General Topics

Overview of Heart Failure in Children | Cardiology

What is heart failure in children?

The most common cause of heart failure in children is congestive heart failure, in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body’s organs. The heart continues to pump, but not as efficiently as a healthy heart. In general, heart failure reflects a progressive underlying heart condition.

For a child to grow and develop, the heart needs to maintain a normal pumping function, providing adequate blood flow throughout the body. However, sometimes a child’s heart may not function normally. The term “cardiac arrest” describes a dysfunctional heart. This does not mean that the heart has stopped working, but that it is not working.

Heart failure in children is caused by smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and faulty heart valves. It can occur in newborns, young children, young children, and adolescents for other reasons. Because heart failure has different causes and outcomes, it is important to identify how it is diagnosed, treated, and cured in young children.

How is heart failure in children identified?

Heart failure in children is often accompanied by shortness of breath, poor diet, poor growth, excessive sweating, or low blood pressure. Sometimes heart failure can be similar to other problems, such as colic, pneumonia, or other respiratory infections.

Parents often notice that it takes a long time to feed the baby or that they are not interested in feeding after a short time. If the heartbeat is caused by a very fast heartbeat, parents may experience a rapid heartbeat through the chest wall while the baby is sleeping or resting peacefully.

Older children and teens can quickly complain of fatigue, especially if the virus infection damages the heart muscle.

Causes of heart failure in children

Heart failure is more common in children with certain congenital heart defects (congenital heart defects). These include defects like holes in the heart, which increase blood flow from one side of the heart to the other. It alters the dynamics of blood flow and weakens one side of the heart. The heart then becomes unable to support blood flow, resulting in further deterioration of heart function.

Other types of heart problems, such as cardiomyopathy, can also cause heart failure, a condition that affects the pumping function of the heart. Some non-heart problems, such as kidney failure, are caused by changes in the body’s fluid balance or hormonal changes that lead to high blood pressure.

Risk factors for heart failure in children

  • Smoking
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • The high blood level of cholesterol
  • Physical inactivity
  • Obesity
  • Family history of early-onset heart disease

Symptoms of heart failure in children

Symptoms are slightly different for each child. They can include:

  • Swelling of the feet, ankles, calves, abdomen, liver, and cervix (edema)
  • Difficulty breathing, especially with rapid breathing, shortness of breath, or excessive coughing
  • Poor diet and weight gain (in babies)
  • Feeling tired
  • Excessive sweating when eating, playing, or exercising
  • Irritated

Older children may also have:

  • Weight loss
  • Passing out
  • Chest pain

The severity of the symptoms depends on how much the heart’s pumping ability is affected.

The symptoms of heart failure are similar to those of other conditions. See your child’s healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

Diagnosis of heart failure in children

Your child’s doctor will obtain a complete medical history and physical exam by asking questions about your child’s appetite, breathing patterns, and energy level. Other diagnostic procedures for heart failure may include:

  • Blood and urine tests
  • Chest X-ray: A diagnostic test that uses invisible X-rays to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): A test that records the electrical activity of the heart shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmia or dysrhythmia) and can detect problems with the heart muscle.
  • Echocardiogram (echo): A noninvasive test that uses sound waves to study the movement of the heart’s chambers and valves. The echo sound waves create an image on the monitor when the ultrasound transducer passes over the heart.
  • Cardiac catheterization (cath): Assault test that inserts a small catheter into the heart from the groin or arm. It allows the different pressures within the heart to be measured to help detect heart failure. Also, a heart tissue biopsy can be obtained to determine the root cause of heart failure.

Treatment for heart failure in children

Treatment of heart failure in children depends on the cause of the problem. Most heart defects resolve on their own over time, and some can resolve with medication. Sometimes surgery or other procedures may be necessary. In some cases, your child may need a combination of therapies.   


For some heart problems, children can take medicine after they get better. Medicines sometimes need to be taken for many years or even the child’s entire life.


Heart surgery can provide a lifelong cure for certain heart conditions. The cardiac surgeon will discuss the risks and benefits with you in detail. Sometimes surgery can be delayed until your child is older and stronger, which means they will be able to tolerate the surgery better. Depending on the condition of your child, multiple operations may be required.

In very rare cases where surgery, procedures, or medications do not help, children may need a heart transplant.

Other procedures

Some procedures involve placing a narrow tube called a catheter into the heart through a vein to treat a heart defect. Your child will be given general anesthesia for this procedure.


All results depend on the cause. If the bleeding is constant due to a structural problem of the heart, the result is excellent.

