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Tests

Types and Procedures of Echocardiogram (Echo) | Cardiology

What is an echocardiogram?

An echocardiogram (echo) is a graphic diagram of a heartbeat. During the echo test, ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves) from a handheld rod placed on your chest provides images of the heart valves and chambers and helps the sonographer assess the pumping activity of the heart. Echo is often combined with doppler ultrasound and colour doppler to assess blood flow in the heart valves.

Different types of echocardiogram

● Transthoracic echocardiogram

  • Transesophageal echocardiogram
  • Doppler echocardiogram

● Stress echocardiogram

Transthoracic echocardiogram

On this standard type of echocardiogram:

  • The transducer records the echo of the sound wave from your heart.
  • The computer converts the echoes into moving pictures on the monitor.
  • A technician (sonographer) spreads the gel on a device (transducer).
  • The sonographer presses the transducer against your skin and pushes the ultrasound beam through your chest to your heart.

If your lungs or ribs are blocking your vision, you may need to inject a small amount of the augmentation agent intravenously (IV). The enhancing agent, which is generally safe and well-tolerated, will make the structures of your heart more clearly visible on the monitor.

Transesophageal echocardiogram

 For this test, the transducer goes down your throat and into your esophagus (the swallowing tube that connects your mouth to your stomach). Because it’s closer to your heart, it can get a clearer picture. Do not eat or drink anything until 6 hours before the test. Take all of your medicines at regular intervals, with a sip of water if necessary. If you are using medicines or insulin for diabetes, ask your doctor or testing centre about this.

Before a transesophageal echocardiogram, a nurse places an intravenous line into a vein in your arm or arm to give you medicine. A technician will place EKG electrodes on your chest. They also place a blood pressure monitor in your hand and a pulse oximeter clamp on your finger to check your vital signs.

Doppler echocardiogram

In addition to sound waves bouncing the visual structures of the heart, they also bounce red blood cells as they pass through the heart chambers. Using Doppler technology, an echocardiogram can estimate the speed and direction of blood flow, which can help increase the amount and quality of information available from the test.

Computer colour can be added to compliment the doctor on that information. Colour flow Doppler is routinely added to all echocardiography studies and is the same technique used for weather reports.

Stress echocardiogram

A doctor may order an echocardiogram as part of a stress test. Stress tests involve physical exercise, such as walking or jogging on a treadmill. During the test, the doctor monitors the heart rate, blood pressure, and electrical activity of the heart. A sonographer performs a transthoracic echocardiogram before and after exercise.

  • Heart failure
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Problems affecting the heart valves heart

What is the use of an echocardiogram?

The echocardiogram test is used for:

  • To determine the presence of a variety of heart diseases such as valve disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, infective endocarditis, heart mass, and congenital heart disease.
  • Follow the progression of valve disease over time
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of your medical or surgical treatments
  • Assess the overall function of your heart

What happens during the echo?

Echocardiogram tests are performed by specially trained technicians. Your exam may take place in your doctor’s office, emergency room, operating room, hospital clinic, or hospital room. The test lasts about an hour.

  • The probe (transducer) is sent to your chest. The probe produces sound waves that bounce your heart and “resonate” again through the probe.
  • You lie down on a table and a technician places small metal discs (electrodes) on your chest. The discs contain threads that hold the hook to the electrocardiograph. An electrocardiogram (ECG or ECG) tracks your heart rate during your test.
  • Your technician will place a gel on your chest to allow sound waves to pass through your skin. The probe (transducer) is passed across your chest. The probe produces sound waves that bounce off your heart and “echo” back to the probe.
  • The room is dark so your technician can see the video monitor well.

What are the risks of an echo?

This echocardiogram procedure is harmless and involves minimal risk. You may feel uncomfortable with the position of the transducer as it puts pressure on the surface of the body. For some, lying on the test table for the entire duration of the echo procedure can cause discomfort or pain.

You may have other risks depending on your specific health condition. Discuss any problems with your doctor before the procedure.

