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Tests

Risk Factors, and Results of Electrocardiogram | Cardiology

What is an electrocardiogram (ECG)?

An electrocardiogram is commonly called an ECG or EKG and it is a simple test used to check the rhythm and electrical activity of your heart. Sensors attached to the skin are used to detect the electrical signals your heart produces each time it beats. A machine records these signals, and the doctor sees if they are abnormal.

The electrocardiogram can be ordered by a cardiologist or any doctor who thinks you have a heart problem, including your GP. This test can be done by a hospital, clinic, or healthcare professional who is specially trained in surgery by your GP. Despite the similar name, the electrocardiogram is not the same as the echocardiogram, which is a scan of the heart.

Natural electrical impulses coordinate the contractions of different parts of the heart, causing blood to flow. An electrocardiogram records these impulses to show the strength and timing of the electrical impulses as the heartbeats, the rhythm of the heartbeat (constant or irregular), and the passage through different parts of the heart. Changes in the ECG indicate heart conditions.

Why is an electrocardiogram done?

Your doctor may recommend an electrocardiogram to assess the health of your heart. This is a common part of checkups, especially for those over 40.

An electrocardiogram by itself does not diagnose all types of heart conditions or predict future heart problems. Provides important information about your heart health-related to your age, physical exam, medical history, and other tests.

  • Identify abnormal heart rhythms that cause blood to clot.
  • Identifying heart problems includes a recent or ongoing heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia), coronary artery occlusion, damaged areas of the heart muscle (from a previous heart attack), inflammation of the broken heart, and shock around the heart.
  • Identify non-cardiac conditions such as electrolyte imbalance and lung and lung diseases.
  • Heart attack, the progression of heart disease, or recovery from the effect of certain medications or pacemakers.
  • Eliminate hidden heart disease in patients undergoing surgery.

When are ECGs needed?

In some cases, having this test is very important. If you have symptoms of high blood pressure or heart disease, chest pain, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, or large heartbeat, you may need an electrocardiogram. You may need screenings or tests for professional purposes or if you have a personal or family history of heart disease, diabetes, or other accidents and want to start exercising.

How the test is done

You will be asked to remove all clothing and jewelry from your waist (including women’s bras) to place electrodes on specific areas of the chest wall, arms, and legs. The electrodes are held in place by rubber bands, suction cups, or adhesive pads.

Sometimes it is necessary to shave the skin where the electrode recording patches are placed to easily detect the electrical signal and reduce discomfort when removing the patches. For a standard 12-bottle ECG, the electrodes are placed in 4 positions on the 4 extremities and 6 on the chest wall. Sometimes additional leads are added for a 15-lead electrocardiogram.

You will be prompted to remain normal when the machine is turned on, and typically a sample (usually 3-4 seconds) from each electrode site is recorded. The electrocardiogram is usually constantly monitoring and may ask you to hold your breath for a short time during the procedure (to stop chest wall movement that interferes with the signal). The machine captures the electrical activity of the wires and then produces a graph with an up and down row that looks a bit like a geographic map but indicates the activity of your heart.

Types of electrocardiogram

The types of ECG are:

  • Standard (resting) ECG: The electrocardiogram measures the electrical activity of your heart while you lie down or rest in a semi-reclined position. This is the most common type of ECG.
  • Stress test (exercise ECG or tape test): This usually involves taking an electrocardiogram on a treadmill while you exercise. Show how exercise affects your heart. Helps diagnose and diagnose coronary artery disease and other types of heart disease. Medications are sometimes given instead of mimicking the effect of exercise on the heart.
  • Holter monitor (24-hour ECG or ambulatory ECG): This includes the use of an electronic electrocardiogram recorder 24 hours a day. It records the electrical activity of your heart for 24 hours. It can help diagnose arrhythmias (irregular or abnormal heartbeats).
  • Cardiac event recorders record an electrocardiogram for an extended period, a year or more. Portable cardiac event recorders record the electrical activity of the heart when you have symptoms. Adjustable loop recorders are mounted under the skin on your chest. They constantly record the electrical activity of your heart.

Results of ECG

For most people, an electrocardiogram is just a series of lines. However, each line corresponds to an electrical signal sent from the heart. Doctors can read and understand these lines, which indicate the general condition of the heart.

The operating physician or healthcare professional places the electrodes on a person’s skin, usually around the chest, and at 10 different points on the extremities. Each beat sends an electrical impulse. These electrodes select this pulse and record the activity as a waveform on a graph.

All of these take place in the eyelid, so an EKG is very important. An ECG can capture all these little details and record them for the doctor to analyze.

