tell your doctor about other medications you take and any other medical conditions you have, including problems with addiction.
  • Follow directions for taking your medications. Never increase the dose without consulting your doctor. Consult with your doctor when you want to stop taking the medication.
  • When taking CNS depressants, don’t drink alcohol or take other medications that are also CNS depressants.
  • Inform your doctor if you’re having troubling side effects.
  • Never share prescription medications with others. Store medicines, alcohol, and other potentially hazardous materials safely away from children and pets.
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Overview of Heart Failure in Children | Cardiology

What is heart failure in children?

The most common cause of heart failure in children is congestive heart failure, in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body’s organs. The heart continues to pump, but not as efficiently as a healthy heart. In general, heart failure reflects a progressive underlying heart condition.

For a child to grow and develop, the heart needs to maintain a normal pumping function, providing adequate blood flow throughout the body. However, sometimes a child’s heart may not function normally. The term “cardiac arrest” describes a dysfunctional heart. This does not mean that the heart has stopped working, but that it is not working.

Heart failure in children is caused by smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and faulty heart valves. It can occur in newborns, young children, young children, and adolescents for other reasons. Because heart failure has different causes and outcomes, it is important to identify how it is diagnosed, treated, and cured in young children.

How is heart failure in children identified?

Heart failure in children is often accompanied by shortness of breath, poor diet, poor growth, excessive sweating, or low blood pressure. Sometimes heart failure can be similar to other problems, such as colic, pneumonia, or other respiratory infections.

Parents often notice that it takes a long time to feed the baby or that they are not interested in feeding after a short time. If the heartbeat is caused by a very fast heartbeat, parents may experience a rapid heartbeat through the chest wall while the baby is sleeping or resting peacefully.

Older children and teens can quickly complain of fatigue, especially if the virus infection damages the heart muscle.

Causes of heart failure in children

Heart failure is more common in children with certain congenital heart defects (congenital heart defects). These include defects like holes in the heart, which increase blood flow from one side of the heart to the other. It alters the dynamics of blood flow and weakens one side of the heart. The heart then becomes unable to support blood flow, resulting in further deterioration of heart function.

Other types of heart problems, such as cardiomyopathy, can also cause heart failure, a condition that affects the pumping function of the heart. Some non-heart problems, such as kidney failure, are caused by changes in the body’s fluid balance or hormonal changes that lead to high blood pressure.

Risk factors for heart failure in children

  • Smoking
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • The high blood level of cholesterol
  • Physical inactivity
  • Obesity
  • Family history of early-onset heart disease

Symptoms of heart failure in children

Symptoms are slightly different for each child. They can include:

  • Swelling of the feet, ankles, calves, abdomen, liver, and cervix (edema)
  • Difficulty breathing, especially with rapid breathing, shortness of breath, or excessive coughing
  • Poor diet and weight gain (in babies)
  • Feeling tired
  • Excessive sweating when eating, playing, or exercising
  • Irritated

Older children may also have:

  • Weight loss
  • Passing out
  • Chest pain

The severity of the symptoms depends on how much the heart’s pumping ability is affected.

The symptoms of heart failure are similar to those of other conditions. See your child’s healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

Diagnosis of heart failure in children

Your child’s doctor will obtain a complete medical history and physical exam by asking questions about your child’s appetite, breathing patterns, and energy level. Other diagnostic procedures for heart failure may include:

  • Blood and urine tests
  • Chest X-ray: A diagnostic test that uses invisible X-rays to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): A test that records the electrical activity of the heart shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmia or dysrhythmia) and can detect problems with the heart muscle.
  • Echocardiogram (echo): A noninvasive test that uses sound waves to study the movement of the heart’s chambers and valves. The echo sound waves create an image on the monitor when the ultrasound transducer passes over the heart.
  • Cardiac catheterization (cath): Assault test that inserts a small catheter into the heart from the groin or arm. It allows the different pressures within the heart to be measured to help detect heart failure. Also, a heart tissue biopsy can be obtained to determine the root cause of heart failure.

Treatment for heart failure in children

Treatment of heart failure in children depends on the cause of the problem. Most heart defects resolve on their own over time, and some can resolve with medication. Sometimes surgery or other procedures may be necessary. In some cases, your child may need a combination of therapies.   

Medicine

For some heart problems, children can take medicine after they get better. Medicines sometimes need to be taken for many years or even the child’s entire life.

Surgery

Heart surgery can provide a lifelong cure for certain heart conditions. The cardiac surgeon will discuss the risks and benefits with you in detail. Sometimes surgery can be delayed until your child is older and stronger, which means they will be able to tolerate the surgery better. Depending on the condition of your child, multiple operations may be required.

In very rare cases where surgery, procedures, or medications do not help, children may need a heart transplant.

Other procedures

Some procedures involve placing a narrow tube called a catheter into the heart through a vein to treat a heart defect. Your child will be given general anesthesia for this procedure.

Prognosis

All results depend on the cause. If the bleeding is constant due to a structural problem of the heart, the result is excellent.

Children with large ventricular septal defects, whose pores are small or surgically closed, can lead normal lives. Children with more complicated congenital heart disease may have more variable outcomes.