Risks

There are no known dangers of external TTE testing. TEE is an aggressive process. There is some risk associated with the test. These may include:

  • Reaction to narcotics.
  • Damage to the esophagus. This is very common if you already have a problem with your esophagus.
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Disease

Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments of Stroke | Neurology

What is a Stroke?

A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is cut off or reduced, preventing the brain tissue from receiving oxygen and nutrients. Brain cells die in minutes. It is a medical emergency and prompt treatment is very important. Proactive action reduces brain damage and other problems.

Other names

  • Brain attack
  • Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
  • Hemorrhagic stroke (includes intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage)
  • Ischemic stroke (includes thrombotic stroke and embolic stroke)

Signs/symptoms of stroke

  • Unexpected numbness or weakness in the face, arms, or legs, especially on one side of the body.
  • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or trouble understanding speech.
  • Sudden trouble seeing with one or both eyes.
  • Sudden trouble walking, loss of balance, dizziness, or lack of coordination.
  • Sudden, severe headache for no apparent reason.

Types of strokes

The treatment for stroke depends on its type. The three main types of stroke are:

  • Ischemic attack: It is one of the three types of strokes. It is also known as cerebral ischemia and cerebral ischemia. This type of attack is caused by a blockage in the artery that supplies blood to the brain. The blockage reduces blood flow and oxygen to the brain, leading to damage or death of brain cells. If circulation is not restored quickly, brain damage can be permanent.
  • Hemorrhagic attack: Hemorrhagic attack when blood from an artery begins to bleed into the brain. This occurs when weak blood vessels break and bleed into the surrounding brain. The pressure of the filtered blood damages the brain cells, and as a result, the damaged area becomes unable to function properly.
  • Transient ischemic attack (a warning or “mini-stroke”): Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is an attack that lasts only a few minutes. This occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is briefly blocked. Symptoms of TIA are similar to other stroke symptoms, but they don’t last long. They happen suddenly.

Causes of stroke

It can treat certain conditions for which you can have a stroke. Other things that put you at risk will not change:

Hypertension: Your doctor calls this blood pressure. If your blood pressure is usually 140/90 or higher, your doctor will discuss treatments with you.

Tobacco: Smoking or chewing can increase your chances of having a stroke. Nicotine makes your blood pressure go up. Cigarette smoke increases fat in the main cervical artery. It also makes your blood thicker and more likely to clot. Secondhand smoke can affect you too.

Heart disease: This condition includes defective heart valves, as well as atrial fibrillation or irregular heartbeat, which account for about a quarter of all strokes in most adults. You can also have arteries clogged by fatty deposits.

Diabetes: People who suffer from it tend to have high blood pressure and are overweight. Diabetes can damage your blood vessels, making you more likely to have an attack. If you have a stroke when your blood sugar levels are high, your brain injury is high.

Risk factors of stroke

Main risk factors:

  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Cardiovascular diseases- Coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart valve disease, and carotid artery disease.
  • High levels of LDL cholesterol
  • Smoking
  • Brain aneurysms or arteriovenous deformities (AVM). AVMs are malformed arteries and veins that open to the brain.
  • Inflammatory infections or conditions such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.
  • A stroke can occur at any age, but the risk is higher in children and adults younger than 1 year. In adults, the risk increases with age.
  • At a younger age, it is more common in women than in men. But women live longer, so the risk of stroke is higher during their lifetime. birth control pills or use hormone replacement therapy can cause a stroke. Women are also at higher risk during pregnancy and during the postpartum weeks. High blood pressure during pregnancy, due to pre-eclampsia, increases the risk of stroke later in life.
  • Race and ethnicity: It is more common in African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, and Hispanic adults than in white adults.
  • Family history and genetics: If your parents or other family members have had a stroke, you are at special risk of having a stroke at a young age. Certain genes can affect your risk of stroke, including those that determine your blood type. People with blood type AB (which is not normal) are at higher risk.

Other risk factors that can be controlled, including:

  • Anxiety, depression, and high levels of stress. Working long hours and not having much contact with friends, family, or others outside the home also increases the risk of this disease.
  • Living or working in areas with air pollution.
  • Other medical conditions such as bleeding disorders, sleep apnea, kidney disease, migraine, and sickle cell anemia.
  • Other medicines that cause blood thinning or bleeding.
  • Other unhealthy lifestyle habits such as eating unhealthy foods, not engaging in regular physical activity, drinking alcohol, sleeping too much (more than 9 hours), and using illicit drugs such as cocaine.
  • Excess weight and delays or extra weight load around the waist and abdomen.