Risk factors of ECG

Electrocardiograms (EKGs) are safe, non-invasive, painless, and accident-free tests. The electrodes (adhesive patches) that connect the sensors to your chest do not send electrical shocks. People who undergo stress tests have a higher risk of having a heart attack, but this is related to exercise, not the EKG.

You may develop a mild rash or irritation of the skin where the electrodes are placed. If paste or gel is used to place the electrodes, you may have an allergic reaction. This irritation usually disappears without the need for treatment, once the patches are removed.

Specialists who handle ECG

  • Cardiac surgeons specialize in the surgical treatment of the heart and its vascular conditions. They are also known as cardiothoracic surgeons.
  • Pediatric cardiologists and cardiologists are interns or pediatricians who specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases or situations of the heart and its blood vessels.
  • Emergency medicine specialists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of sudden illness or injury and difficulties of chronic illness.
  • Interventional cardiologists are cardiologists who specialize in diagnosing and treating conditions and diseases of the heart and its blood vessels. They use catheter-based non-surgical procedures and imaging techniques.
  • Primary care providers include interns, family practitioners (family medicine physicians), pediatricians, geriatricians, physician assistants (PA), and nurse practitioners (NP). Primary care providers provide comprehensive health services and treat a wide variety of ailments and conditions.
  • Thoracic surgeons train in the surgical treatment of diseases of the chest, including the blood vessels, heart, lungs, and esophagus. They are also known as cardiothoracic surgeons.
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Specialists

Information neurologist | Neurology

What is a neurologist?

A neurologist is a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases that affect the nervous system. Neurology is the branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. The nervous system is a complex and sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates bodily functions.

The nervous system has two parts:

The central nervous system (CNS): CNS represents the brain and spinal cord.

The peripheral nervous system (PNS): PNS contains all the nerves outside the CNS.

Due to the complex nature of the nervous system, many neurologists focus on treating people or a specific population of people with specific neurological diseases. After completing their residency training, most neurologists will spend a year or more in a fellowship program where they will gain experience in their subspecialty.

Examples of subdivisions in the field of neurology:

  • Pediatric or child neurology
  • Neurodevelopmental disabilities
  • Neuromuscular medicine
  • Hospice Neurology and Palliative Care
  • Pain drug
  • Headache drug
  • Sleep drug
  • Vascular neurology
  • Autonomic disorders
  • Neuropsychiatry
  • Brain injury drug
  • Neurocritical attention
  • Epilepsy

What conditions do they treat?

Neurologists treat neurological conditions that affect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. These conditions are:

  • Race
  • Epilepsy
  • Headaches and migraines
  • Brain tumors
  • Brain aneurysms
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Sleep disorders
  • Neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Neuromuscular diseases such as mastenia gravis, multiple sclerosis (MS), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • Nervous system infections, encephalitis, meningitis, and HIV

What procedures do they do?

Neurologists perform a variety of tests and procedures to diagnose and treat neurological conditions. A neurologist can use a pelvic puncture to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid. They can use this approach to help diagnose the following conditions:

  • Meningitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Myelitis
  • Leukemia
  • Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Dementia
  • Bleeding in the brain

Neurologists can also use pelvic puncture to treat conditions that affect the spinal cord. Narcotics, antibiotics, or cancer treatments can be injected with a pelvic puncture needle.

Electromyography: One procedure that a neurologist can perform is EMG. A neurologist can use electromyography (EMG) to assess how a person’s muscles respond to the electrical stimulation of motor neurons, which are specialized nerves that control muscle movements.

During EMG, a specially trained technician inserts small needles into the muscle called electrodes. These electrodes record the different electrical activity that occurs in muscle tissue during movement and at rest. The EMG machine produces an electromyogram, which is a record of this action. Neurologists can use EMG results to diagnose neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia gravis and ALS.

Electroencephalogram: Neurologists use electroencephalograms (EEGs) to measure and record electrical activity in the brain. Neurons in the brain communicate with other neurons through electrical impulses, which can pick up the EEG. The EEG also tracks brain wave patterns.

During the EEG, a technician places electrodes on the person’s head. These electrodes are connected to a computer that converts technical signals that technicians can view on screen or print on paper. Neurologists can use the EEG results to detect abnormal electrical activity in the brain and diagnose certain conditions:

  • Epilepsy
  • Convulsions
  • Brain tumors
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Tensilon test

Mastenia gravis is a rare neuromuscular disease that weakens the muscles of the arms and legs. The neurologist may use a blood test called a Tensilon test to diagnose Mastinia gravis.

