General Topics

Symptoms of Heart Problems in Children | Cardiology

What Is The Pediatric Heart Condition (heart problems in children)?

Pediatric heart disease usually falls into two categories: congenital heart problems, disease, or defects present at birth, and acquired heart disease that develops as a child gets older.

What is a congenital heart defect?

Congenital heart defects (CHD) occur in about 1 in 100 newborn babies as a result of the heart or blood vessels around the heart not developing properly. These heart problems, which can be mild or severe, interfere with the heart’s ability to function as it should. In India, babies are screened for severe birth defects such as heart problems within 24 hours of birth. However, some congenital heart defects, such as atrial septal defects (holes in the heart’s walls), can remain undiagnosed until adolescence or later.

A pediatric cardiologist says, “Detecting heart disease in children has been a top priority for the medical community since the invention of the stethoscope. In the current era, we have become more sophisticated in our methods of screening for heart problems, including prenatal detection of congenital heart defects and heart rhythm abnormalities.” Although you may hear that some doctors use congenital heart disease to refer to congenital heart disease, congenital heart defect is a more accurate term. Both phrases indicate the same thing.

What is acquired heart disease?

Acquired heart disease is the type we often associate with adults, but children and teens can also be affected by it. The most common acquired heart diseases in children are rheumatic heart disease and Kawasaki disease.

What is rheumatic heart disease?

Rheumatic heart disease is the most serious complication of rheumatic fever, which is a disease caused by the bacteria responsible for sore throats. Your child’s immune system can produce antibodies to fight a streptococcus infection, but in some cases these antibodies can damage the heart valves, leading to rheumatic heart disease. Non-cardiac symptoms include joint pain and swelling. A rash on the torso or arms. Skin bumps on the wrist, elbows, or knees; And rapid limb movements. Fortunately, due to the availability of drugs to combat streptococcus, rheumatic heart disease is somewhat rare in India.

What is Kawasaki disease?

Kawasaki disease is a rare disease that primarily affects children and can cause inflammation of the blood vessels in their hands, feet, mouth, lips, and throat. It also results in a fever and swollen lymph nodes. Researchers aren’t yet sure why. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), the disease is a leading cause of heart problems in up to 1 in 4 children. Most of them are under the age of five.

Treatment depends on the extent of the disease, but often includes prompt treatment with intravenous gamma globulin or aspirin (Bufferin). Corticosteroids can sometimes reduce future complications. Children with this disease often need lifelong follow-up appointments to monitor their heart health.

Symptoms of heart problems in children

 A youngster with heart problems could possibly have clear side effects. Symptoms sometimes develop slowly, over time, such as when the child becomes gradually tired. This gradual onset can delay the diagnosis. Other times, there may be a clear and noticeable change that indicates a problem with the heart, such as an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia). Symptoms of heart problems in children can vary according to the child’s age.

One in 100 babies has heart problems, which may also be called a heart defect or congenital heart disease (present from birth). Heart defects can usually be treated with medication, surgery, or other medical procedures. Most tests for heart problems are simple, quick, and painless. Most children with heart problems lead to normal, full lives with very few or no restrictions.

Signs and symptoms

Many children with heart problems appear to be healthy and have no symptoms, and their parents are unaware that they have a heart problem. If babies do develop symptoms, they often appear in the first few weeks after they are born. Common symptoms include: This is a list of the most common symptoms that may indicate a heart problem in children.

In most cases, babies with these symptoms do not have heart problems. For example, some babies naturally sweat more, and many children sweat while they sleep. The cause of palpitations maybe caffeine. Dizziness may indicate that your child is not drinking enough fluids.

However, if your child has any of these symptoms, it is important to tell the pediatrician or primary care doctor. He or she will listen to your child’s heart and perform a full medical evaluation, then decide if a referral to a pediatric cardiologist is appropriate.


  • Breathe with feeds
  • Turning blue inside the mouth (gums/tongue)
  • Sweating with feedings
  • Unconsciousness


  • Physically unable to keep up with other children
  • Breathe with activity faster than other children
  • Sweating with activity sooner than other children
  • Turning blue around the gum/tongue
  • Passing out

Older children/teens

  • Physically unable to keep up with other children
  • Breathe with activity faster than other children
  • Sweating with exercise sooner than other children
  • Turning blue around the gum/tongue
  • Chest pain with exercise
  • Passing out
  • Heart palpitations: Skipping or beating of the heart abnormally
  • Dizziness with exercise

These symptoms are caused by an insufficient supply of oxygen to the body, which occurs because the blood does not contain the usual amount of oxygen, or the heart is not pumping as well as it should.

General Topics

Prevention of Heart Disease Starts in Childhood | Cardiology

What Is Heart Disease Starts In Childhood?

You might think heart disease is a problem for adults and not for your young children. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says, obesity affects 1 in 5 children. Diet and exercise habits that began in childhood can start a heart-healthy life. Or heart damage for life.

Some of the preventable causes of heart disease in adults that begin in childhood are:

  • Obesity
  • Unhealthy diet
  • A buildup of plaque (or fat deposits) in the arteries
  • Diabetes
  • Exposure to cigarette smoke
  • Unhealthy changes in cholesterol levels
  • High blood pressure
  • Lack of physical exercise (sedentary lifestyle)

Despite the fact that the risk of heart disease can run in families, eating a healthy diet can help every child reduce their risk of developing heart disease. In the event that coronary illness runs in your family, converse with your youngster’s medical care supplier about whether their cholesterol and circulatory strain ought to be estimated normally, notwithstanding weight checking.

What can I do to prevent heart disease in my child?

There are many ways to help your child develop healthy lifestyle habits that reduce the risk of heart disease. To start, get regular medical care for your child. This means having at least a yearly physical examination. Regular medical checkups are the best way to detect and treat risks of heart disease that generally do not show symptoms, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol.