Children with large ventricular septal defects, whose pores are small or surgically closed, can lead normal lives. Children with more complicated congenital heart disease may have more variable outcomes.

Older children with cardiomyopathy can progress if the cause of the cardiomyopathy is not reversible. The key to managing heart failure is making a proper diagnosis, staying in contact with a cardiologist, and taking prescribed medications daily.

General Topics

Common Signs of Heart Disease in Men | Cardiology

What is heart disease?

Heart disease is one of the foremost health risks facing men today. Rendering to the American Heart Association (AHA), more than one in three adult men has heart disease. Heart disease is an umbrella term that includes:

  • Heart failure
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Arrhythmias
  • Angina
  • Other heart-related infections, irregularities, and birth defects

Although it may seem that something so serious should have cautionary signs, it’s possible to develop heart disease without knowing it as you go about your daily life. Know the early signs of heart disease – as well as risk factors – so you can get treatment early and prevent more thoughtful health problems.

Signs and Symptoms of heart disease in men

In some cases, a heart attack or other serious heart-related event can be one of the first signs of heart disease a man notices. However, there are often some early signs and symptoms to look for that can help prevent a heart attack, stroke, or other complications of heart disease.

Men generally experience a mixture of the following symptoms when they have a heart attack:

  • Chest pain
  • Pain in the arm, neck, jaw, or back
  • Tightness or a feeling of pressure or fullness in the chest
  • Unexplained excessive sweating
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Daze
  • Nausea

Chest pain

This is the most shared symptom of a heart attack in both men and women. Most of the time, it starts out slowly with mild pain or discomfort. Sudden onset of severe symptoms is sometimes called a “Hollywood heart attack,” because of the typical way heart attacks are described in movies and on television. A heart attack can happen this way, but it is not as common.

Chest discomfort or pressure

The pain can be plain, but it doesn’t have to be. It can be a feeling of “fullness”, tightness or pressure. It can even be mistaken for heartburn. Discomfort often occurs in the left or center of your chest. The sensation may last more than several minutes or it may come and go.

Pain in other parts of your body

Pain or discomfort sometimes appears in other areas because they are not getting enough blood. It is usually an area of ​​the body that is above the waist, including the upper stomach, shoulders, one arm (probably the left) or both, the back, neck or jaw, and even the teeth.

Other symptoms

Shortness of breath, called dyspnea, can occur with or without chest pain and may even be your only symptom. It can happen when you are active or not and is probably due to congestion (fluid build-up) in the lungs. You can also find yourself coughing or panting.

Feeling tired for no reason is another common sign. You may also feel anxious. Nausea and vomiting are less mutual in men than in women. Some people say they feel lightheaded or dizzy. Another possible sign is breaking out in a cold sweat.

Constriction in the chest: This is one of the most common signs of heart problems. If you’ve experienced chest pain, tightness, or pressure, see your doctor right away. The feeling of discomfort comes and goes and can last from a few minutes to a few hours.

Physical exhaustion: Unexplained fatigue and severe exhaustion are important signs of heart disease. Many men cannot even climb stairs or walk short distances before an impending heart attack. See if you can’t do the usual tasks, especially if you were able to do them without problems before. Some heart problems may be brewing and should not be ignored.

Erectile dysfunction: One of the main reasons for erectile dysfunction is insufficient amounts of blood reaching the penis. Plaque buildup reduces blood flow and damages blood vessels. This is true for the heart and the other extremities. If someone is dealing with persistent erectile dysfunction, they should have an exam for heart problems.

Snoring: Sleep apnea occurs when there are interruptions in breathing while one is sleeping. Some symptoms of this are gasping in the middle of sleep, feeling exhausted despite the usual bedtime, and snoring. Pauses in breathing can lead to increased blood pressure, stress on the heart, and an increased risk of heart disease.

Perspiration: Sweating without any strenuous activity? This could indicate a heart attack. Call an ambulance, as it would be dangerous to drive to the hospital.

Stomach problems: Nausea, heartburn, indigestion, or stomach pain can indicate heart problems. Some people even vomit. These symptoms can also be due to a stomach virus, but if the symptoms increase with physical exertion and decrease with rest, then they are due to a heart problem.

Pain in the arm or jaw: One of the most telling signs of heart disease is pain that radiates from the chest to the arm, specifically the left arm and jaw.

Daze: Do you suddenly feel dizzy and have chest pain or shortness of breath? Run to the hospital. Lightheadedness occurs due to a sudden drop in blood pressure.