Tensilon is the brand name for a drug called edrophonium, which inhibits the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which stimulates muscle movement. Mastenia Gravis The immune system attacks acetylcholine receptors in muscle, reducing muscle fatigue and muscle mobility.

During a Tensilon test, a neurologist injects a small amount of Tensilon into the bloodstream. Then, they ask the person to do different movements, namely:

  • Got up and sat down
  • Holding hands above their heads
  • Crossing and spreading the legs

The neurologist will continue to give doses of Tensilone each time the person feels tired. If a person notices their strength returning after each Tensilon injection, this indicates that they are more likely to have myasthenia gravis.

When to see a neurologist?

If you have a diagnosed neurological disorder or one of the above symptoms, it’s time to make an appointment to see a neurologist. A specialized team of specialists at Regional Neurological Associates has advanced training in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders, so you can be sure you are receiving professional care.

A primary care physician may refer a patient to a neurologist if they have symptoms that indicate a neurological condition:

  • Frequent or severe headache
  • Muscular weakness
  • Confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Loss of coordination
  • Partial or complete paralysis
  • Sensory changes that affect the sense of touch, sight, smell, or taste

5 big signs you should see a neurologist

Sleeping Problems: We know that the most obvious causes of sleep problems are having a condition like sleeping too late, sleep apnea or anxiety, nightmares, or others, some sleep problems are neurological disorders. An example of this is narcolepsy, a chronic genetic disorder that has no known cause that affects the body’s central nervous system.

These symptoms may be part of a more neurological disorder. Your primary care physician is a great resource to help you decide whether or not to see a neurologist. However, if your symptoms are severe enough, or you still don’t trust your primary care doctor’s recommendations, you may need to make an appointment with a neurologist.

You have seizures: Seizures are disturbances in your brain. They can cause strange sensations, uncontrollable movements or loss of consciousness. To find the cause, the neurologist can test the brain and obtain images. Sometimes seizures stop when the cause is treated. However, some conditions that cause seizures, such as epilepsy, can be chronic. There are many medications that can prevent or reduce seizures. There are also policies that can help. A neurologist will find the best treatment for you and help you manage the condition. 

You have a brain or spinal cord injury: Car accidents fall, and sports injuries can damage your brain or spinal cord. Symptoms depend on the type of injury and the extent of the damage. Brain injuries can cause headaches, dizziness, seizures, and loss of consciousness.

They cause changes in your behavior, thinking, and memory. Spinal cord injuries can cause weakness and numbness. You may also lose mobility below the area of injury. A neurologist can design a treatment plan for your specific condition and coordinate your care. This can include medications, physical therapy, and mental health treatment.

Migraine: Migraine is a type of headache that affects many people. If you have frequent and persistent headaches along with other symptoms, you are suffering from a migraine. Symptoms of migraine:

  • Headache on one or both sides of the head
  • Headache aggravated by physical exertion
  • Pain or throbbing pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Sensitivity to sounds
  • Sensitivity to odors.

According to the American Migraine Foundation, migraine affects 37 million people in the United States and more than 144 million worldwide. If you have migraine symptoms that your primary care provider cannot treat, you should see a neurologist.

Neuropathy: Peripheral neuropathy, commonly known as neuropathy, refers to a group of conditions that affect the peripheral nerves of the body. The peripheral nervous system connects the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord, to the rest of the body. Neuropathy can take many forms, including:

  • Chronic pain
  • Balance is difficult
  • Poor coordination
  • Burning sensations
  • Numbness, weakness, or tingling in the affected part of the body.
  • Paralysis

There is a long list of conditions that can cause neuropathy, from autoimmune diseases to vitamin deficiencies. Diabetic neuropathy is a type of neuropathy that many people have heard of and how common diabetes is in the US.

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Specialists

Information About Invasive Cardiologist | Cardiology

What is an invasive cardiologist?

An invasive cardiologist (also known as an interventional cardiologist) is a minimally invasive procedure to identify abnormalities of the human heart. Invasive cardiology processes are generally minor surgeries that require penetrating the patient’s skin for treatment. It uses open or slightly invasive surgery to identify or treat structural or electrical abnormalities within the structure of the heart.

Invasive cardiologists do a variety of slightly invasive procedures to diagnose and treat cardiovascular disease.

Education and training of Invasive cardiologists

Invasive cardiologists are physicians who have been specifically trained in the tools and techniques to diagnose or treat cardiovascular disease or defects. Like most doctors, these doctors usually go through medical school first. After completing medical school, they will spend an additional seven to eight years of training to specialize in invasive cardiology. They will also need to complete a certification in internal medicine if they ultimately want to become board certified as a cardiologist.