You also need to be smart about food. You can greatly reduce your child’s risk of developing heart disease by providing foods low in fat, sugar, and salt instead of processed foods, such as sausages, potato chips, and biscuits. Snack time is a good place to start. Offer baby-friendly foods, such as baby carrots, apples, or grape slices. Offer baby-sized portions of other healthy foods, such as low-fat yogurt, raisins, and peanuts. Look for baby-friendly breakfast cereals made with whole grains and low in sugar.

Set limits on less mobile entertainment. Computer, television, and video game time should not exceed one to two hours per day. Encourage exercise instead and find ways to make it enjoyable. Children five years and over should get at least 30 minutes of exercise each day. Babies may not like the idea of exercise, but they generally want to play. Encourage active play that matches your child’s interests and abilities. For example, if your child loves video games, consider moving games, which combine video games with physical activity. Better yet, involve the whole family! Join a family-friendly gym, or take a daily walk or bike ride together.

Talk to your children about healthy options and set an example. Children are more likely to develop healthy lifestyle habits if their parents teach them healthy behaviors and practice what they preach.

Healthy food, healthy hearts

A balanced diet is important for children and teenagers, not only to prevent heart disease but also to encourage healthy growth and development. A diet that prevents heart disease has three important parts. The first is to keep your daily caloric intake at the right level. Eating too many calories can cause weight gain and affect the heart, the second being fat reduction. The USDA recommends that children limit the amount of fat – especially saturated fat – that they eat. The third is a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. A good rule of thumb is to eat fruits and vegetables with a variety of colors to get a comprehensive source of nutrients.

Here are guidelines for creating a heart-healthy diet in childhood:

  • Breastfeed for as long as possible. Aim to spend an entire year, even when serving solid foods.
  • Feed your baby mostly fruits and vegetables, along with whole grains, lean protein, and low-fat dairy products. Cut back on red meat and choose leaner cuts if you decide to eat red meat.
  • Watch portion sizes. The recommended daily amounts of healthy foods for children are:
    • 2 ounces of lean protein (fish and poultry) per day for children ages 2 to 3 years, 3 ounces to 4 ounces for children 4 to 8 years old, and 5 ounces to 6 ounces for children ages 9 to 18
    • 2 cups of low-fat dairy products for children under the age of eight, and 3 cups for children ages 9 to 18
    • 5 cups of fruit
    • 5 cups of vegetables
    • 6 ounces of whole grains
  • Don’t eat junk food often. If you eat out, make healthy choices (like a grilled chicken sandwich instead of cheese bacon) and keep portion sizes reasonable.
  • Don’t give your children sugary drinks. Instead, serve water and low-fat milk.
  • Cut sweets and sweets to a minimum and consider using fresh fruit as an alternative to sweets.
  • Choose whole grains like brown rice over refined grains like white rice for more nutrients and fiber.
  • Don’t ask children to finish everything on their plate. Allow the kids to tell you when they feel full.

Healthy lifestyle, healthy heart

Many of the daily choices children and teens make affect their risk of developing heart disease. Here are some options you can encourage your children and teens to make to help protect their hearts:

  • Do about 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity most days of the week in childhood. This can be divided throughout the day into two or more periods of activity.
  • Since many kids trade activity in exchange for sitting in front of the TV or computer, keep screen time less than two hours a day.
  • Do not expose your children to cigarette smoke. Ban smoking in your home and car. Do not take your children to places where people smoke cigarettes. If you smoke, quitting smoking can help you and your children.
  • Remember that you are the most important role model for your children. Your children and teens will learn their best heart-healthy options by watching you.

Information About Interventional Cardiologist | Cardiology

What is an Interventional cardiologist?

An interventional cardiologist is a cardiologist who has one to two years of additional education and training in diagnosing and treating cardiovascular diseases as well as congenital (congenital) and catheter-based procedures for structural heart conditions, such as angioplasty and stenting.

What kinds of procedures do interventional cardiologists do?

Cardiac catheterization

This test assesses the presence, size, and location of plaque deposits in the arteries, the strength of the heart muscle, and the function of the heart valves. During cardiac catheterization, the catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the leg or wrist and gently guided into the heart. Contrast dye is injected into the coronary arteries so the cardiologist can detect the movement of blood through the arteries and chambers of the heart.

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

The goal of PGI, also known as angioplasty, is to open the coronary artery to restore blood flow. PCI is a procedure scheduled for the emergency treatment of a heart attack patient or adequate blood flow to the heart. The cardiologist selects the most suitable tool to repair the cardiac vessels based on the specific anatomy of the patient.

Balloon angioplasty

Balloon angioplasty improves blood flow to the heart. The balloon-tipped catheter is guided into the blocked artery. The balloon inflates the blocked area and opens the arterial walls.


This procedure uses a special spray device to open hardened blockages in the coronary arteries. Atherectomy is often performed during balloon angioplasty. In many cases, a stent is then inserted into the blockage.

Stent implantation

After balloon angioplasty or atherectomy, a small metal coil or mesh tube called a stent may be placed in the artery. The stent is placed at the end of a catheter, inserted through a blood vessel in the leg or wrist, and guided to the heart, where the newly opened arteries do not collapse.

What is the difference between an interventional cardiologist and a cardiologist?


Cardiologists must complete a residency in internal medicine after obtaining a medical degree. After residency, it will take two years to complete a fellowship in cardiology. The standard role of cardiologists is to act as non-invasive cardiologists and recommend lifestyle changes, such as performing diagnostic tests and treating patients by prescribing medication or improving their condition.

Those who train to become invasive, non-interventional cardiologists can do similar work with patients but are also eligible to undergo medical tests for arterial blockages. However, non-interventional invasive cardiologists do not perform the procedures performed by interventional cardiologists.

Job responsibilities of a cardiologist:

  • Evaluation of the cardiovascular and cardiac health of patients
  • Explain the results of ECGs and other tests
  • Refer patients to other specialists
  • Cardiac catheterizations (invasive, interventional non-cardiologists only)

Interventional cardiologists

Interventional cardiologists spend three years completing a fellowship in Interventional cardiology after graduating from medical school, completing a residency in Internal medicine, and completing a fellowship in cardiology. Interventional cardiologists often work in hospitals and can work at any time of the day or night on weekends or weekends. They can treat patients with conditions like heart disease or clogged arteries. Interventional cardiologists need to have good communication and leadership skills so that they can work effectively when performing procedures with other medical professionals. They also benefit from being physically fit and capable because they can stand longer and the procedures often require precision.