Risk factors of heart disease

Many men are at high risk of emerging heart disease. The AHA stated in 2013 that only a quarter of men met federal guidelines for physical activity 2011. They also estimated that 72.9 percent of U.S. men age 20 and older are overheavy or obese. And around 20 percent of men smoke, which can cause the blood vessels to narrow. Tightened blood vessels are a precursor to certain types of heart disease.

Other risk factors include:

  • A diet high in saturated fat
  • Alcohol abuse or excessive drinking
  • High cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Trusted Source, nearly half of all Americans – both men and women – have three or more risk factors for heart disease.

Seek medical courtesy if you have any of these symptoms. If you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or a family history of heart problems, you are at risk.

Complications of heart disease

Complications of heart disease include:

Heart failure: One of the most common complications of heart disease, heart failure occurs when your heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the needs of your body. Heart failure can be the result of many forms of heart disease, including heart defects, cardiovascular disease, valvular heart disease, heart infections, or cardiomyopathy.

Myocardial infarction: A blood clot that blocks blood flow through a blood vessel that feeds the heart causes a heart attack, possibly damaging or destroying a part of the heart muscle. Atherosclerosis can cause a heart attack.

Race: Risk factors that lead to cardiovascular disease can also lead to ischemic stroke, which occurs when the arteries to the brain become narrowed or blocked, so that very little blood reaches the brain. A stroke is a medical emergency – brain tissue begins to die within minutes of having a stroke.

Aneurysm: A serious complication that can happen anywhere in your body, an aneurysm is a bulge in the wall of your artery. If an aneurysm bursts, you may face life-threatening interior bleeding.

Peripheral artery disease: Atherosclerosis can also lead to peripheral arterial disease. When you develop peripheral artery disease, your extremities, usually your legs, don’t get enough blood flow. This causes symptoms, especially pain in the legs when walking (claudication).

Sudden cardiac arrest is the sudden and unexpected loss of heart function, breathing, and consciousness, often caused by an arrhythmia. Sudden cardiac arrest is a medical emergency. If not treated directly, it is fatal, resulting in sudden cardiac death.

Prevention of heart disease

Certain types of heart disease, such as heart defects, cannot be prevented. However, you can help prevent many other types of heart disease by making the same lifestyle changes that can improve your heart disease, such as:

  • Give up smoking
  • Control other health circumstances, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes
  • Exercise at least 30 minutes a day utmost days of the week
  • Eat a diet low in salt and soaked fat
  • keep a healthy weight
  • Reduce and manage stress
  • Practice good hygiene

Treatment and Diagnosis of Heart failure | Cardiology

What is heart failure?

Heart failure, sometimes known as congestive heart failure, occurs when the heart muscle does not pump blood as well as it should. Certain conditions, such as narrowing of the arteries in the heart (coronary artery disease) or high blood pressure, cause your heart to gradually weaken or stiffen so that it cannot fill and pump efficiently.

Your body relies on the heart’s pumping process to deliver oxygen and nutrient-rich blood to your cells. When the cells are properly nourished, the body can function normally. With heart failure, the weakened heart cannot supply the cells with adequate blood supply. This results in fatigue, shortness of breath, and some people cough. Daily activities such as walking, climbing stairs, or carrying groceries can become very difficult.

Cardiovascular breakdown is a genuine ailment that requires treatment. Early treatment increases the chances of long-term recovery with fewer complications, and one way to prevent heart failure is to prevent and control conditions that cause heart failure, for example, coronary course sickness, hypertension, diabetes, or stoutness.

How does the normal heart work?

A normal healthy heart is a powerful muscle pump that is slightly larger than a fist. Blood is constantly being pumped through the circulatory system.

The heart contains four chambers, two on the right and two on the left:

  • Two upper chambers called the atria (one called the atrium)
  • Two lower chambers called the ventricles

The right atrium takes oxygen-depleted blood from the rest of the body and sends it through the right ventricle where the blood in the lungs is oxidized. The oxygen-rich blood travels from the lungs to the left atrium, then to the left ventricle, which pumps it to the rest of the body. The heart pumps blood to the lungs and all tissues of the body through a series of highly regulated contractions of the four chambers. For the heart to function properly, the four chambers must beat in an orderly fashion.

What are the different types of heart failure?

The heart has four chambers through which blood is siphoned. Freshly oxygenated blood is pumped from the lungs into the left atrium and left ventricle and out through the aorta for circulation through the rest of the body. After using the oxygen, blood returns through the veins to the right atrium and the right ventricle to the lungs to return the oxygen.