Older children with cardiomyopathy can progress if the cause of the cardiomyopathy is not reversible. The key to managing heart failure is making a proper diagnosis, staying in contact with a cardiologist, and taking prescribed medications daily.

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Common Heart Conditions in Children | Cardiology

What Are Heart Conditions In Children?

Heart disease is a very broad term for many things that can go wrong with the heart—in both adults and children. Narrow the focus to children, and the term still encompasses many different types of heart conditions in children that range from a condition that has no symptoms and is never diagnosed, to a problem that is severe and potentially life-threatening that is apparent at birth.

If you are looking for information about a specific disease i.e., heart conditions in children, and would like to know more about its symptoms, how the disease develops over time, and how heart conditions in children are treated, the list below is a good place to start. Some of the most common heart conditions in children are listed as either congenital (present from birth) or acquired (developed after birth).

Congenital heart conditions

  • Anomalous Coronary Arteries/Fistulas
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
  • L-Transposition of the Great Arteries
  • Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return
  • Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD)
  • Tricuspid Atresia
  • Truncus Arteriosus
  • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
  • Coarctation of the Aorta/Interrupted Aortic Arch
  • D-Transposition of the Great Arteries
  • Pulmonary Atresia
  • Pulmonary Stenosis
  • Aortic Stenosis/Bicuspid Aortic Valve
  • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
  • Ebstein’s Anomaly
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Vascular Ring/Sling

Acquired heart disease

  • Dilated Cardiomyopathy
  • Rheumatic Fever
  • Kawasaki Disease
  • Myocarditis
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
  • Pericarditis
  • Endocarditis

Signs of heart conditions in children

Signs of heart conditions in children vary depending on the condition, the child’s age, and whether or not the heart condition or disease was acquired before the baby was born or during infancy.

Heart conditions in children

Signs of potential heart conditions in children can include:

  • Difficulty gaining weight
  • Bluish color to the lips, tongue, or nail bed
  • Difficulty feeding
  • Rapid or rapid breathing, or difficulty breathing, even at rest
  • Fatigue easily while eating
  • Sweating during breastfeeding
  • Call your doctor right away if you notice that your child is showing any of these signs or symptoms

Heart conditions in young children

In young children, look for:

  • Loss of consciousness during physical exercise or activity
  • Heart palpitations: A heartbeat that seems funny or moody for the child
  • Shortness of breath during play or activity
  • Chest pain

What causes heart conditions in children?

Sometimes there is a defect in the walls of the heart (such as a hole in the heart) or a problem with the valves (for example, they may be too narrow or completely blocked). This means either that blue and red blood is mixed together, or the heart may not be pumping well. When these problems occur, the body may not get the normal amount of oxygen.

Usually, a heart defect appears while the baby is still growing in the womb. It is not caused by anything the mother did during pregnancy, and doctors often cannot know the cause of the defect. Sometimes, heart problems are caused by genetic factors (there is a family history of heart defects). Sometimes, childhood illnesses damage the heart. Children can develop heart problems after contracting a viral (virus) infection. However, this is extremely rare.

Treatment of heart conditions in children

Once your child’s problem is diagnosed, the next step is to correct it. For some children, immediate intervention will not be necessary. For others, pharmacologic, interventional catheterization, or surgery may be the recommended course of treatment.

Medications

  • ACE (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme) Inhibitors: ACE inhibitors relax arteries throughout the body, lower blood pressure and reduce the workload on the heart. It is useful in treating heart failure and high blood pressure. Medicines commonly used in this class are captopril, enalapril, and lisinopril.
  • Antiarrhythmics: A group of medicines used to treat heart rhythm disorders.
  • Beta-Blockers: A class of drugs used to treat various disorders related to the circulatory system. These medications slow the effect of adrenaline, slow the heart rate, reduce pressure in blood vessels, and reduce the strength of heart contractions. They are useful for treating heart failure, high blood pressure, and some heart rhythm disorders. It is also used to control migraines and fainting spells. This large group includes propranolol, atenolol, and metoprolol.
  • Digoxin: Digoxin (a type of digitalis) is one of the oldest heart medications, it makes the contraction of the heart muscle stronger and more efficient, slows the heart rate, and helps remove excess fluid from the body tissues. It’s sometimes used to treat heart failure and some heart rhythm disorders. Lanoxin is a popular drug in this class.
  • Diuretics: In children, diuretics are the medications most commonly used to manage mild to moderate degrees of congestive heart failure. These medications help the body get rid of water and salt. This group includes furosemide (“Lasix”), bumetanide, and spironolactone.

Interventional catheterization

For the many children with heart problems, surgery was the only treatment option. Today, minimally invasive procedures, such as interventional catheters, are often considered the first treatment option and are performed routinely in place of surgery. Interventional catheterization can provide a permanent solution for some conditions or a short-term solution for heart conditions in children who will need surgery later.

Diagnostic vs. Interventional catheterization

What is the difference? In terms of what your child will experience, and how you will prepare for the procedure, there is very little, if any, difference between diagnostic and interventional catheters. In both procedures, thin, flexible catheters are inserted into a vein or artery in the groin area and directed to the heart.