Job responsibilities of an interventional cardiologist:

  • Check referrals
  • Explain procedures to patients
  • Perform procedures such as inserting stents into arteries and repairing valves
  • Follow up with patients after treatment

Is Interventional cardiology invasive?

Interventional cardiology often appears invasive but does not require surgery. A small flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into the body to repair damaged or weakened blood vessels, narrow arteries, or other parts of the structure.

Benefits of Interventional cardiologists

Increase comfort, reduce problems

Before the advent of transradial cardiac catheterizations and interventions, catheterizations were inserted through the groin to access the arterial system, causing many problems for patients. This treatment, which is still practiced by doctors who are not certified to use interventional cardiology, generates a high level of discomfort in patients.

This often increases recovery time as patients struggle with the painful consequences of the procedure. Also, due to the nature of the treatment, patients often experience bleeding, bruising, and pseudoanaemia at the surgical site along the femoral artery. Problems associated with common catheterizations, such as retroperitoneal hemorrhage, have also been shown to be fatal in some patients. Fortunately, this is not the case in interventional cardiology.

General Topics

Common Signs of Heart Disease in Men | Cardiology

What is heart disease?

Heart disease is one of the foremost health risks facing men today. Rendering to the American Heart Association (AHA), more than one in three adult men has heart disease. Heart disease is an umbrella term that includes:

  • Heart failure
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Arrhythmias
  • Angina
  • Other heart-related infections, irregularities, and birth defects

Although it may seem that something so serious should have cautionary signs, it’s possible to develop heart disease without knowing it as you go about your daily life. Know the early signs of heart disease – as well as risk factors – so you can get treatment early and prevent more thoughtful health problems.

Signs and Symptoms of heart disease in men

In some cases, a heart attack or other serious heart-related event can be one of the first signs of heart disease a man notices. However, there are often some early signs and symptoms to look for that can help prevent a heart attack, stroke, or other complications of heart disease.

Men generally experience a mixture of the following symptoms when they have a heart attack:

  • Chest pain
  • Pain in the arm, neck, jaw, or back
  • Tightness or a feeling of pressure or fullness in the chest
  • Unexplained excessive sweating
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Daze
  • Nausea

Chest pain

This is the most shared symptom of a heart attack in both men and women. Most of the time, it starts out slowly with mild pain or discomfort. Sudden onset of severe symptoms is sometimes called a “Hollywood heart attack,” because of the typical way heart attacks are described in movies and on television. A heart attack can happen this way, but it is not as common.

Chest discomfort or pressure

The pain can be plain, but it doesn’t have to be. It can be a feeling of “fullness”, tightness or pressure. It can even be mistaken for heartburn. Discomfort often occurs in the left or center of your chest. The sensation may last more than several minutes or it may come and go.

Pain in other parts of your body

Pain or discomfort sometimes appears in other areas because they are not getting enough blood. It is usually an area of ​​the body that is above the waist, including the upper stomach, shoulders, one arm (probably the left) or both, the back, neck or jaw, and even the teeth.

Other symptoms

Shortness of breath, called dyspnea, can occur with or without chest pain and may even be your only symptom. It can happen when you are active or not and is probably due to congestion (fluid build-up) in the lungs. You can also find yourself coughing or panting.

Feeling tired for no reason is another common sign. You may also feel anxious. Nausea and vomiting are less mutual in men than in women. Some people say they feel lightheaded or dizzy. Another possible sign is breaking out in a cold sweat.

Constriction in the chest: This is one of the most common signs of heart problems. If you’ve experienced chest pain, tightness, or pressure, see your doctor right away. The feeling of discomfort comes and goes and can last from a few minutes to a few hours.

Physical exhaustion: Unexplained fatigue and severe exhaustion are important signs of heart disease. Many men cannot even climb stairs or walk short distances before an impending heart attack. See if you can’t do the usual tasks, especially if you were able to do them without problems before. Some heart problems may be brewing and should not be ignored.

Erectile dysfunction: One of the main reasons for erectile dysfunction is insufficient amounts of blood reaching the penis. Plaque buildup reduces blood flow and damages blood vessels. This is true for the heart and the other extremities. If someone is dealing with persistent erectile dysfunction, they should have an exam for heart problems.

Snoring: Sleep apnea occurs when there are interruptions in breathing while one is sleeping. Some symptoms of this are gasping in the middle of sleep, feeling exhausted despite the usual bedtime, and snoring. Pauses in breathing can lead to increased blood pressure, stress on the heart, and an increased risk of heart disease.

Perspiration: Sweating without any strenuous activity? This could indicate a heart attack. Call an ambulance, as it would be dangerous to drive to the hospital.

Stomach problems: Nausea, heartburn, indigestion, or stomach pain can indicate heart problems. Some people even vomit. These symptoms can also be due to a stomach virus, but if the symptoms increase with physical exertion and decrease with rest, then they are due to a heart problem.

Pain in the arm or jaw: One of the most telling signs of heart disease is pain that radiates from the chest to the arm, specifically the left arm and jaw.

Daze: Do you suddenly feel dizzy and have chest pain or shortness of breath? Run to the hospital. Lightheadedness occurs due to a sudden drop in blood pressure.

Risk factors of heart disease

Many men are at high risk of emerging heart disease. The AHA stated in 2013 that only a quarter of men met federal guidelines for physical activity 2011. They also estimated that 72.9 percent of U.S. men age 20 and older are overheavy or obese. And around 20 percent of men smoke, which can cause the blood vessels to narrow. Tightened blood vessels are a precursor to certain types of heart disease.