Systolic heart failure (left-sided heart failure)

When the heart loses its strength on the left side (the left ventricle) and cannot pump blood into the circulation, this is called systolic heart failure or left heart failure. When this happens, the heart dilates and becomes weak. Heart muscle strength can be measured with an echocardiogram that measures the ejection fraction. 70% of the ejection fraction is normal. The term congestive heart failure, or CHF, refers to a build-up of fluid in the tissues. Fluid can build up in the legs causing swelling (edema), in the lungs causing pulmonary edema, or in the abdomen where it is called ascites. A type of heart failure called acute decompensated heart failure is an emergency situation.

Diastolic heart failure (right-sided heart failure)

The second type of heart failure is diastolic heart failure, which is characterized by the thickening and stiffening of the lower chambers of the heart. When this happens, the left ventricle cannot fill with enough blood, and not enough blood is pumped into the circulation, even if the pumping process is still vigorous. This is the reason diastolic cardiovascular breakdown is in some cases alluded to as cardiovascular breakdown with protected launch division (PEF), or right-sided cardiovascular breakdown. If signs and symptoms of heart failure are present and the ejaculation rate is greater than 50%, then diastolic heart failure may be considered, especially if the echocardiogram shows that the heart muscle is enlarged.

Heart failure signs and symptoms

The signs and symptoms are:

  • Shortness of breath or trouble breathing
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • Reduced ability to exercise
  • Persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged phlegm
  • Increased need to urinate at night
  • Fatigue (tiredness)
  • Swelling in the ankles, feet, legs, abdomen, and veins in the neck
  • Swelling of your abdomen (ascites)
  • Very rapid weight gain from fluid retention
  • Sudden, severe shortness of breath and coughing up pink, foamy mucus
  • Chest pain if your heart failure is caused by a heart attack
  • Lack of appetite and nausea
  • Difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness

Causes of heart failure

Conditions that damage or overexert the heart muscle can cause heart failure. Over time, the heart weakens. It is not able to fill and/or pump blood as well as it should. When the heart weakens, some proteins and substances may be released into the blood. These substances have a toxic effect on the heart and blood flow, and they exacerbate heart failure.

Causes may include:

  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Cardiomyopathy, a disorder of the heart muscle that causes the heart to become weak
  • A congenital heart defect
  • A heart attack
  • Heart valve disease
  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Certain types of arrhythmias, or irregular heart rhythms
  • Emphysema, a disease of the lung
  • HIV
  • AIDS
  • Severe forms of anemia
  • An overactive or underactive thyroid
  • Certain cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy
  • Drug or alcohol misuse

Risk factors

One risk factor may be sufficient to cause heart failure, but a combination of factors also increases the risk.

Risk factors include:

  • High blood pressure: Your heart works harder than it should if your blood pressure is high.
  • Coronary artery disease: Narrowed arteries may limit the heart’s supply of oxygen-rich blood, causing the heart muscle to weaken.
  • Heart attack: A heart attack is a form of coronary artery disease that occurs suddenly. Damage to the heart muscle from a heart attack may mean that your heart is no longer able to pump blood as well as it should.
  • Having diabetes increases your risk of developing high blood pressure and coronary artery disease.
  • Some diabetes medications: The diabetes drugs rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone (Actos) have been found to build the danger of a cardiovascular breakdown in certain individuals. However, do not stop taking these medications on your own. If you are taking it, discuss with your doctor whether you need to make any changes.
  • Certain medications: Some medications can lead to heart failure or heart problems. Medicines that may increase the risk of heart disease include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Some anesthetics, some antiarrhythmic drugs. Certain medicines are used to treat high blood pressure, cancer, blood diseases, neurological diseases, psychiatric conditions, lung diseases, urinary tract diseases, infections, and infections; And other over-the-counter medications.
  • Do not stop taking any medications on your own. If you have questions about the medications you take, discuss with your doctor whether he recommends any changes.
  • Sleep apnea: The inability to breathe properly while sleeping at night reduces oxygen levels in the blood and increases the risk of heart rhythm disturbances. Both of these problems can weaken the heart.
  • Congenital heart defects: Some people with heart failure are born with structural heart defects.
  • Valvular heart disease: People with valvular heart disease have a higher risk of developing heart failure.
  • A viral infection may have damaged your heart muscle.
  • Alcohol use: Drinking a lot of liquor can debilitate heart muscle and lead to a cardiovascular breakdown.
  • Tobacco use: Using tobacco must increase your risk of cardiac infarction.
  • People who are obese have a higher risk of developing cardiac infarction.
  • Irregular heartbeats: These abnormal rhythms, especially if they are frequent and too fast, can weaken the heart muscle and cause heart failure.