This process involves completing:

  • An average of four years in medical school
  • A three-year residency in internal medicine or pediatrics if you wish to specialize in working with children
  • A three-year communion in cardiology where they work with physicians and gain additional unconventional training in cardiology, prevention, diagnosis, and patient care
  • A one to two-year invasive (interventional) cardiology fellowship for additional specialized training

What does an invasive cardiologist do?

Invasive cardiologists are a subspecialty of cardiology like interventional cardiologists. Invasive cardiologists are qualified to diagnose and treat conditions such as coronary artery disease, vascular disease, acquired structural heart disease, congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, and congenital heart disease.

To understand your overall heart health and any problems, the invasive cardiologist will appraisal your medical records, medical history, and symptoms. Tests such as X-rays, blood tests, or electrocardiogram (ECG) may be done if these tests have not already been done before your visit. These types of tests help determine the problem.

Additionally, an invasive cardiologist is capable to perform minimally invasive tests to further identify or treat structural or electrical abnormalities in the structure of the heart or arteries that other cardiologists may not be talented to perform. Performing these minimally invasive tests helps the invasive cardiologist to properly diagnose and treat his patients. Invasive cardiologists must be prepared to respond to emergencies immediately, as their services may be needed quickly to prevent a patient from having a heart attack.

Common types of invasive cardiology

Angioplasty: When plaque clogs arteries, it is difficult for blood to flow normally. Angioplasty inserts a small balloon into the blocked vein and pushes the plate against the walls, allowing more blood flow.

Stent placement: The placement of a stent is usually performed in conjunction with angioplasty. A cardiac stent is a small metal coil that permanently holds a blocked vein open.

Cardiac catheterization: In a cardiac catheterization procedure, a cardiologist guides a catheter (a catheter is a thin, medical-grade tube used for a wide range of functions in the medical field) into the heart to complete diagnostic tests and perform diagnostic procedures. treatment as follows.

  • Balloon angioplasty: The cardiologist guides a catheter with a small balloon at the tip to the affected artery. The plaque is pushed against the artery wall by inflating the balloon against it, which helps to restore blood flow in the artery.
  • Catheter ablation: Here, a catheter delivers radiofrequency energy (it is comparable to microwave energy) to eradicate a small part of the heart tissue that is causing a fast and irregular heartbeat. Ending this tissue helps heal your heart’s steady rhythm. This procedure solves the problem that originates in the pulmonary veins.
  • Coronary stents: A catheter is used to inject a small, mesh-shaped metal tube into the area of the constricted coronary artery. Medications can also be delivered to the heart through stents which can reduce the risk of blocked arteries.

Electrophysiology studies: Using an electrode-tipped catheter, a cardiologist measures the heart’s electrical impulses, identifies the precise location of the injured heart muscle, and delivers small electrical impulses to affect heart rhythm problems to learn more about them.

Electrical cardioversion procedure: Using a low-voltage electrical current that is delivered to the chest via patches or paddles, a cardiologist can restore the heart rate to an average rate. The procedure is used in conjunction with a short-acting anesthetic.

Integrated devices: Modern cardiologists use several small battery-powered devices that can be implanted close to the heart to treat complex heart rhythm disorders. Some of the tools that are used are:

  • Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD): ICDs constantly monitor the heart rhythm and deliver an electrical current to regulate it when abnormalities are detected. The device calibrates the current to react differently when slowing down is required or when defibrillation is required to restore the heart rhythm to a stable rhythm.
  • Implantable pacemakers: These pacemakers help keep the heart from dropping below the recommended pulse. Pacemakers also include heart rate sensors that can track and stabilize the pulse as needed.

Additionally, the invasive approach is performed to treat

  • Coronary artery bypass surgery
  • Coronary angiography
  • Electrophysiology studies
  • Arrhythmia ablation
  • Valve replacement surgery right heart catheterization permanent pacemaker insertion
  • Implantable automatic (Acid), Cardiac defibrillators, and More
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Tests

Overview of Electrocardiogram (ECG) Test | Cardiology

What is an electrocardiogram (ECG)?

An electrocardiogram is commonly called an ECG or EKG and it is a simple test used to check the rhythm and electrical activity of your heart. Sensors attached to the skin are used to detect the electrical signals your heart produces each time it beats. A machine records these signals, and the doctor sees if they are abnormal.

The ECG can be ordered by a cardiologist or any doctor who thinks you have a heart problem, including your GP. This test can be done by a hospital, clinic, or healthcare professional who is specially trained in surgery by your GP.