Other risk factors include:

  • A diet high in saturated fat
  • Alcohol abuse or excessive drinking
  • High cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Trusted Source, nearly half of all Americans – both men and women – have three or more risk factors for heart disease.

Seek medical courtesy if you have any of these symptoms. If you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or a family history of heart problems, you are at risk.

Complications of heart disease

Complications of heart disease include:

Heart failure: One of the most common complications of heart disease, heart failure occurs when your heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the needs of your body. Heart failure can be the result of many forms of heart disease, including heart defects, cardiovascular disease, valvular heart disease, heart infections, or cardiomyopathy.

Myocardial infarction: A blood clot that blocks blood flow through a blood vessel that feeds the heart causes a heart attack, possibly damaging or destroying a part of the heart muscle. Atherosclerosis can cause a heart attack.

Race: Risk factors that lead to cardiovascular disease can also lead to ischemic stroke, which occurs when the arteries to the brain become narrowed or blocked, so that very little blood reaches the brain. A stroke is a medical emergency – brain tissue begins to die within minutes of having a stroke.

Aneurysm: A serious complication that can happen anywhere in your body, an aneurysm is a bulge in the wall of your artery. If an aneurysm bursts, you may face life-threatening interior bleeding.

Peripheral artery disease: Atherosclerosis can also lead to peripheral arterial disease. When you develop peripheral artery disease, your extremities, usually your legs, don’t get enough blood flow. This causes symptoms, especially pain in the legs when walking (claudication).

Sudden cardiac arrest is the sudden and unexpected loss of heart function, breathing, and consciousness, often caused by an arrhythmia. Sudden cardiac arrest is a medical emergency. If not treated directly, it is fatal, resulting in sudden cardiac death.

Prevention of heart disease

Certain types of heart disease, such as heart defects, cannot be prevented. However, you can help prevent many other types of heart disease by making the same lifestyle changes that can improve your heart disease, such as:

  • Give up smoking
  • Control other health circumstances, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes
  • Exercise at least 30 minutes a day utmost days of the week
  • Eat a diet low in salt and soaked fat
  • keep a healthy weight
  • Reduce and manage stress
  • Practice good hygiene

Know the Symptoms of Vascular Disease | Cardiology

What is vascular disease?

Vascular disease is an abnormal condition of the blood vessels. Blood vessels are the tubes through which blood is pumped throughout the body. The arteries carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to nourish all parts of the body, including the brain, kidneys, intestines, arms, legs, and heart. Veins carry blood back to the heart. In addition to this vast network of blood vessels, problems with the so-called vascular system can lead to serious disability and death.

The vascular disease usually occurs in areas of unstable blood flow, when the direction of blood flow in the arteries changes abruptly. This figure illustrates the sites in the arterial system where this change in the direction of blood flow occurs.

Vascular diseases are vascular conditions that can put you at risk for a heart attack, stroke, or amputation. People over the age of 45 or family members with cardiovascular disease are at increased risk of developing vascular disease. Diabetes, smoking, high cholesterol, esophagus, and a sedentary lifestyle can all lead to vascular problems.

Types of vascular disease

The two main types of vascular disease are:

Functional VD: This means that there is no physical damage to the structure of your blood vessels. Instead, your vessels dilate and narrow in response to other factors such as brain signals and changes in temperature. Narrow blood flow decreases.

Organic VD: It involves changes in the structure of blood vessels, such as inflammation, plaque, and tissue damage.

Causes of vascular disease

People with conditions like diabetes, high blood pressure, or kidney failure are more likely to have vascular problems. Working with vibrating devices, having a cold temperature and smoking can exacerbate vascular problems.

Causes of vascular disease are:

  • Traumatic occurs after an injury
  • Compression occurs when pipes flatten
  • Occasionally, it happens when the pipes are blocked
  • Tumors (growth) or deformities (clumsy, tangled pipes), which may or may not be present at birth
  • Abnormal control of the vessels, they are narrow due to abnormal control of the vessels

Risk factors for vascular disease

The exact reason for atherosclerosis is not defining, but several risk factors accelerate the formation of fatty deposits in the arteries:

  • Being male
  • Family history of vascular disease, angina, heart attacks, or stroke
  • High blood pressure
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Being overweight
  • High cholesterol levels
  • An unhealthy diet
  • Lack of exercise
  • Stress

Symptoms of vascular disease

Experts say that half of the people with PAD are unaware of their condition. This is because most people have no symptoms. Possible characteristics:

  • Hair loss on the feet and legs
  • Intermittent claudication – The thigh or calf muscles experience pain when walking or climbing stairs; Some people complain of painful fruits.
  • Leg weakness
  • The lower leg may feel cold
  • Numbness in the legs
  • Brittle toenails
  • Toenails grow steadily
  • Sores or ulcers on the legs and feet that take more time to heal (or never heal)
  • The skin on the legs becomes shiny or turns pale or bluish
  • A problem in getting a pulse in the leg or foot
  • Erectile dysfunction (impotence in men, problems achieving or sustaining an erection)

Diagnosis of vascular disease

If a person suspects they have PVD, they should see a doctor. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the course of the disease and prevent serious complications.

A doctor can diagnose PVD by:

  • Life taking a complete medical and family history, including details of lifestyle, diet, and medication use
  • Perform a physical examination, which checks the temperature of the skin, the appearance, and the presence of papules on the legs and feet

Diagnostic tests used to diagnose PVD:

  • Angiography: Angiography involves injecting a dye into an artery to identify a blocked or blocked artery.
  • Ankle-brachial index (ABI): This non-invasive test measures blood pressure at the ankle. The doctor then compares this reading to the blood pressure readings on the hands. A doctor takes measurements after rest and physical activity. Low blood pressure in the legs indicates obstruction.
  • Blood tests: Although blood tests alone cannot diagnose PVD, they can help the doctor detect the presence of conditions that increase a person’s risk of developing PVD, such as diabetes and high c0holesterol.
  • Computed tomography angiography (CTA): The CTA imaging exam shows the doctor a picture of the blood vessels, including narrow or blocked areas.
  • Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA): Similar to CTA, magnetic resonance angiography highlights vascular obstruction.
  • Ultrasound: Using sound waves, ultrasound allows the doctor to see the blood flow through the arteries and veins.