Diagnosis of stroke

The first step in evaluating the patient is to determine whether the patient is experiencing an ischemic or hemorrhagic attack so that appropriate treatment can begin. Head CT or MRI is usually the first test done.

Physical exam: Your doctor will perform various tests, such as listening to your heart and checking your blood pressure. They will also do a neurological exam to see how a possible stroke affects your nervous system.

Blood test: You may have several blood tests, including tests to see if your blood clots quickly, if your blood sugar is too high or too low, and if you have an infection.

Computed tomography (CT): A CT scan is done to view a detailed image of your brain. The CT scan shows bleeding, ischemic attack, tumor, or other conditions in the brain. Doctors can inject a dye into the bloodstream (CT angiography) to see the blood vessels in the neck and brain in more detail.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): An MRI is done to create a detailed view of your brain. MRI can detect brain tissue damaged by ischemic attack and brain hemorrhage. Your doctor may inject a dye into a blood vessel (magnetic resonance angiography or magnetic resonance venography) to view the arteries and veins and enhance blood flow.

Carotid ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create detailed images of the inside of the carotid arteries in your neck. This test increases fatty deposits (plaques) in the carotid arteries and increases blood flow.

Cerebral angiogram: In this abnormally used test, your doctor will make a small incision, usually in the groin, inserting a thin, flexible tube (catheter) through your main arteries and into your carotid or vertebral artery. Your doctor will then inject a dye into your blood vessels and make them visible under X-ray images. This procedure provides a detailed view of your brain and the arteries in your neck.

Echocardiogram: An echocardiogram can detect the source of clots in your heart, which can travel from your heart to your brain and cause your stroke.

Treatments for stroke

Treatment is based on the type of stroke.

Ischemic stroke: Treatment for this disease focuses on the restoration of blood to the brain.

  • You can get a freeze-thaw medicine called tissue plasminogen activator (TPA). This medicine improves recovery from a stroke. Doctors try to give this medicine within 3 hours of the start of symptoms. Some people can get help if they can get this medicine within 40 hours of the first symptoms.
  • You can also get aspirin or another antiplatelet medicine.
  • In some cases, a procedure may be done to restore blood flow. The doctor uses a thin, flexible tube (catheter) and a small cage to remove the blood clot. This procedure is called a thrombectomy.

Hemorrhagic stroke: Treatment focuses on controlling bleeding, reducing stress on the brain, and stabilizing important signals, especially blood pressure.

  • To stop the bleeding, you may receive a blood transfusion, such as medicine or plasma. These are administered intravenously.
  • Look closely for signs of increased stress on the brain. These signs include restlessness, confusion, trouble following orders, and headaches. Excessive coughing, vomiting, or other measures taken to avoid lifting or crossing stools or straining to change position.
  • If the bleeding is from a ruptured brain aneurysm, surgery may be done to repair the aneurysm.
  • In some cases, medications may be given to control blood pressure, meningitis, blood sugar levels, fever, and seizures.
  • If a large amount of bleeding occurs and symptoms quickly get worse, you may need surgery. Surgery can remove the blood that collects inside the brain and reduce the pressure inside the head.

Complications of stroke

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): If the blood is moving too slowly through your veins, it can cause a clot or a lump in the blood vessels. When blood clots in a vein, it can cause deep vein thrombosis. DVT is more likely to occur in the lower leg or thigh, but can also occur in other parts of the body. The DVT case can be fatal if the blood clots and goes to an important organ. Medications and early mobilization treatment after stroke can prevent DVT and help a person return to walking and other activities quickly.

Convulsions: It can injure the brain, resulting in scar tissue. This scar tissue interferes with the electrical activity of the brain. Interruption of electrical activity can cause seizures. Epilepsy is one of the most common complications of ischemic attack, affecting 22% of survivors.