Catheters and balloon stents may be used to open narrowed valves or arteries. There are also special files and devices that are inserted through the catheter, used to block unwanted blood vessels and holes in the wall between the chambers of the heart.

Advanced imaging for earlier diagnosis

Our PCPs and emergency clinics utilize the most recent imaging gear and innovation to rapidly and precisely analyze an assortment of cardiovascular sicknesses, so patients can get therapy as fast as could reasonably be expected.

In the event that your youngster gives indications or manifestations of procured coronary illness, our pediatric cardiologist will probably suggest either an echocardiogram or attractive reverberation imaging of the heart (MRI). An echocardiogram is a non-invasive cardiology procedure that uses sound waves to evaluate the heart’s structure and function. An echocardiogram is used to diagnose and monitor the progression of this heart disease. However, in some cases, the cardiologist may want a more specialized image of your heart called a cardiac MRI. Cardiac MRI can produce 3D images of heart organs and tissues that enable specialists to more accurately evaluate heart function, the extent of the infection, or inflammation of the heart in disorders such as myocarditis.

Follow-up

After your child is treated for a heart defect, he or she will have regular check-ups with the cardiologist and/or pediatrician. For problems not related to their heart, they can still see your GP. If you are concerned about your child, talk to your child’s doctor, pediatrician, or cardiologist.

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What are Heart Problems in Children? | Cardiology

Overview of heart problems in children

Congenital malformations are abnormalities in the formation of the heart and/or its main blood vessels. These heart problems occur at birth in eight out of 1,000 babies, but go undiagnosed for many years. The abnormalities range from simple defects, such as a small hole in the wall between the two chambers of the heart, to more complex problems.

Although congenital heart defects are one of the most common birth defects, it can be difficult to know if your child has one. Most heart problems recover during pregnancy or immediately after birth, but others may not be apparent until the baby is a little older.

Heart disease in children

Heart disease is very difficult when touched by adults, but it is especially tragic in children. Heart disease can occur for a variety of reasons, from viral infections to chromosomal abnormalities, and can arise as problems secondary to other diseases or conditions in the body. In most cases, the cause of heart disease is unknown.

The good news is that with the advancement of medicine and technology, many children with heart disease are living full and active lives.

Causes of heart problems in children

A congenital heart defect is a condition (or one of the main heart problems in children) that you are born into. Certain genetic (inherited) diseases or disorders, such as Down syndrome, are associated with congenital heart defects. Certain substances or diseases that a pregnant woman is exposed to can cause congenital heart defects in the fetus, some of which include prescription drugs, rubella (German measles), and uncontrolled diabetes.

Risk factors for heart problems in children

Risk factors for these heart problems in children are divided into two categories: major and contributing. The major risk factors of heart problems in children have been shown to increase your risk of heart disease. There is a risk of heart disease due to proportionate risk factors.

If you have higher risk factors, you are more likely to have heart disease. Some risk factors of heart problems in children can change, treat, or modify and others cannot. But by controlling as many risk factors as possible through lifestyle changes, medications, or both, you can lower your risk of heart disease.

Major risk factors for heart problems in children are:

  • High blood pressure (Hypertension)
  • High blood cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity and Overweight
  • Smoking
  • Physical Inactivity
  • Gender
  • Heredity
  • Age

Contributing risk factors to heart problems in children are:

  • Stress
  • Sex hormones
  • Birth control pills
  • Alcohol

Symptoms of heart problems in children

  • Heart murmurs (abnormal heartbeats), depending on the location and nature of the disorder.
  • Symptoms of cardiac arrest, increased breathing rate, shortness of breath, tachycardia
  • “Blue baby” syndrome, in which the skin changes color from lack of oxygen to blue or purple.
  • Clubfoot or spread with a nail that extends the fingers and toes
  • An abnormal increase in red blood cell circulation.
  • Liver dilation
  • Pulse that is hard to hear or has no pulse
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Signs of organ failure, including low urine output or kidney failure
  • The expansion of the heart’s chambers results in the need to work harder to overcome the defect.

Diagnosis of heart problems in children

To diagnose a congenital heart defect or any heart problems in children, your doctor may recommend that you or your baby have some of the following tests and procedures:

  • Echocardiography: Track your / your child’s progress over time to diagnose or not diagnose heart failure. Fetal echocardiography can sometimes diagnose congenital heart defects before the baby is born.
  • Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG): To evaluate the rhythm of the heartbeat.
  • Cardiac catheterization: Measure the pressure and oxygen levels within the chambers of the heart and blood vessels. This helps to know if blood is flowing from the left side of the heart to the right side of the heart instead of going to the rest of the body.
  • Chest X-ray: To show if the heart is dilated. It also shows whether there is excess blood flow or excess fluid in the lungs, which is a sign of heart failure.
  • Genetic testing: To find out if specific genes or genetic syndromes like Down syndrome are causing congenital heart defects. Your doctor can refer you or your child to a genetic testing specialist.
  • Cardiac MRI: Track your / your child’s progress over time to diagnose heart failure or not.
  • Pulse oximetry: Estimate the amount of oxygen in the blood. The small sensor is placed on the hand or foot of the baby or on the finger or toe of the elderly person.