Treatment for vascular disease

Recognized leaders in the treatment of vascular disorders. From repairing an aortic aneurysm to varicose veins, your Loyola team will implement the treatment plan that is right for you and may include lifestyle changes, medical maintenance, or surgery:

  • Angioplasty
  • Aortic aneurysm repair
  • Atherectomy
  • Bypass surgery
  • Carotid artery reconstruction
  • Deep venous thrombosis treatment
  • Endovascular stenting
  • Mesenteric intervention
  • Peripheral bypass
  • Peripheral stenting
  • Renal artery interventions ​

You have access to the most advanced treatment options for vascular diseases. Through a personalized and collaborative approach to patient care, our professionals can provide you with the most advanced care. After your treatment, your doctor will continue to monitor your progress to make sure your treatment is successful and your quality of life improves.

Treatment of the vascular disease depends on the specific type of vascular disease and the age, health, and medical history of the patient and may include:

  • Reduce risk factors that contribute to vascular disease by quitting smoking, exercising, improving eating habits, and controlling high blood pressure.
  • Using medications to lower cholesterol, lower blood pressure, control heart rate, and prevent blood clots.
  • Surgeries such as coronary angioplasty surgically remove an atherosclerotic plaque within the wall of the carotid artery to keep the artery open and prevent re-narrowing of carotid endarterectomy.


Steps that help to prevent vascular diseases are:

  • Make healthy lifestyle changes, such as eating a heart-healthy diet and getting more exercise.
  • Do not smoke. If you already smoke, talk to your healthcare provider to help you find the best way to quit.
  • Control your blood pressure and cholesterol
  • If you have diabetes, check your blood sugar
  • Try not to sit for too long or stand. If you need to sit all day, get up, and turn about every hour. If you are traveling on a long trip, you can also wear compression stockings and stretch your legs regularly.


Complications from undiagnosed and untreated vascular disease can be serious and even fatal. Restricted blood flow from vascular disease is a warning sign of other types of vascular disease.

Complications of vascular disease are:

  • Tissue death, which can change to limb amputation
  • Impotence
  • Pale skin
  • Pain at rest and with movement
  • Severe pain that reduces mobility
  • Wounds that don’t heal
  • Life-threatening infections of the bones and bloodstream

In the most serious problems, the arteries carry blood to the heart and brain. When they are closed, it can lead to a heart attack, stroke, or death.


When diagnosed early, vascular disease is often easily treated with lifestyle changes and medications.

A person’s development can be monitored by measuring the distance a person can walk without a liner. If the treatments are effective, people will gradually be able to walk longer distances without pain.

Early intervention can stop the condition from progressing and help prevent problems. Anyone experiencing any symptoms of vascular disease should see a doctor.

The sudden development of pale, cold, and painful limbs with loss of legumes is a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment.

Department to consult for this condition

  • Department of Cardiology

Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments of Stroke | Neurology

What is a Stroke?

A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is cut off or reduced, preventing the brain tissue from receiving oxygen and nutrients. Brain cells die in minutes. It is a medical emergency and prompt treatment is very important. Proactive action reduces brain damage and other problems.

Other names

  • Brain attack
  • Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
  • Hemorrhagic stroke (includes intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage)
  • Ischemic stroke (includes thrombotic stroke and embolic stroke)

Signs/symptoms of stroke

  • Unexpected numbness or weakness in the face, arms, or legs, especially on one side of the body.
  • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or trouble understanding speech.
  • Sudden trouble seeing with one or both eyes.
  • Sudden trouble walking, loss of balance, dizziness, or lack of coordination.
  • Sudden, severe headache for no apparent reason.

Types of strokes

The treatment for stroke depends on its type. The three main types of stroke are:

  • Ischemic attack: It is one of the three types of strokes. It is also known as cerebral ischemia and cerebral ischemia. This type of attack is caused by a blockage in the artery that supplies blood to the brain. The blockage reduces blood flow and oxygen to the brain, leading to damage or death of brain cells. If circulation is not restored quickly, brain damage can be permanent.
  • Hemorrhagic attack: Hemorrhagic attack when blood from an artery begins to bleed into the brain. This occurs when weak blood vessels break and bleed into the surrounding brain. The pressure of the filtered blood damages the brain cells, and as a result, the damaged area becomes unable to function properly.
  • Transient ischemic attack (a warning or “mini-stroke”): Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is an attack that lasts only a few minutes. This occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is briefly blocked. Symptoms of TIA are similar to other stroke symptoms, but they don’t last long. They happen suddenly.

Causes of stroke

It can treat certain conditions for which you can have a stroke. Other things that put you at risk will not change:

Hypertension: Your doctor calls this blood pressure. If your blood pressure is usually 140/90 or higher, your doctor will discuss treatments with you.

Tobacco: Smoking or chewing can increase your chances of having a stroke. Nicotine makes your blood pressure go up. Cigarette smoke increases fat in the main cervical artery. It also makes your blood thicker and more likely to clot. Secondhand smoke can affect you too.

Heart disease: This condition includes defective heart valves, as well as atrial fibrillation or irregular heartbeat, which account for about a quarter of all strokes in most adults. You can also have arteries clogged by fatty deposits.

Diabetes: People who suffer from it tend to have high blood pressure and are overweight. Diabetes can damage your blood vessels, making you more likely to have an attack. If you have a stroke when your blood sugar levels are high, your brain injury is high.