Pneumonia: Pneumonia is a leading cause of illness and death. According to the Indiana University School of Medicine, pneumonia is the most common cause of hospitalization. In the case of a stroke, difficulty swallowing may cause aspiration, or food or fluids may enter the airways, leading to a chest infection or pneumonia.

Cerebral edema: Inflammation is part of the body’s natural response to injury. Edema refers to inflammation due to trapped fluid. If edema occurs in the brain, it can cause serious problems. Cerebral edema restricts blood supply to the brain, resulting in brain tissue death. Inflammation of the brain is one of the major complications of ischemic attack. Getting medical treatment as soon as the symptoms of a stroke are noticed reduces the chance of developing severe brain edema.

Bladder problems: There is a lot of bladder-related problems that can arise from a stroke. Often, stroke survivors have a strong urge or need to urinate frequently. When stroke survivors are unable to reach the bathroom or relieve themselves adequately because of the inability to remove clothing, this is called functional incontinence. Consequently, when a stroke survivor is unable to empty their bladder completely, this is called urinary retention. If this happens, the person will need a catheter to make sure the bladder is completely empty.

Clinical depression: Clinical depression often occurs after a major health crisis. One in four stroke survivors suffers from severe depression. Depression can cause sadness, irritability, difficulty concentrating, helplessness, apathy, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, and sometimes even suicidal thoughts. It is important to treat depression with the help of mental health providers.

Pressure sores: When the soft tissue is pressed too hard on a hard surface such as a chair or bed, the blood supply to that area decreases. This causes the skin tissue to be damaged or die. When this happens, a sore throat can occur. Prevention with pressure sores is crucial: proper positioning and appropriate equipment are needed to prevent them. Stroke survivors should discuss appropriate equipment such as air mattresses and wheelchair cushions with their physician or therapist.

Contracts: Loss of movements over time contracts due to the abnormal reduction of soft tissue structures that extend into one or more joints. These include skin, tendons, ligaments, muscles, and joint capsules. Loss of movement in any of these structures restricts joint movement, leading to pain, stiffness, and eventually a contraction. Low-load, long-term stretch is the preferred method for contracture resolution. Such a product, Cybo Stretch, uses a revolutionary stretch technique to maintain or improve movement, while at the same time reducing joint damage and pain.

Shoulder pain: 80% of patients suffer from shoulder pain. Subluxation or partial dislocation of the shoulder, spasticity of the shoulder, tendon, and rotating cuff tears are the causes of shoulder pain. Shoulder pain can be treated by proper positioning, including joint support with orthotics, as well as early occupational and/or physical therapy intervention. In some cases, if the pain becomes chronic, the doctor may prescribe oral corticosteroids.

Waterfalls and accidents: Common impairments such as imbalance, sensory impairment, weakness, visual problems, and coordination disorder naturally increase the risk of falls and accidents. Physical and occupational therapy can help reduce this risk and restore stability and lost function. Home modifications and assistive devices can be purchased to help prevent falls and accidents while performing routine daily activities.

Prevention of stroke

The best way to help prevent a stroke is to eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly, smoke, and drink heavily.

These lifestyle changes lower your risk for problems:

  • Atherosclerosis (atherosclerosis)
  • Hypertension
  • High cholesterol levels

If you already have a stroke, making these changes can lower your risk of having another stroke in the future.

Diet: Stroke with diabetes has specific health problems that must be addressed through your diet under the guidance of a doctor. In general, the dietary recommendations for stroke recovery are similar to those for diabetics. Stroke patients are often advised to focus on eating lean protein and nutrient-rich fruits and vegetables while limiting sugar, salt, and fat. Most liquid meal replacements contain large amounts of sugar, including many yogurts, puddings, and jellies, which are delicious and very bland foods. If you have a stroke and diabetes patient, watch out for these and choose sugar-free versions.

Exercise: Exercise is a valuable component that is not yet used for post-stroke care. The American Heart Association / American Stroke Association recommends that survivors recommend exercise because they experience physical degeneration and often lead a sedentary lifestyle after a stroke.