Treatment for heart problems in children

Treatment for heart problems in children depends on the part of the heart affected. Some children do not need treatment if the effect on blood flow is minimal. Others require medication or intervention, such as cardiac catheterization or surgery. Some heart problems in children may not be treated right away, but wait until the child is an adult. Some heart problems in children are dealt with in stages. In such cases, there are options:

● Medications: Many medications help the heart work more efficiently. Some are also useful for preventing blood clots and controlling irregular heartbeats.

● Implantable heart devices: Some devices, such as pacemakers, can help control abnormal heart rates and implantable cardiovascular defibrillators (ICDs), which can correct irregular heart rates and prevent some of the problems associated with congenital heart defects.

● Catheter procedures: These allow doctors to surgically correct or repair congenital heart defects without opening the chest or heart. Here, the doctor inserts a catheter through a vein in the leg to guide the heart. Using small tools threaded through the catheter, he/she proceeds to correct the error. With the advancement of technology, many heart defects can be closed at the cathode in cathode procedures. This reduces the risks and complications of heart surgery.

● Open-heart surgery: These may be necessary if catheter procedures do not correct the error. These can close the openings of the heart, dilate the blood vessels, or repair the heart valves.

● Heart transplant: In cases where the congenital heart defect is too difficult to repair, a heart transplant may be used. In the process, the healthy donor heart replaces the patient’s heart.

Complications of heart problems in children

Congenital heart disease or heart problems in children can cause complications including:

  • Arrhythmia: The heart may beat very fast, very slow, or abnormally due to a defect or scarring after surgery.
  • Congestive heart failure: When the heart cannot efficiently pump oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body, symptoms affect various body systems.
  • Heart infections (endocarditis): This infection of the thin layer that lines the inside of the heart occurs when bacteria or other germs enter the bloodstream from another part of the body and remain in the heart. If left untreated, it can damage your heart valves or lead to a stroke.
  • Pulmonary hypertension: This type of high blood pressure only affects the arteries in the lungs. Some heart defects cause more blood to flow to the lungs. As pressure increases, the heart has to work harder, causing the muscles to weaken and sometimes fail. Permanent damage to the pulmonary artery can also occur.
  • Slower growth and development: Children with severe congenital heart defects may be younger and learn to walk and talk later than other children.
  • Stroke: Although rare, blood clots can travel to the brain through a hole in the heart or occur during corrective surgery.
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Congenital Heart Defects in Children – an Overview | Cardiology

What are congenital heart defects in children?

Congenital heart defects in children (CHDs) are the most well-known sort of birth deformity. With advances in medical care and treatment, children with CHD live longer and healthier lives. Find out more facts about coronary heart disease below.

What are congenital heart defects (CHDs)?

Coronary artery disease is present at birth and can affect the structure and functioning of a baby’s heart. It can affect how blood flows through the heart and out to the rest of the body. Coronary artery disease can vary from mild (such as a small hole in the heart) to severe (such as missing or poorly formed parts of the heart).

About 1 in 4 babies born with a heart defect suffer from critical coronary heart disease (also known as a serious congenital heart defect). Babies with critical coronary heart disease need surgery or other procedures in the first year of life.

Types of congenital heart defects in children

Babies and children with all types of congenital heart defects receive expert diagnosis and treatment from specialists at the Pediatric Congenital Heart Program. Congenital heart defects in children occur at birth and affect the heart or blood vessels. Hundreds of heart defects can arise as a baby develops in the womb, and some infants may have more than one. Some defects cause no health challenges for years; in fact, some may never pose a health risk.

However, many infants require treatment with surgery or catheter procedures to repair congenital heart defects in children immediately or in the first few months of life. Others may need medication as a bridge to surgery or other procedures, or as the only therapy to manage symptoms.

Our experts treat babies and children with all types of congenital heart defects in children, including:

  • Aortic valve stenosis
  • Atrial septal defect
  • Ebstein’s anomaly
  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
  • Interrupted aortic arch
  • Coarctation of the aorta
  • Complete atrioventricular canal defect
  • Patent ductus arteriosus
  • Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
  • Transposition of the great arteries
  • Tricuspid atresia
  • Pulmonary valve stenosis
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Truncus arteriosus
  • Ventricular septal defect

Symptoms of congenital heart defects in children

Serious congenital heart defects in children usually appear soon after birth or within the first few months of life. They can include signs and symptoms:

  • Pale gray or blue skin color (cyanosis)
  • Rapid breathing
  • Swelling in the legs, abdomen, or areas around the eyes
  • Shortness of breath during feeding, resulting in poor weight

Less serious congenital heart defects in children may not be diagnosed until later in childhood, because your child may not show any noticeable signs of a problem. If signs and symptoms occur in older children, they may include:

  • Feeling short of breath easily during exercise or activity
  • Fatigue easily during exercise or activity
  • Fainting during exercise or activity
  • Swelling in the hands, ankles, or feet

Causes of congenital heart defects in children

Doctors don’t always know why a child has a congenital heart defect. It tends to run in families. Things that make congenital heart defects in children more likely include:

  • Genetic or chromosomal problems in a child, such as Down syndrome
  • Taking certain medications or alcohol or drug abuse during pregnancy
  • A viral infection, such as rubella (rubella) in the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy

How are heart defects treated?