Risk factors of stroke

Main risk factors:

  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Cardiovascular diseases- Coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart valve disease, and carotid artery disease.
  • High levels of LDL cholesterol
  • Smoking
  • Brain aneurysms or arteriovenous deformities (AVM). AVMs are malformed arteries and veins that open to the brain.
  • Inflammatory infections or conditions such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.
  • A stroke can occur at any age, but the risk is higher in children and adults younger than 1 year. In adults, the risk increases with age.
  • At a younger age, it is more common in women than in men. But women live longer, so the risk of stroke is higher during their lifetime. birth control pills or use hormone replacement therapy can cause a stroke. Women are also at higher risk during pregnancy and during the postpartum weeks. High blood pressure during pregnancy, due to pre-eclampsia, increases the risk of stroke later in life.
  • Race and ethnicity: It is more common in African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, and Hispanic adults than in white adults.
  • Family history and genetics: If your parents or other family members have had a stroke, you are at special risk of having a stroke at a young age. Certain genes can affect your risk of stroke, including those that determine your blood type. People with blood type AB (which is not normal) are at higher risk.

Other risk factors that can be controlled, including:

  • Anxiety, depression, and high levels of stress. Working long hours and not having much contact with friends, family, or others outside the home also increases the risk of this disease.
  • Living or working in areas with air pollution.
  • Other medical conditions such as bleeding disorders, sleep apnea, kidney disease, migraine, and sickle cell anemia.
  • Other medicines that cause blood thinning or bleeding.
  • Other unhealthy lifestyle habits such as eating unhealthy foods, not engaging in regular physical activity, drinking alcohol, sleeping too much (more than 9 hours), and using illicit drugs such as cocaine.
  • Excess weight and delays or extra weight load around the waist and abdomen.

Diagnosis of stroke

The first step in evaluating the patient is to determine whether the patient is experiencing an ischemic or hemorrhagic attack so that appropriate treatment can begin. Head CT or MRI is usually the first test done.

Physical exam: Your doctor will perform various tests, such as listening to your heart and checking your blood pressure. They will also do a neurological exam to see how a possible stroke affects your nervous system.

Blood test: You may have several blood tests, including tests to see if your blood clots quickly, if your blood sugar is too high or too low, and if you have an infection.

Computed tomography (CT): A CT scan is done to view a detailed image of your brain. The CT scan shows bleeding, ischemic attack, tumor, or other conditions in the brain. Doctors can inject a dye into the bloodstream (CT angiography) to see the blood vessels in the neck and brain in more detail.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): An MRI is done to create a detailed view of your brain. MRI can detect brain tissue damaged by ischemic attack and brain hemorrhage. Your doctor may inject a dye into a blood vessel (magnetic resonance angiography or magnetic resonance venography) to view the arteries and veins and enhance blood flow.

Carotid ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create detailed images of the inside of the carotid arteries in your neck. This test increases fatty deposits (plaques) in the carotid arteries and increases blood flow.

Cerebral angiogram: In this abnormally used test, your doctor will make a small incision, usually in the groin, inserting a thin, flexible tube (catheter) through your main arteries and into your carotid or vertebral artery. Your doctor will then inject a dye into your blood vessels and make them visible under X-ray images. This procedure provides a detailed view of your brain and the arteries in your neck.

Echocardiogram: An echocardiogram can detect the source of clots in your heart, which can travel from your heart to your brain and cause your stroke.

Treatments for stroke

Treatment is based on the type of stroke.

Ischemic stroke: Treatment for this disease focuses on the restoration of blood to the brain.

  • You can get a freeze-thaw medicine called tissue plasminogen activator (TPA). This medicine improves recovery from a stroke. Doctors try to give this medicine within 3 hours of the start of symptoms. Some people can get help if they can get this medicine within 40 hours of the first symptoms.
  • You can also get aspirin or another antiplatelet medicine.
  • In some cases, a procedure may be done to restore blood flow. The doctor uses a thin, flexible tube (catheter) and a small cage to remove the blood clot. This procedure is called a thrombectomy.

Hemorrhagic stroke: Treatment focuses on controlling bleeding, reducing stress on the brain, and stabilizing important signals, especially blood pressure.

  • To stop the bleeding, you may receive a blood transfusion, such as medicine or plasma. These are administered intravenously.
  • Look closely for signs of increased stress on the brain. These signs include restlessness, confusion, trouble following orders, and headaches. Excessive coughing, vomiting, or other measures taken to avoid lifting or crossing stools or straining to change position.
  • If the bleeding is from a ruptured brain aneurysm, surgery may be done to repair the aneurysm.
  • In some cases, medications may be given to control blood pressure, meningitis, blood sugar levels, fever, and seizures.
  • If a large amount of bleeding occurs and symptoms quickly get worse, you may need surgery. Surgery can remove the blood that collects inside the brain and reduce the pressure inside the head.

Complications of stroke

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): If the blood is moving too slowly through your veins, it can cause a clot or a lump in the blood vessels. When blood clots in a vein, it can cause deep vein thrombosis. DVT is more likely to occur in the lower leg or thigh, but can also occur in other parts of the body. The DVT case can be fatal if the blood clots and goes to an important organ. Medications and early mobilization treatment after stroke can prevent DVT and help a person return to walking and other activities quickly.

Convulsions: It can injure the brain, resulting in scar tissue. This scar tissue interferes with the electrical activity of the brain. Interruption of electrical activity can cause seizures. Epilepsy is one of the most common complications of ischemic attack, affecting 22% of survivors.

Pneumonia: Pneumonia is a leading cause of illness and death. According to the Indiana University School of Medicine, pneumonia is the most common cause of hospitalization. In the case of a stroke, difficulty swallowing may cause aspiration, or food or fluids may enter the airways, leading to a chest infection or pneumonia.

Cerebral edema: Inflammation is part of the body’s natural response to injury. Edema refers to inflammation due to trapped fluid. If edema occurs in the brain, it can cause serious problems. Cerebral edema restricts blood supply to the brain, resulting in brain tissue death. Inflammation of the brain is one of the major complications of ischemic attack. Getting medical treatment as soon as the symptoms of a stroke are noticed reduces the chance of developing severe brain edema.