This reduces your ability to carry out activities of daily living and increases your risk of having another stroke. Heart fitness, walking ability, and upper arm strength, as well as depression, cognitive function, memory, and memory. quality of life after a stroke can be improved by physical activity.

Stop smoking: Smoking or chewing tobacco increases your chances of having a stroke. Nicotine makes your blood pressure go up. Cigarette smoke increases fat in the main cervical artery. It also makes your blood thicker and more likely to clot. Secondhand smoke can affect it too.

Alcohol: Alcoholic beverages are high in calories and have no nutritional value. Reducing the amount of alcohol you drink can help you achieve and maintain a healthy weight.

Cut down on alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption contributes to many risk factors for stroke. If you already have a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), drinking only safe alcohol can help lower your risk of having another stroke.

High blood pressure: It is a major risk factor for stroke, and drinking too much alcohol can increase your blood pressure. Atrial fibrillation, a type of irregular heartbeat, is triggered by excessive alcohol consumption.

Diabetes: Being diabetic and being overweight increases your risk of having a stroke. Both risk factors are associated with excessive alcohol consumption.

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Disease

Treatment and Diagnosis of Pericardial disease | Cardiology

What is a pericardial disease (pericarditis)?

Pericardial disease or pericarditis is an inflammation of any layer of the pericardium. The pericardium is a clash of thin tissue around the heart and includes:

  • Visceral pericardium: The inner layer that covers the entire heart. Fluid layer between the visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium to avoid friction
  • Parietal pericardium: The outer layer made of fibrous tissue.

Signs and symptoms of pericardial disease

You may not have symptoms. This occurs most often in the case of a mild spill. You may have symptoms from the causes of pericardial disease. For example, you may have a fever if you have a pericardial infection.

When the stroke is more severe, you may have symptoms similar to:

  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Dilation of the neck veins.
  • Epilepsy
  • Breathe faster
  • Increase in cardiac frequency
  • Nausea
  • Pain in the upper right abdomen
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Swelling of the hands and feet

If the stroke is too severe, it can even lead to very low blood pressure. It causes symptoms of shock. In addition to:

  • Mild headache or dizziness
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Clammy skin
  • Weakness
  • Fast breathing
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Pale skin
  • Less urination
  • Shock is a medical emergency.

The symptoms of the pericardial disorder are similar to other health problems. See your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

Types of pericardial disease

Idiopathic pericarditis: The cause of acute pericarditis is very difficult to establish and idiopathic pericarditis remains the most common diagnosis. In most cases, a viral etiology is assumed.

Viral pericarditis: Coxsackievirus B and Echovirus are the most common viruses and diagnosis requires a four-fold increase in antiviral titers. Patients often experience a prodrome of upper respiratory infection. The prognosis for viral pericarditis is generally good, with a self-limited course, and if uncomplicated, patients can be treated on a patient basis.

Pure pericarditis: Before the age of antibiotics, pneumonia was the leading cause of purulent pericarditis. Currently, there are extensions of thoracic surgery, chemotherapy, immunosuppression, and hemodialysis, as well as pneumonia and emphysema. The appearance is usually severe with high fever, chills, night sweats, and dyspnea, but the classic findings of chest pain or friction rub are very rare. Cardiac tamponade is common (42–77% of patients in the selected series) and mortality is high.

If the purulent pericardial disease is suspected, hospitalization, treatment with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, and emergency drainage are recommended. Pericardial fluid analysis findings include a high protein level (> 6 g / dL), a low glucose level (<35 mg / dL), and a very high white blood cell count (6,000 to 240,000 / mm3).

Tuberculous pericarditis: Tuberculous pericarditis occurs in 1% to 2% of pulmonary tuberculosis cases. It is the leading cause of pericardial disease in some developing countries. Human immunodeficiency or immunosuppressed virus (HIV): Patients are at risk. Special symptoms such as dyspnea, fever, chills, night sweats develop slowly and often there is no rubbing or chest pain. A patient with suspected or diagnosed pericardial tuberculosis should be hospitalized and antituberculous treatment started immediately.