Despite the similar name, the ECG is not the same as the echocardiogram, which is a scan of the heart.

Natural electrical impulses coordinate the contractions of different parts of the heart, causing blood to flow. An ECG records these impulses to show the strength and timing of the electrical impulses as the heartbeats, the rhythm of the heartbeat (constant or irregular), and the passage through different parts of the heart. Changes in the ECG indicate heart conditions.

Purpose of electrocardiogram

Your doctor may recommend an EKG to assess the health of your heart. This is a common part of checkups, especially for those over 40.

An EKG by itself does not diagnose all types of heart conditions or predict future heart problems. Provides important information about your heart health-related to your age, physical exam, medical history, and other tests.

  • Identify abnormal heart rhythms that cause blood to clot.
  • Identifying heart problems includes a recent or ongoing heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia), coronary artery occlusion, damaged areas of the heart muscle (from a previous heart attack), inflammation of the broken heart, and shock around the heart.
  • Identify non-cardiac conditions such as electrolyte imbalance and lung and lung diseases.
  • Heart attack, the progression of heart disease, or recovery from the effect of certain medications or pacemakers.
  • Eliminate hidden heart disease in patients undergoing surgery.

When are ECGs needed?

In some cases, having this test is very important. If you have symptoms of high blood pressure or heart disease, chest pain, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, or large heartbeat, you may need an electrocardiogram. You may need screenings or tests for professional purposes or if you have a personal or family history of heart disease, diabetes, or other accidents and want to start exercising.

How is the electrocardiogram test done?

You will be asked to remove all clothing and jewelry from your waist (including women’s bras) to place electrodes on specific areas of the chest wall, arms, and legs. The electrodes are held in place by rubber bands, suction cups, or adhesive pads.

Sometimes it is necessary to shave the skin where the electrode recording patches are placed to easily detect the electrical signal and reduce discomfort when removing the patches. For a standard 12-bottle ECG, the electrodes are placed in 4 positions on the 4 extremities and 6 on the chest wall. Sometimes additional leads are added for a 15-lead ECG.

You will be prompted to remain normal when the machine is turned on, and typically a sample (usually 3-4 seconds) from each electrode site is recorded. The ECG is usually constantly monitoring and may ask you to hold your breath for a short time during the procedure (to stop chest wall movement that interferes with the signal). The machine captures the electrical activity of the wires and then produces a graph with an up and down row that looks a bit like a geographic map but indicates the activity of your heart.

Types of electrocardiogram (ECG)

The types of an electrocardiogram are:

  • Standard (resting) ECG: The ECG measures the electrical activity of your heart while you lie down or rest in a semi-reclined position. This is the most common type of ECG.
  • Stress test (exercise ECG or tape test): This usually involves taking an ECG on a treadmill while you exercise. Show how exercise affects your heart. Helps diagnose and diagnose coronary artery disease and other types of heart disease. Medications are sometimes given instead of mimicking the effect of exercise on the heart.
  • Holter monitor (24-hour ECG or ambulatory ECG): This includes the use of an electronic ECG recorder 24 hours a day. It records the electrical activity of your heart for 24 hours. It can help diagnose arrhythmias (irregular or abnormal heartbeats).
  • Cardiac event recorders record an ECG for an extended period, a year or more. Portable cardiac event recorders record the electrical activity of the heart when you have symptoms. Adjustable loop recorders are mounted under the skin on your chest. They constantly record the electrical activity of your heart.

Risk factors for electrocardiogram (ECG)

Electrocardiograms (EKGs) are safe, non-invasive, painless, and accident-free tests. The electrodes (adhesive patches) that connect the sensors to your chest do not send electrical shocks.

People who undergo stress tests have a higher risk of having a heart attack, but this is related to exercise, not the EKG.

You may develop a mild rash or irritation of the skin where the electrodes are placed. If paste or gel is used to place the electrodes, you may have an allergic reaction. This irritation usually disappears without the need for treatment, once the patches are removed.

Procedure for electrocardiogram (ECG)

It is not necessary to limit food or drink before performing the ECG test. Always tell your doctor what medications you are taking before receiving the electrocardiogram and if you have any allergies to the adhesive tapes used to attach the electrodes.

When an ECG test is to be performed, the upper garment will need to be removed so that the electrodes adhere to the chest and extremities. (For women, wearing a special blouse with pants or a skirt can easily penetrate the chest.) If necessary, the selected sites can be shaved.

Electrodes (sensors) are attached to the chest, arms, and legs with suction cups or sticky gel. These electrodes detect the currents generated by the heart; they are measured and recorded by an electrocardiograph.