Bladder problems: There is a lot of bladder-related problems that can arise from a stroke. Often, stroke survivors have a strong urge or need to urinate frequently. When stroke survivors are unable to reach the bathroom or relieve themselves adequately because of the inability to remove clothing, this is called functional incontinence. Consequently, when a stroke survivor is unable to empty their bladder completely, this is called urinary retention. If this happens, the person will need a catheter to make sure the bladder is completely empty.

Clinical depression: Clinical depression often occurs after a major health crisis. One in four stroke survivors suffers from severe depression. Depression can cause sadness, irritability, difficulty concentrating, helplessness, apathy, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, and sometimes even suicidal thoughts. It is important to treat depression with the help of mental health providers.

Pressure sores: When the soft tissue is pressed too hard on a hard surface such as a chair or bed, the blood supply to that area decreases. This causes the skin tissue to be damaged or die. When this happens, a sore throat can occur. Prevention with pressure sores is crucial: proper positioning and appropriate equipment are needed to prevent them. Stroke survivors should discuss appropriate equipment such as air mattresses and wheelchair cushions with their physician or therapist.

Contracts: Loss of movements over time contracts due to the abnormal reduction of soft tissue structures that extend into one or more joints. These include skin, tendons, ligaments, muscles, and joint capsules. Loss of movement in any of these structures restricts joint movement, leading to pain, stiffness, and eventually a contraction. Low-load, long-term stretch is the preferred method for contracture resolution. Such a product, Cybo Stretch, uses a revolutionary stretch technique to maintain or improve movement, while at the same time reducing joint damage and pain.

Shoulder pain: 80% of patients suffer from shoulder pain. Subluxation or partial dislocation of the shoulder, spasticity of the shoulder, tendon, and rotating cuff tears are the causes of shoulder pain. Shoulder pain can be treated by proper positioning, including joint support with orthotics, as well as early occupational and/or physical therapy intervention. In some cases, if the pain becomes chronic, the doctor may prescribe oral corticosteroids.

Waterfalls and accidents: Common impairments such as imbalance, sensory impairment, weakness, visual problems, and coordination disorder naturally increase the risk of falls and accidents. Physical and occupational therapy can help reduce this risk and restore stability and lost function. Home modifications and assistive devices can be purchased to help prevent falls and accidents while performing routine daily activities.

Prevention of stroke

The best way to help prevent a stroke is to eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly, smoke, and drink heavily.

These lifestyle changes lower your risk for problems:

  • Atherosclerosis (atherosclerosis)
  • Hypertension
  • High cholesterol levels

If you already have a stroke, making these changes can lower your risk of having another stroke in the future.

Diet: Stroke with diabetes has specific health problems that must be addressed through your diet under the guidance of a doctor. In general, the dietary recommendations for stroke recovery are similar to those for diabetics. Stroke patients are often advised to focus on eating lean protein and nutrient-rich fruits and vegetables while limiting sugar, salt, and fat. Most liquid meal replacements contain large amounts of sugar, including many yogurts, puddings, and jellies, which are delicious and very bland foods. If you have a stroke and diabetes patient, watch out for these and choose sugar-free versions.

Exercise: Exercise is a valuable component that is not yet used for post-stroke care. The American Heart Association / American Stroke Association recommends that survivors recommend exercise because they experience physical degeneration and often lead a sedentary lifestyle after a stroke.

This reduces your ability to carry out activities of daily living and increases your risk of having another stroke. Heart fitness, walking ability, and upper arm strength, as well as depression, cognitive function, memory, and memory. quality of life after a stroke can be improved by physical activity.

Stop smoking: Smoking or chewing tobacco increases your chances of having a stroke. Nicotine makes your blood pressure go up. Cigarette smoke increases fat in the main cervical artery. It also makes your blood thicker and more likely to clot. Secondhand smoke can affect it too.

Alcohol: Alcoholic beverages are high in calories and have no nutritional value. Reducing the amount of alcohol you drink can help you achieve and maintain a healthy weight.

Cut down on alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption contributes to many risk factors for stroke. If you already have a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), drinking only safe alcohol can help lower your risk of having another stroke.

High blood pressure: It is a major risk factor for stroke, and drinking too much alcohol can increase your blood pressure. Atrial fibrillation, a type of irregular heartbeat, is triggered by excessive alcohol consumption.

Diabetes: Being diabetic and being overweight increases your risk of having a stroke. Both risk factors are associated with excessive alcohol consumption.


Overview of Heart Valve Disease | Cardiology

What is heart valve disease?

Heart valve disease is a disease or damage to one or more of your heart valves, affecting the way blood flows through your heart. It puts additional stress on your heart, causing chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Heart valve disease can range from mild to severe and can sometimes be fatal and requires emergency treatment.

Heart valves have flaps that open and close with each beat, allowing blood to flow through the upper and lower chambers of the heart and to the rest of your body. The upper chambers of the heart are atria and the lower chambers of the heart are ventricles.

The heart has four valves: Mitral, tricuspid, aorta, and pulmonary. These valves make sure your blood flows in the same direction it travels through your heart. When one or more of these valves stop working properly or efficiently, it can cause damage to the heart. This is called heart valve disease.

Types of heart valve disease

The following types of heart valve diseases are:

Mitral valve disease: Mitral valve prolapse is a very common condition that affects 1% to 2% of the population. During MVP contraction of the heart, the mitral valve leaflets return to the left atrium. MVP can also cause the valve tissue to become abnormal and stretch, causing the valve to leak. However, this condition rarely causes symptoms and generally does not require treatment.

Tricuspid valve disease: The tricuspid valve is located in the middle of the heart’s right upper chamber, called the right atrium, and the right ventricle is called the right ventricle. If this valve does not develop properly before you are born, there may not be an opening that allows the blood to return from your body to pump oxygen to your lungs and lungs.

Aortic valve disease: It is a condition that occurs when your aorta (the main artery of your body) and left ventricle (the lower left chamber of your heart) malfunction. The aortic valve defines how blood flows from your left ventricle to your aorta.

There are two different types of aortic valve disease: Aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation. In the case of aortic stenosis, the opening of the aortic valve is narrow, resulting in limited blood flow to the aorta. During aortic regurgitation, some of the blood returns to the left ventricle because the aortic valve is not closed enough.