Youngsters with minor heart deformities may not require any treatment. However, some children suffer from severe symptoms that require medical or surgical treatment during the first year of life. They will be taken care of:

  • Pediatric cardiologists: Doctors who specialize in treating children’s heart problems
    or
  • Pediatric heart surgeons: Specialists in pediatric heart surgery

Procedures performed through cardiac catheterization – such as balloon angioplasty or valvuloplasty – can dilate blood vessels or a blocked valve. Another procedure, blockage of the catheter device, can close abnormal openings or holes in the heart or blood vessels without surgery.

Some problems, such as small or medium-sized ventricular septal defects, may close or get smaller as the child grows. While waiting for the hole to close, the child may have to take medications. Complex Congenital heart defects in children detected early may need a series of processes ending when the child is approximately 3 years old.

Testing and diagnosis of congenital heart disease

Several serious congenital heart diseases are detected during pregnancy, during a routine ultrasound examination. Other conditions may be diagnosed soon after birth. Less serious heart conditions may not be diagnosed until children get older and begin to show certain signs or symptoms of congenital heart disease.

During pregnancy, if your doctor thinks your baby may have CHD, you will likely be referred to a pediatric cardiologist for further testing. The type of diagnostic tests performed will depend on the form of coronary heart disease your child may have. Examples of tests used include a fetal echocardiogram, electrocardiogram (EKG), magnetic resonance imaging of the heart (MRI), and cardiac catheterization. If you are referred to the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, you will be seen through the Heart Center’s Fetal Heart Program.

Risk factors for congenital heart defects in children

Most Congenital heart defects in children are caused by problems early in the development of your baby’s heart, and the cause is unknown. However, some environmental and genetic risk factors may play a role. They include:

  • Rubella (German measles): German measles infection during pregnancy can cause problems with the development of your baby’s heart. Your doctor can test for immunity to this viral disease before pregnancy and vaccinate you against it if you are not immune.
  • You can reduce the risk of Congenital heart defects in children by carefully controlling diabetes before trying to conceive and during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes generally does not increase your baby’s risk of developing a heart defect.
  • Some medications taken during pregnancy may cause birth defects, including congenital heart defects. Provide your doctor with a complete list of all medications you take before trying to conceive.
  • Medicines known to increase the risk of congenital heart defects include thalidomide (Thalomide), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACE), statins, acne medication isotretinoin (Absorica, Amnstim, and Claravis), and lithium.
  • Drinking alcohol during pregnancy: Avoid drinking alcohol during pregnancy because it increases the risk of Congenital heart defects in children.
  • Smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of a congenital heart defect in the baby.
  • Congenital heart defects in children sometimes run in families and may be associated with an inherited syndrome. Many children with Down syndrome – which is caused by an extra chromosome 21 (trisomy 21) – have heart defects. A missing (deleted) piece of genetic material on chromosome 22 also causes heart defects.
  • Genetic testing can detect such disturbances during fetal development. If you already have a baby with a congenital heart defect, a genetic counselor can estimate the odds that your next child will have it.

Complications of congenital heart defects in children

Complications depend on the type of congenital heart defect you have. Include some potential complications:

  • Arrhythmia
  • Blood clots
  • Developmental disorders and delays: Children with congenital heart defects are more likely to have behavior problems. They are also more likely to have speech and attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder.
  • Emotional health issues: Depression, anxiety, and PTSD are common among people with congenital heart defects.
  • Endocarditis: A type of heart inflammation
  • Endocrine disorders: Include thyroid problems, bone health problems, and diabetes. Problems with the hormones that deal with calcium can cause bone problems.
  • Heart failure: Heart failure is the leading cause of death in adults with congenital heart defects. Some children with congenital heart defects develop heart failure.
  • Kidney disease
  • Liver disease
  • Pneumonia: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in adults with congenital heart disease.
  • Pregnancy complications: Women with congenital heart defects are at increased risk of developing complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Read more in the Living With section.
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Stroke

Outlook and follow-up care for congenital heart disease

Children with congenital heart disease are monitored by specialists called pediatric cardiologists. These doctors diagnose heart disease and help manage children’s health before and after surgical repair of a heart problem. The specialists who correct heart problems in the operating room are known as pediatric cardiovascular surgeons or cardiothoracic surgeons.

It is imperative that individuals born with congenital heart disease who have reached adulthood transition to the appropriate type of heart care. The type of care required depends on the type of CHD the person has. Generally, people with mild types of Congenital heart defects in children can be cared for by a community adult cardiologist. People with more complex types of coronary heart disease will need care at a center that specializes in adult congenital heart disease, such as the Philadelphia Adult Congenital Heart Center.

How can congenital heart disease be prevented?

Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant can take certain precautions to reduce the risk of having a baby with a congenital heart defect:

  • If you are planning to become pregnant, talk to your doctor about any prescription or over-the-counter medicines you are taking.
  • If you have diabetes, make sure your blood sugar levels are controlled before pregnancy. It is also important to work with your doctor to manage illness during pregnancy.
  • If you have not been vaccinated against rubella or rubella, avoid exposure to the disease and talk to your doctor about prevention options.
  • If you have a family history of congenital heart defects, ask your doctor about genetic testing. Certain genes may contribute to abnormal heart development.
  • Avoid drinking alcohol and using drugs during pregnancy.
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Overview of Nervous System Problems in Women | Neurology

What are the nervous system problems in women?

The nervous system problems in women may be a complex and complicated system that regulates and coordinates bodily activities. it’s made from two main divisions, including the following:

  • Central system nervous: It consists of the brain and medulla spinalis.
  • Peripheral system nervous: It consists of all the opposite neural elements, including the peripheral nerves and therefore the autonomic nerves.

In addition to the brain and medulla spinalis, the main organs of the system nervous include the following:

  • Eyes
  • Ears
  • Sensory organs of taste
  • Sensory organs of smell
  • Sensory receptors located within the skin, joints, muscles, and other parts of the body.

The nervous system is subject to various disorders. It can be harmed by the following:

  • Trauma
  • Infections
  • Degeneration
  • Structural defects
  • Tumors
  • Interruption of blood flow
  • Autoimmune disorders

Nervous system problems in women can involve the following:

  • Vascular disorders, like stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, and extradural hematoma and hemorrhage
  • Infections, like meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and epidural abscess
  • Structural disorders, like brain or medulla spinalis injury, Bell’s palsy, cervical spondylosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, brain or medulla spinalis tumors, peripheral neuropathy, and Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Functional disorders, like headache, epilepsy, dizziness, and neuralgia
  • Degeneration, like paralysis, MS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s chorea, and Alzheimer’s disease

Symptoms of nervous system problems in women

The following are the foremost common general signs and symptoms of nervous system problems in women. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently.

Symptoms of nervous system problems in women can include:

  • Persistent or sudden headache
  • A headache that changes or is different
  • Loss of sensation or tingling
  • Weakness or loss of muscle strength
  • Loss of sight or diplopia
  • Memory loss
  • Impaired brain
  • Lack of coordination
  • Muscular stiffness
  • Tremors and seizures
  • Back pain that radiates to the feet, toes, or other parts of the body
  • Loss of muscle mass and difficulty speaking
  • New language impairment (expression or comprehension)

The symptoms of nervous system problems in women may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

There are many sorts of nervous system problems in women, including:

  • Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
  • Epilepsy
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Paralysis agitans
  • Migraines

Causes of nervous system problems in women

If you think that you simply or a beloved could also be affected by one among these nervous system problems in women, you’ll even be wondering what causes a nervous disorder. The causes of such dysfunction are often quite diverse. Both the medulla spinalis and therefore the brain is insulated by numerous membranes that will be susceptible to force and pressure. Peripheral nerves located deep under the skin also can be susceptible to damage. Nervous system problems in women can affect a whole neurological pathway or one neuron. Even a little alteration during a neuron’s structural pathway may result in dysfunction. As a result, neurological disorders are often thanks to a variety of causes, including:

  • Lifestyle-related causes
  • Infections
  • Genetics
  • Nutrition-related causes
  • Environmental influences
  • Physical injuries

Medications

Medication Options for nervous system problems in women

While it’s understandable that the thought of being diagnosed with a nervous disorder is often terrifying, it’s important to know that there are medication options for nervous system problems in women. These options can assist you or your beloved in better control your condition, reduce symptoms, and improve your quality of life.

Neurological drugs: Possible options for nervous system problems in women

The type of drugs which will be wont to treat your nervous disorder will depend upon your condition. Possible neurological drug options may include corticosteroids, which are often indicated for the treatment of MS . this sort of drug can help decrease inflammation. Medications that affect dopamine, like levodopa, are commonly utilized in the treatment of Parkinson’s to assist with stiffness and tremors.

Side effects of medicines

When taking medication to treat any condition or disorder, it’s important to know that you simply may experience certain side effects. The side effects of medicines associated with the treatment of neurological disorders may vary counting on your own situation and therefore the sort of medication in question. In some cases, you’ll develop a dependence on the drugs you’re taking. this will occur albeit it’s a prescription and you’re taking it to treat significant ill health, like a nervous disorder.

Depression and neurological problems

Depression and neurological problems are often interrelated. thanks to the debilitating nature of depression, people that suffer from it, also as neurological problems, can find it challenging to recover without professional assistance. There are many treatment options available that will assist you to treat your depression, including combination therapy with medications.

Dual diagnosis: Addiction and neurological disorders

Seeking the assistance of a middle that gives the power to form a dual diagnosis, as the diagnosis of an addiction aggravated by a nervous disorder, is critical to achieving optimal recovery. If one problem is treated but the opposite isn’t treated, the probabilities of a full recovery may decrease. At a treatment center that focuses on addressing both addiction and neurological issues, you’ll be ready to receive the critical assist you need for your addiction while ensuring that your nervous disorder is treated also.