There are three main types of the electrocardiogram:

  • Resting ECG: You lie down for this type of ECG. No movements are allowed during the test, as electrical impulses generated by other muscles can interfere with those generated by your heart. This type of ECG usually takes 5 to 10 minutes.
  • Ambulatory ECG: If you have an ambulatory ECG or Holter, you must wear a portable recording device for at least 24 hours. Usually, you can turn it on when the monitor is connected. These types of ECG symptoms may not appear intermittently (stop-start) and on the resting ECG and are used to ensure that your heart is working properly in people recovering from a heart attack. Record your symptoms in a journal and note when they occur so that your own experience can be compared to an ECG.
  • Cardiac stress test: This test is used to record your ECG when you are riding an exercise bike or running on a treadmill. This type of ECG takes 15 to 30 minutes to complete.

Results of electrocardiogram

For most people, an electrocardiogram is just a series of lines. However, each line corresponds to an electrical signal sent from the heart. Doctors can read and understand these lines, which indicate the general condition of the heart.

The operating physician or healthcare professional places the electrodes on a person’s skin, usually around the chest, and at 10 different points on the extremities.

Each beat sends an electrical impulse. These electrodes select this pulse and record the activity as a waveform on a graph.

All of these take place in the eyelid, so an EKG is very important. An ECG can capture all these little details and record them for the doctor to analyze.

Specialists who handle electrocardiogram

  • Cardiac surgeons specialize in the surgical treatment of the heart and its vascular conditions. They are also known as cardiothoracic surgeons.
  • Pediatric cardiologists and cardiologists are interns or pediatricians who specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases or situations of the heart and its blood vessels.
  • Emergency medicine specialists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of sudden illness or injury and difficulties of chronic illness.
  • Interventional cardiologists are cardiologists who specialize in diagnosing and treating conditions and diseases of the heart and its blood vessels. They use catheter-based non-surgical procedures and imaging techniques.
  • Primary care providers include interns, family practitioners (family medicine physicians), pediatricians, geriatricians, physician assistants (PA), and nurse practitioners (NP). Primary care providers provide comprehensive health services and treat a wide variety of ailments and conditions.
  • Thoracic surgeons train in the surgical treatment of diseases of the chest, including the blood vessels, heart, lungs, and esophagus. They are also known as cardiothoracic surgeons.
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Disease

Symptoms, Causes and Risks of Heart attack | Cardiology

What is a heart attack?

Heart attack means the death of a part of the heart muscle due to loss of blood supply. Blood is usually cut off when a blood clot blocks the artery that supplies the heart muscle. When part of the heart muscle dies, a person experiences chest pain and electrical instability of the heart muscle tissue.

Other names

  • Myocardial infarction (MI)
  • Acute myocardial infarction (AMI)
  • Acute coronary syndrome
  • Coronary thrombosis
  • Coronary occlusion

Signs, symptoms, and Complications

If you experience these heart attack warning signs do not wait to get help. Some heart attacks are sudden and severe. Take care of your body and call a physician if you experience it.

Chest discomfort: Most heart attacks have discomfort in the middle of the chest for more than a few minutes, or it may go away and come back. It can feel like uncomfortable stress, squeezing, fullness, or pain.

Discomfort in other parts of the body: Symptoms include pain or discomfort in one or both arms, back, neck, jaw, or abdomen.

Shortness of breath: It occurs with or without chest discomfort.

Other signs: There are other signs such as cold sweats, nausea, or a mild headache.

Damage to the heart during a heart attack often leads to complications, which can lead to further complications. Arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythms), heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and valve problems are the most common complications.

Causes of heart attack

When one or more of your coronary arteries become blocked it leads to a heart attack. Over time, fatty deposits, including cholesterol, form substances called plaques, which can narrow the arteries (atherosclerosis). This condition, called coronary artery disease, causes many heart attacks.

  • During a heart attack, a plaque breaks down and leaks cholesterol and other substances into the bloodstream. Blood clots at the site of the break. If the clot is large, it can block blood flow through the coronary artery, depriving the heart of oxygen and nutrients (ischemia).
  • You may have a partial or complete blockage of the coronary artery.
  • Complete inhibition means you have an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
  • Partial occlusion means you have a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).
  • Diagnosis and treatment can vary depending on what type you have.
  • Another cause of heart attack is a narrowing of the coronary artery, which blocks blood flow to the heart muscle. Using tobacco and illicit drugs such as cocaine can lead to fatal seizures.
  • COVID-19 infection can also damage your heart and lead to a heart attack.