Analysis of the pericardial fluid shows a high specific gravity, a very high protein level (often> 6 g / dl), and mainly lymphocytic cells. Pericardial biopsy with an acid-fast bacilli polymerase chain reaction test is recommended for all patients with tuberculous pericarditis. However, a simple pericardial biopsy does not rule out the diagnosis.

Uremic and dialysis-associated pericarditis: Uremic pericarditis occurs with moderate renal failure in 6% to 10% of patients before the start of hemodialysis; Blood urea nitrogen levels are usually above 60 mg / dL. Normal ST-segment elevation on ECG is usually absent. Although tamponade is very rare, heavy bleeding can occur, facilitated by impaired platelet function. Alternatively, a serous pericardial effusion related to fluid overload may occur. With both forms, the onset or severity of hemodialysis is indicated, which generally leads to improvement in 1 to 2 weeks5,6.

Pericarditis after myocardial infarction: Pericarditis after myocardial infarction is a common complication (25% to 40% of patients with myocardial infarction) and begins within 3 to 10 days after myocardial infarction. Its development is associated with the extent of necrosis, is more common earlier than malignant infarcts, and is associated with a 1-year mortality rate and an increased risk of circulatory heart failure.

The diagnosis of post-myocardial infarction pericarditis requires symptoms or new pericardial friction; Pericardial effusion alone is not specified. In addition to the general ST elevation seen with severe pericarditis, which is difficult to distinguish from true MI in this setting, ECG findings show normalization of positive T waves more than 2 days after MI or T waves previously transversal.

Post-cardiac injury syndrome: Dressler syndrome usually occurs 2 to 3 weeks after a heart attack or open-heart surgery. The sensitive autoimmune component is believed to be responsible for myocardial infarction during infarction. Fully expressed syndromes include pleurisy chest pain, fever, leukocytosis, and pericardial rubbing. Pleural effusions or pulmonary infiltrates may be observed.

Malignancy: Malignant pericarditis is caused mainly by metastatic disease. Bronchogenic metastatic pericarditis or breast carcinoma, common in Hodgkin’s disease and lymphoma 

Causes of pericardial disease

  • Pericardial disease is caused by inflammation of the pericarditis in response to illness or injury.
  • The pericardial disease also occurs when the flow of pericardial fluid is blocked or blood collects at the pericardium from a chest injury.
  • Sometimes the cause cannot be determined (idiopathic pericarditis).
  • Inflammation of the pericarditis after heart surgery or a heart attack.
  • Autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
  • Cancer (metastasis), especially lung cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, leukemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, or Hodgkin’s disease
  • Heart cancer.
  • Radiation therapy for cancer if the heart is in the radiation field.
  • Chemotherapy treatments for cancer include doxorubicin (Doxil) and cyclophosphamide.
  • Dysfunctional thyroid (hypothyroidism).
  • Viral, bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection.
  • Trauma or puncture wound near the heart after open-heart surgery.
  • Some prescription drugs, including hydrolyzing, a drug for high blood pressure; Isoniazid, a drug for tuberculosis; And phenytoin (Dilantin, Fenitech, et al.) and Antiepileptic drug.

Risk factors of pericardial disease

Pericarditis affects people of all ages, but men in their 20s and 50s are more likely to develop it.

The cause of pericarditis is unknown in many cases. However, some factors can trigger pericarditis:

  • Recovering from a heart attack
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Injury or injury from an accident
  • Some bacterial, viral, and fungal infections
  • Renal insufficiency
  • In rare cases, some medicines, such as phenytoin to treat seizures and procainamide to treat irregular heartbeat

Diagnosis of pericardial disease

The doctor will do a physical exam and listen to your heart with a stethoscope. If you have signs or symptoms of pericardial disease, a series of blood and imaging tests will be done to confirm the diagnosis, identify possible causes, and determine treatment. Sometimes a pericardial disease is found when testing is done for other reasons.