Diagnosis of nervous system problems in women

Assessing and diagnosing harm to the sensory system is confounded and complex. A significant number of the equivalent symptoms happen in various mixes among the various issues. To additionally confound the symptomatic cycle, numerous issues don’t have complete causes, markers, or tests.

Notwithstanding a total clinical history and physical test, symptomatic strategies for nervous system problems in women may incorporate the accompanying:

  • Computed tomography scan (also called a CT or CAT scan)
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Electrodiagnostic tests, such as electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Arteriogram (also called an angiogram)
  • Spinal tap (also called a lumbar puncture)
  • Evoked potentials
  • Myelogram
  • Neurosonography
  • Ultrasound (also called sonography)

Treatment of nervous system problems in women

Neurological disorders are undoubtedly one of the foremost terrifying diseases that humans face. Other sorts of dysfunction, like cancer or viruses, are a minimum of easily understood, if not so easily treated. A malfunctioning pancreas, problematic because it could also be, doesn’t strike the guts of what it means to be human, and can basically leave its victim intact as an individual.

Knowledge is usually the sole power that exists against the vagaries of neurological diseases. Learning the causes of neurological problems can make the difference between a totally voting patient who is responsible for his or her own care decisions and a helpless and terrifying subject who is preoccupied with mysterious ailments that make no sense.

Therapies for neurological disorders

Aside from the question of cure, sometimes patients with neurological problems can receive rehabilitation as a part of an attempt to revive some lost function. this is often usually a hopeful sign because it is rare to seek out a patient assigned to therapy when there’s little or no hope of a minimum of partial recovery. Therapies for nervous system problems in women can often consist of:

  • Lifestyle changes to stop or minimize the impact of such conditions.
  • Physiotherapy to regulate symptoms and restore some function
  • Pain management, as many deficiencies are often related to considerable discomfort
  • Medications to revive function or prevent a worsening of the patient’s condition

Cognitive therapy treatments

One approach to treating primarily behavioral neurological problems is understood as cognitive behavioral therapy, formerly referred to as talk therapy. CBT focuses on reorienting a patient’s thoughts and behavior associated with their disability. While this is often obviously not an adequate response to several brain and systema nervosum disorders, like paralysis agitans or epilepsy, it’s shown a big effect in treating ADHD, anxiety, and other mood disorders. , and a spread of mainly psychogenic deficiencies.

It’s several advantages, one among which is that it doesn’t pose the danger of side effects like medications or other interventions might. CBT can often be administered by someone aside from a physician, although it must be administered by licensed therapists. it’ll often be among the primary options for patients, given its generally non-invasive nature.

Other therapeutic methods

Clearly, CBT isn’t necessary in the case of patients recovering from a stroke, traumatic injury, or degenerative brain diseases. In cases like these, other therapeutic methods are preferred. These can range from medications like neuroleptics (haloperidol and chlorpromazine, for example) that are wont to treat organic brain disorders like schizophrenia, to comparatively simple pain relievers, like ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and opiates to treat the painful effects of the many neurological diseases.

Residential inpatient neurological treatment centers

One of the choices nearby might be any number of residential inpatient neurological treatment centers. These institutions, sometimes mentioned simply as rehabilitation centers, often focus their attention on treatable disorders, the most ones being problems of alcoholic abuse and other chemical dependencies.

Luxury neurological treatment facilities

The sometimes bitter pill of relocation and treatment can be sweetened considerably at the prospect of admission to one of the many luxury neurological treatment facilities. They are mostly inpatient or residential care facilities but provide care in a resort-like setting.

Executive neurological treatment programs

Often, those with behavioral deficiencies, such as addictions to substances or processes, will have a difficult time breaking away from the ongoing demands of everyday life. They may have jobs that don’t allow them time off or family responsibilities. In cases like these, you can arrange treatment into an executive neurological treatment program that specializes in quickly addressing the needs of the inpatient clinical patient and quickly reintegrating them into their jobs and families.

Outpatient neurological rehabilitation and treatment programs

Sometimes patients and their care providers feel that the demands of hospital care are excessive or impossible due to life circumstances. In cases like this, outpatient neurological rehabilitation and treatment programs may be the most desirable option for treatment. By maintaining a stable residence, a patient in this type of therapeutic treatment course will often present to an outpatient clinic for a specified period to receive agreed-upon care.

Prescription and over-the-counter drugs

A valuable adjunct to the clinical care of those with nervous system problems in women is the provision of effective prescription and non-prescription medications. While not all brain and nervous system conditions respond to medication, a surprising number do, and it is rare for a healthcare provider to overlook such a powerful tool for managing the effects of neurological problems.

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Things to know about Multiple Sclerosis in Children | Neurology

What is multiple sclerosis in children?

Multiple Sclerosis in Children is a disorder of the central nervous system. This means that it affects the brain and spinal cord. It is an autoimmune disease as well as inflammatory – meaning that white blood cells, which protect against infection, enter the nervous system, and cause damage. The damage occurs because the myelin sheath, the protective covering of nerves, is stripped of antibodies produced by the immune system. (This is called demyelination). Multiple sclerosis is a long-term disease that can happen to anyone.