Risk factors of heart attack

The risk factors of a heart attack include:

Smoking: Chemicals in tobacco smoke can damage blood cells. They can also damage the function of your heart and the structure and function of your blood vessels. This damage increases your risk of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the formation of a waxy substance called plaque in the arteries. Over time, the plaque hardens and narrows the arteries.

It restricts the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body. Ischemic heart disease occurs when plaque forms in the arteries that supply blood to the heart, called the coronary arteries. Over time, heart disease can lead to chest pain, heart attack, heart failure, arrhythmia, or death. Smoking increases the risk of heart disease when combined with unhealthy blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and other risk factors such as being overweight or the esophagus.

High blood pressure: Blood pressure is measured by estimating the pressure of the blood flowing through your arteries against the walls of those arteries. During a heart attack, blood flow to some part of the heart muscle is restricted or cut off because the blood clot blocks the artery. Without the necessary blood supply, the affected part of your heart will not receive the oxygen it needs to function properly.

High blood cholesterol: When you have high cholesterol in your blood, it forms on the walls of your arteries, causing a process called atherosclerosis, a form of heart disease. The arteries are narrow and slow or block blood flow to the heart muscle. Blood carries oxygen to the heart and if not enough blood and oxygen get to the heart, you can experience chest pain. If the blood supply to part of the heart is completely cut off, the result is a heart attack.

There are two forms of cholesterol known to most people low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad” cholesterol) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL or “good” cholesterol). These are the ways that cholesterol travels through the blood. The main source of arterial occlusion plaque is LDL. HDL works to remove cholesterol from the blood.

Overweight and obesity: His arrhythmia appears to be associated with a fatal heart attack. Inflammation is a major factor in cardiovascular disease, researchers say, and esophagitis is now increasingly recognized as an inflammatory condition.

An unhealthy diet: When it comes to heart disease risk, what you eat is yourself. Poor diet contributes to cholesterol and triglycerides, high blood pressure, diabetes, and balance. Several important studies provide compelling evidence that diet also affects the risk of complete coronary heart disease and heart attack.

Lack of routine physical activity: Not getting enough physical activity can lead to heart disease even for people who do not have other risk factors. It also increases the risk of developing other heart disease risk factors, including esophagitis, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes.

High blood sugar due to insulin resistance or diabetes: The blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart and blood vessels can be damaged by high blood glucose from diabetes. If you have diabetes for a long time, you are more likely to get heart disease. People with heart disease are more prone to heart attack than with diabetes.

The most common causes of death in adults with diabetes are heart disease and stroke. Adults with diabetes are almost twice as likely to die of heart disease or stroke than those with diabetes. The good news is that the steps you take to manage your diabetes can also help reduce your risk of heart disease or stroke.

Risk factors such as arrears, high blood pressure, and high blood sugar can occur together. When they do, it is called metabolic syndrome. In general, a person with metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to have heart disease, and a person five times more likely to have diabetes than a person without metabolic syndrome.

Diagnosis of heart attack

Tests to diagnose a heart attack include:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): This first test done to diagnose a heart attack records electrical signals as they pass through your heart. Adhesive patches (electrodes) are attached to your chest and limbs. Signals are recorded as waves displayed on the monitor or printed on paper. Because the injured heart muscle does not normally conduct electrical impulses, an ECG shows that a heart attack has occurred or is in progress.
  • Blood tests: Some heart proteins will slowly leak into your bloodstream after a heart attack from a heart attack. Emergency room doctors take samples of your blood to check for these proteins or enzymes.

Treatments for heart attack

If your doctor suspects a heart attack, you can treat it immediately:

  • Aspirin to prevent blood clots
  • Nitroglycerin to relieve chest pain and improve blood flow
  • Oxygen therapy

Once your doctor has diagnosed a heart attack, they will prescribe medication. They may recommend surgery if necessary.

  • Give your medicine: The medicine drug is called thrombolytic. It helps to clot the blood that clogs the coronary artery.
  • Do a coronary angiography: X-ray of the blood vessels.
  • Do an angioplasty or stent: Angioplasty involves inserting a small balloon into an artery in your arm or leg. The balloon threads the artery to the heart. The balloon pushes the open black coronary arteries. A small metal rod called a stent can be placed in the clogged artery to keep the artery open.
  • Do coronary artery bypass surgery: If angioplasty and/or stenting is not appropriate, you may need this major surgery. Your doctor will remove a healthy vein from your leg or artery from your upper body. He or she will bypass around the blockage in your coronary artery. This allows blood to flow around the blockage.