How is heart failure diagnosed?

To diagnose heart failure, your doctor will ask you questions about your medical history, talk about your symptoms, and physically examine you. This will include checking your heart rate and rhythm, measuring your blood pressure, and checking whether you have fluid in your lungs, legs, and other parts of your body. In most cases, you’ll also undergo further tests to confirm the diagnosis and guide how your symptoms are managed.

You may hear your doctor talk about an “ejection fraction” of your heart. This refers to the amount of blood that is pushed out of the left ventricle each time your heartbeats. It is usually expressed as a percentage – more than 50% is considered normal. Some people with this heart defeat have a normal ejection fraction, so the ejection fraction is used along with other tests to help diagnose heart failure.

Heart failure treatment

Monitoring and self-care

If you have heart failure, your provider will monitor you very closely. You will have follow-up visits at least every 3 to 6 months, but sometimes much more. You will also have tests to check the function of your heart. Knowing your body and the worsening symptoms of your cardiopulmonary arrest will help you stay healthier and out of the hospital. At home, watch for changes in heart rate, pulse, blood pressure, and weight.

Weight gain, especially over a day or two, can be a sign that your body is retaining extra fluid and your heart failure is getting worse. Talk to your provider about what you should do if you gain weight or develop more symptoms. Reduce the amount of salt you eat. Your provider may also ask you to limit the amount of fluid you drink during the day.

Other important changes to make in your lifestyle:

  • Ask your provider how much alcohol you may drink.
  • DO NOT smoke.
  • Stay active. Walk or ride a stationary bike. Your provider can provide you with a safe and effective exercise plan. Don’t exercise on days when you gain fluid weight or feel unwell.
  • Get enough rest, including after exercise, eating, or other activities. This allows your heart to rest too.
  • Lose weight if you are overweight.
  • Lower your cholesterol by changing your lifestyle.

Medicines, surgery, and devices

You will need to take medications to treat heart failure. Meds treat the indications, keep your cardiovascular breakdown from deteriorating, and assist you with living longer. You must take your medication as directed by your health care team.

These medicines:

  • Help the heart muscle pump better
  • Open up blood vessels or slow your heart rate so your heart does not have to work as hard
  • Reduce damage to the heart
  • Keep your blood from clotting
  • Lower your cholesterol levels
  • Reduce the risk of abnormal heart rhythms
  • Replace potassium
  • Rid your body of excess fluid and salt (sodium)

You must take your medication as directed. Do not take any other medicines or herbs without first asking your provider. Medicines that may cause your heart failure include:

  • Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)
  • Naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn)

The following devices and surgeries may be recommended for some people with heart failure:

  • Coronary bypass surgery (CABG) or angioplasty with or without stenting may help improve blood flow to the damaged or weakened heart muscle.
  • A defibrillator sends an electrical pulse to stop life-threatening abnormal heart rhythms.
  • Heart valve surgery may be done if changes in a heart valve are causing your heart failure.
  • A pacemaker can help treat slow heart rates or help both sides of your heart contract at the same time.


If you have heart failure, your outlook on the cause and severity, your general health, and other factors such as your age.

Complications can include:

  • Kidney damage or failure: It can reduce blood flow to your kidneys, which can eventually lead to kidney failure if left untreated. Kidney damage caused by heart failure can require hemodialysis for treatment.
  • Heart valve problems: The valves in your heart that keep blood flowing in the correct direction through your heart may not function properly if your heart is enlarged or if the pressure in your heart is too high because of heart failure.
  • Heart rhythm problems: Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) can be a possible complication of heart failure.
  • Liver damage: It can lead to fluid buildup and put severe pressure on the liver. This reserve fluid can lead to scarring, making it more difficult for the liver to function properly.

With appropriate treatment, some people’s symptoms and heart function will improve. However, cardiac arrest is life-threatening. People with heart failure may have severe symptoms, and some may require a heart transplant or ventricular assist device support.

How can you prevent heart failure?

A sound way of life can help treat cardiovascular breakdown and keep the condition from creating in any case. Losing weight and exercising regularly can greatly reduce your risk of cardiopulmonary arrest. Reducing the amount of salt in your diet can reduce your risk.

Other healthy lifestyle habits include:

  • Reducing alcohol intake
  • Getting an adequate amount of sleep
  • Quitting smoking
  • Avoiding foods high in fat