Multiple sclerosis begins in children or teenagers. About 98% have relapsing and migratory MS, versus 84% ​​of adults with MS. This means that symptoms come and go (relapse and remission). When symptoms disappear, the disease can still progress. This condition may also be called pediatric multiple sclerosis (POMS), early MS, or juvenile MS. Relapses seem to occur more often in children and teens. This group appears to recover from neurological disability more quickly but is at increased risk of cognitive difficulties that can affect schoolwork.

Symptoms of multiple sclerosis in children

MS symptoms depend on which nerves are affected. Because myelin damage is intermittent and can affect any part of the central nervous system, symptoms of MS are unpredictable and vary from person to person. In children, Multiple sclerosis is often the relapsing and dormant type. This means that the disease alternates between relapses, in which a person appears new symptoms, and calm, where there are only mild or no symptoms.

Attacks can last from days to weeks, and remission can last for months or years. Ultimately, the disease can progress to permanent disability. Most symptoms of multiple sclerosis in children are the same as in adults, include:

  • Weakness
  • Tingling and numbness
  • Eye problems, including vision loss, pain with eye movement, and double vision
  • Balance problems
  • Difficulty walking
  • Shivering
  • Spasticity (constant muscle contraction)
  • Problems with bowel and bladder control
  • Unclear

Symptoms such as weakness, numbness, tingling, and vision loss usually occur on one side of the body at a time. Mood disorders occur more frequently in children with MS. Depression is the most common, occurring in about 27 per cent of children with MS. Other frequent causes include:

  • Anxiety
  • Bipolar depression
  • Adjustment disorder
  • Panic disorder

Almost 30 per cent of children with multiple sclerosis have a cognitive impairment or problem with their thinking. Include the most affected activities:

  • Memory
  • Information processing
  • Executive functions like planning, organizing, and decision-making
  • Attention span
  • Speed and coordination performing tasks

Some symptoms appear more frequently in children but rarely in adults. These symptoms:

  • Seizures
  • Lethargy

Causes of multiple sclerosis in children

The cause of multiple sclerosis in children (and adults) is unknown. It is not contagious, and there is nothing that can be done to prevent it. However, there are several things that appear to increase your risk of developing it:

  • Genetics/family history: MS is not inherited from the parents, but if a child has certain sets of genes or a parent or sibling has MS, they are more likely to develop it.
  • Exposure to the Epstein-Barr virus: This virus may act as a trigger that releases MS in children exposed to it. However, many children are exposed to the virus and do not develop MS.
  • Low levels of vitamin D: MS is found more often in people in northern climates where there is less sunlight than around the equator. Our bodies need sunlight to produce vitamin D, so people in northern climates tend to have lower levels of vitamin D. Researchers believe this may imply a link between multiple sclerosis and low vitamin D. Additionally, low vitamin D levels increase the risk of relapse.
  • Exposure to smoking: Cigarette smoke, both direct use and passive exposure, has been shown to increase the risk of developing multiple sclerosis.

Evaluation and diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in children

Children who have been diagnosed with MS have a type called relapsing multiple sclerosis. This type of multiple sclerosis in children is characterized by recurrent episodes that cause new or worsening neurological symptoms, followed by periods without new symptoms, called remissions.

At the time of the first attack, it is not always clear whether the diagnosis of MS is appropriate because the relapsing disease has not yet occurred. New relapses or attacks will confirm your child’s diagnosis and provide insight to help their doctors better manage their care.

There is no single diagnostic test for MS. In most cases, MS is diagnosed in a combination of ways. Your child’s health care provider will take a thorough medical history and order tests that may include:

  • Neurological examination
  • Magnetic resonance imaging to check for lesions in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves
  • Lumbar puncture to check the cerebrospinal fluid for antibodies and proteins associated with multiple sclerosis

In some patients, the first MRI scan shows multiple lesions so closely aligned with MS that multiple sclerosis in children can be diagnosed after only one clinical attack. While not common, an early diagnosis can provide an important opportunity for early treatment.

Treatment of multiple sclerosis in children

Although there is no cure for multiple sclerosis in children, there are treatments aimed at reducing new lesions and relapses and slowing the progression of the disease:

  • Steroids can reduce inflammation and reduce the length and severity of relapses.
  • Plasma exchange, which removes antibodies that attack myelin, may be used to treat relapse if steroids do not work or are not tolerated.

Certain symptoms may be treated with other medicines to improve the quality of life. Physical, occupational and speech therapy can also be helpful for children with multiple sclerosis.

Follow-up care

Close follow-up of multiple sclerosis in children is vital to long-term outcomes, and this is provided at the CHOP Children’s Clinic with Multiple Sclerosis and Inflammatory Neurological Disorders. We closely follow children for evidence of relapse, and to monitor drug efficacy. Follow-up MRI studies will also be required on a regular basis, and we will personally review these images during clinic visits.

long-term outlook

Multiple sclerosis in children is a chronic condition that must be dealt with throughout life. The course of the disease is difficult to predict and varies from person to person. Some have long periods of remission while others have frequent seizures.