Cardiac screening

  • If screening tests reveal coronary artery disease, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk for heart attack or exacerbated heart disease. Your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, exercise, and smoking cessation. Medications may also be required. Medications can treat risk factors for coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, and low blood flow.
  • A negative cardiac CT for calcium scoring means that no calcification has been found in your coronary arteries, indicating that there is no coronary artery disease or not being seen by this technique. Under these conditions, you are less likely to have a heart attack in the next two to five years.
  • A positive cardiac CT for calcium scoring means you have CAD regardless of what symptoms you are experiencing. Calcification is expressed as the total calcium score. A score of 1 to 10 indicates minimal evidence of CAD, 11 to 100 indicates mild evidence, 101 to 400 indicates moderate evidence of disease, and a score of more than 500 indicates extensive evidence of disease.
  • Your calcium score can help assess the likelihood of myocardial infarction (heart attack) in the years to come and help your doctor decide whether you should take preventative medicine or take other measures such as diet and exercise to reduce your risk of a heart attack.
  • If there is coronary artery disease, lifestyle changes, medications, and if necessary, medical or surgical procedures in stages to reduce the person’s risk of heart attack and manage symptoms.
  • Angioplasty and stenting: In an angioplasty procedure, a balloon-tipped catheter is used to guide a long, thin plastic tube into the coronary artery and to propel the vessel into a narrow or obstructed area. The balloon is then inflated, inflated, and removed to open the vessel. During angioplasty, a small wire mesh tube called a stent can be placed permanently in the newly opened artery to help keep it open. There are two types of stents: bare stents (wire mesh) and drug-eluting stents.
  • Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG): CABG is a surgical instrument used to re-circulate blood around diseased vessels. During this surgery, a healthy artery or vein from other parts of the body connects or sticks to the coronary artery, bypassing the barrier, creating a new way for oxygen-rich blood to flow to the heart muscle.

Prevention of heart attack

  • Control your blood pressure: It is important to check your blood pressure regularly, once a year for most adults, and if you have high blood pressure. Take measures, including lifestyle changes to prevent or control high blood pressure.
  • Keep your cholesterol and triglyceride levels under control: High cholesterol clogs your arteries and increases the risk of coronary artery disease and heart attack. Lifestyle changes and medications (if needed) can lower your cholesterol. High levels of triglycerides increase the risk of coronary artery disease, especially in women.
  • Stay at a healthy weight: Obesity increases your risk of heart disease. They are associated with high blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as other heart disease risk factors, including high blood pressure and diabetes. Controlling your weight will reduce these risks.
  • Eat a healthy diet: Foods high in sodium, saturated fats, and added sugars should be consumed in limited quantities. Eat plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The dash diet is an example of an eating plan that can help you lower your blood pressure and cholesterol, which can reduce your risk of heart disease.
  • Get regular exercise: Exercise has many benefits such as strengthening your heart and improving your circulation. It can help you maintain a healthy weight and lower cholesterol and blood pressure. All of these can reduce your risk of heart disease.
  • Limit alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption can increase your blood pressure. It also adds extra calories, which can lead to weight gain. Both of these increase your risk of heart disease. Men should not have more than two alcoholic beverages per day and women should not have more than one.
  • Don’t smoke: Cigarette smoking raises your blood pressure and increases your risk of heart attack and stroke. If you do not smoke, do not start. If you smoke, quitting will reduce your heart disease. You can talk to your healthcare provider to help to find the best way to exit.
  • Manage stress: Stress is one of the causes of to increase in the risk of heart disease. It raises your blood pressure. Severe stress can “trigger” a heart attack. Also, some common ways to deal with stress, such as overeating, overeating, and smoking, are bad for your heart. Some of the ways that can help you manage your stress are exercise, listening to music, focusing on those who are calm or relaxed, and meditating.
  • Manage diabetes: Having diabetes doubles the risk of diabetic heart disease. This is because, over time, Blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart and blood vessels can be damaged by high blood sugar. So, it is important to get tested for diabetes, and if you have it, you need to keep it under control.
  • Make sure that you get enough sleep: If you do not get enough sleep, you will increase your risk of high blood pressure, esophagus, and diabetes. Those three things increase the risk of heart disease. 7 to 9 hours of sleep a night is required for adults. Make sure you have good sleep habits. If you have frequent sleep problems, consult your healthcare provider. One problem, sleep apnea, is that people often stop breathing during sleep. It can impair your ability to relax well and increase your risk of heart disease. If you think you may have it, ask your doctor about a sleep study. If you have sleep apnea, make sure you get treatment for it.