Pulmonary valve disease: It is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. This condition is characterized by a pulmonary valve that does not open wide enough, causing the right ventricle to pump strongly and dilate.

Forms of heart valve disease are:

  • Stenosis (or narrowing of the valve): The opening of the valve (s) becomes narrow, restricting blood flow from the ventricles or atria. The heart sends blood with greater force to move blood through narrow or narrow (stenotic) valves.
  • Regurgitation (or leakage of the valve): The valve (s) do not close completely, causing blood to flow back through the valve. The heart has to pump more blood in the next beat, which works harder.

Causes of heart valve disease

Causes of heart valve disease are:

  • Congenital defect: This disease can be congenital and affect the anatomy of the heart.
  • Family history: Heart valve disease is sometimes more common in some families.
  • Infection or inflammation: This causes scar tissue to form in the heart and makes it difficult for the valves to open and close properly.
  • Age: The muscles of our heart valves weaken or become damaged as we age, which is why the elderly are usually diagnosed.

Risk factors for heart valve disease

Risk factors for heart valve disease are:

  • Age: People are living longer than ever, but there is an increased risk of heart valve disease as life expectancy increases.
  • Other heart conditions: If you have a history of other heart problems, you are at risk for heart valve disease.
  • Endocarditis: Endocarditis is the endocardium, the lining of the heart valves, and chambers of the heart.
  • Rheumatic fever: Rheumatic fever is caused by the same bacteria that cause strep throat. It usually only occurs in people who have not received treatment for their strep throat. Rheumatic fever can cause permanent damage to the heart muscle and valves, as your body tries to fight infections, such as narrowed valves or leaky valves.
  • High blood pressure: The power of your blood when high blood pressure pushes into your arteries.
  • Smoking: It is a major risk factor for all types of heart disease. If you smoke, the chemicals in tobacco can change the way your heart and blood vessels work.

Signs and symptoms of heart valve disease

The main symptom of heart valve disease is an abnormal beat called a heart murmur. Your doctor can listen to a heart murmur with a stethoscope.

However, most people have a heart murmur without heart valve disease or other heart problems. Others may have a heart murmur due to heart valve disease, but no other signs or symptoms.

Heart valve disease often worsens over time, so signs and symptoms may appear a few years after the heart murmur is first heard. Most people with heart valve disease have no symptoms until they reach middle age or are older.

These signs and symptoms include:

  • Increasing shortness of breath
  • Palpitations (skipped beats or a flip-flop feeling in the chest)
  • Edema (swelling of the ankles, feet, or abdomen)
  • Weakness or dizziness
  • Quick weight gain
  • Chest discomfort

Diagnosis of heart valve disease

If your heart sounds abnormally through a stethoscope, your doctor may think you have heart valve disease. This is normally the first step in diagnosing heart valve disease. A heart murmur (abnormal sounds in the heart due to turbulent blood flow through the valve) often signifies regurgitation or valve stenosis. To better define the type of valve disease and the extent of valve damage, doctors may use any of the following tests:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): A test that records the electrical activity of the heart shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmia) and can sometimes detect damage to the heart muscle.
  • Echocardiogram (echo): This noninvasive test uses sound waves to evaluate the heart’s chambers and valves. The echo sound waves create an image on the monitor when the ultrasound transducer passes over the heart. This is the best test to evaluate the function of the heart valve.
  • Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE): The test involves inserting a small ultrasound transducer into the esophagus. Sound waves create an image of the heart’s valves and chambers on a computer monitor without ribs or lungs.
  • Chest X-ray: This test uses invisible beams of electromagnetic energy to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs on film. An X-ray shows enlargement in any area of the heart.
  • Cardiac catheterization: The test involves inserting a small, hollow tube (catheter) through a large artery in the leg or arm that goes to the heart to provide images of the heart and blood vessels. This procedure can help determine the type and extent of certain valve disorders.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This test uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequency boxes, and a computer to create detailed images of organs and structures in the body.

Treatment for heart valve disease

The following is an overview of treatment options for heart valve disease:

  • Do not smoke: Follow preventive tips for a heart-healthy lifestyle. Avoid excessive alcohol consumption, high salt intake, and diet pills, all of which can raise blood pressure.
  • Your doctor may use a “watch and wait” approach for mild or asymptomatic cases.
  • To prevent bacterial endocarditis, a course of antibiotics is recommended before surgery or dental work for people with valvular heart disease.
  • Chronic antibiotic therapy is recommended to prevent a recurrence of streptococcal infection in people with rheumatic fever.
  • People with valvular heart disease may be prescribed antithrombotic (clot-prevention) medications such as aspirin or ticlopidine (see the disorder for more information) after experiencing unexplained ischemic attacks, also known as ITPs.
  • Stronger anticoagulants, such as warfarin, are indicated for those who continue to experience TIA despite atrial fibrillation (a common complication of mitral valve disease) or early treatment. Valve reconstruction establishment prolonged administration of anticoagulants after surgery may be necessary because prosthetic valves have an increased risk of blood clots.
  • Balloon dilation (a surgical technique that involves inserting a small balloon into a blood vessel, leading into a narrow space through the catheter, and then inflated) can be performed to dilate the stenotic valve.
  • Valve surgery may be required to repair or replace a damaged valve. Replacement valves can be made of artificial tissue (prosthetic valves). The type of valve that is selected for re-installation depends on the age, condition, and specific valve of the patient.


The success rate for heart valve surgery is high. The surgery will relieve your symptoms and prolong your life.

Mechanical heart valves often do not fail. However, blood clots can form on these valves. If a blood clot structures, you may have a stroke. Bleeding can occur but is very rare. Tissue valves last an average of 12 to 15 years, resting on the type of valve. Long-term use of medications is not usually necessary to thin the blood with tissue valves.

There is always the risk of infection. Talk to your doctor before any medical procedure.

Department to consult for this condition

  • Department of Cardiology