  • Echocardiogram: An echocardiogram uses sound waves to create real-time images of your heart. This test allows your doctor to see how much fluid has accumulated in the space between the two layers of the pericardium. The echocardiogram also shows how well your heart is pumping blood and diagnostic tamponade or shock in one of the heart’s chambers.
  • There are two types of echocardiograms: Transthoracic echocardiogram. This test uses a sound-emitting device (transducer) that is placed on your chest and your heart.
  • Transoesophageal echocardiogram: A small transducer is placed in a tube in your digestive system that goes from your throat to your stomach (esophagus). Because the esophagus is so close to the heart, placing the transducer there provides a more detailed image of the heart.
  • Electrocardiogram: An electrocardiogram, also known as an ECG or EKG, records electrical signals as they travel through your heart. Your cardiologist can look for samples that indicate tamponade.
  • Chest x-ray: If you have too much fluid in the pericardium, a chest X-ray will show an enlarged heart.
  • Other imaging technologies: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect pericardial effusion, although they are not commonly used to look for it.

Treatment for pericardial disease

Treatment for pericardial disease depends on the underlying condition causing it and whether the effusion produces severe symptoms, such as shortness of breath or shortness of breath. Medical history, the examination of the patient, diagnosis, examination of the pericardial fluid, and the physician will help determine the cause and treatment.

Depending on the cause, excess fluid may be high in protein (exudate) or water (translate). Both categories help doctors determine the best course of treatment for pericardial effusion.

Medical administration

The goal of medical treatment for the pericardial disease is to treat the underlying cause. Medical treatments for pericardial effusions:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be used to treat pericardial disease caused by inflammation. These medications include ibuprofen or aspirin.
  • Diuretics can be used to treat pericardial effusions caused by heart failure.
  • Antibiotics are used to treat pericardial disease caused by infection.
  • However, if the pericardial effusion is related to the presence of cancer, treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or intramuscular injection.

Procedures for the treatment of pericardial disease

Regardless of whether the pericardial disease is transudative (watery fluid) or exudative (made from a protein-rich fluid), the large pericardial disease is caused by respiratory symptoms or cardiac tamponade may be the main cause of the elimination of excess fluid, to avoid its return or to increase the liquid.

Large pericardial effusions can be drained through:

  • Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis: It is a safe and effective procedure to remove excess fluid from the pericardium. This is more common after fluoroscopy.
  • Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS): Also known as thoracoscopy, is the least invasive technique performed under general anesthesia. VATS allows visual evaluation of the pericardium and is used when the diagnosis of pericardial effusion has not yet been made despite previous less invasive tests. It is also used to drain excess fluid and prevent relapse. A pericardial disease that may not be treated with medical maintenance or drainage of excess fluid may require surgical treatment.
  • The pericardial window (subluxated pericardiotomy): It is a minimally invasive procedure in which an opening is made in the pericardium to drain fluid that has accumulated around the heart. The pericardial window can be completed with a small incision under the end of the breastbone or with a small incision between the ribs on the left side of the chest.
  • Percutaneous balloon pericardiotomy: It is a non-surgical procedure performed with an x-ray guide to view the pericardium and place the balloon dilator catheter. This approach is not common.

Complications of pericardial disease

  • Pericarditis can be one of two serious problems: cardiac tamponade and chronic gastric pericarditis.
  • Cardiac tamponade a medical emergency and, if left untreated, can quickly become fatal.
  • It develops when there is excess fluid between the heart muscle (myocardium) and the pericardium, putting obstructive pressure on the heart to prevent it from working properly.

Cardiac tamponade causes several symptoms, including:

  • Anxiety
  • Breathing problems and chest pain.
  • Dizziness and epilepsy
  • Swelling of the abdomen
  • Drowsiness
  • Weak pulse
  • Rare, even chronic, chronic constrictive pericarditis can be fatal if left untreated.

Pericarditis develops slowly when scar (fibrous) tissue forms on the pericardium, causing the sac to become thicker, harder, and firmer. Scar tissue shrinks over time, preventing the heart from fully expanding and filling with blood. Chronic constrictive pericarditis can lead to weakness and fatigue, shortness of breath, and swelling in the abdomen and extremities.

Prevention of pericardial disease

In general, acute pericarditis cannot be prevented. You can take steps to reduce the chance of another serious episode, complications, or chronic pericarditis. Getting prompt treatment during these stages, following your treatment plan, and getting ongoing medical care as advised by your doctor.