General Topics

Common Heart Conditions in Children | Cardiology

What Are Heart Conditions In Children?

Heart disease is a very broad term for many things that can go wrong with the heart—in both adults and children. Narrow the focus to children, and the term still encompasses many different types of heart conditions in children that range from a condition that has no symptoms and is never diagnosed, to a problem that is severe and potentially life-threatening that is apparent at birth.

If you are looking for information about a specific disease i.e., heart conditions in children, and would like to know more about its symptoms, how the disease develops over time, and how heart conditions in children are treated, the list below is a good place to start. Some of the most common heart conditions in children are listed as either congenital (present from birth) or acquired (developed after birth).

Congenital heart conditions

  • Anomalous Coronary Arteries/Fistulas
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
  • L-Transposition of the Great Arteries
  • Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return
  • Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD)
  • Tricuspid Atresia
  • Truncus Arteriosus
  • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
  • Coarctation of the Aorta/Interrupted Aortic Arch
  • D-Transposition of the Great Arteries
  • Pulmonary Atresia
  • Pulmonary Stenosis
  • Aortic Stenosis/Bicuspid Aortic Valve
  • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
  • Ebstein’s Anomaly
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Vascular Ring/Sling

Acquired heart disease

  • Dilated Cardiomyopathy
  • Rheumatic Fever
  • Kawasaki Disease
  • Myocarditis
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
  • Pericarditis
  • Endocarditis

Signs of heart conditions in children

Signs of heart conditions in children vary depending on the condition, the child’s age, and whether or not the heart condition or disease was acquired before the baby was born or during infancy.

Heart conditions in children

Signs of potential heart conditions in children can include:

  • Difficulty gaining weight
  • Bluish color to the lips, tongue, or nail bed
  • Difficulty feeding
  • Rapid or rapid breathing, or difficulty breathing, even at rest
  • Fatigue easily while eating
  • Sweating during breastfeeding
  • Call your doctor right away if you notice that your child is showing any of these signs or symptoms

Heart conditions in young children

In young children, look for:

  • Loss of consciousness during physical exercise or activity
  • Heart palpitations: A heartbeat that seems funny or moody for the child
  • Shortness of breath during play or activity
  • Chest pain

What causes heart conditions in children?

Sometimes there is a defect in the walls of the heart (such as a hole in the heart) or a problem with the valves (for example, they may be too narrow or completely blocked). This means either that blue and red blood is mixed together, or the heart may not be pumping well. When these problems occur, the body may not get the normal amount of oxygen.

Usually, a heart defect appears while the baby is still growing in the womb. It is not caused by anything the mother did during pregnancy, and doctors often cannot know the cause of the defect. Sometimes, heart problems are caused by genetic factors (there is a family history of heart defects). Sometimes, childhood illnesses damage the heart. Children can develop heart problems after contracting a viral (virus) infection. However, this is extremely rare.

Treatment of heart conditions in children

Once your child’s problem is diagnosed, the next step is to correct it. For some children, immediate intervention will not be necessary. For others, pharmacologic, interventional catheterization, or surgery may be the recommended course of treatment.


  • ACE (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme) Inhibitors: ACE inhibitors relax arteries throughout the body, lower blood pressure and reduce the workload on the heart. It is useful in treating heart failure and high blood pressure. Medicines commonly used in this class are captopril, enalapril, and lisinopril.
  • Antiarrhythmics: A group of medicines used to treat heart rhythm disorders.
  • Beta-Blockers: A class of drugs used to treat various disorders related to the circulatory system. These medications slow the effect of adrenaline, slow the heart rate, reduce pressure in blood vessels, and reduce the strength of heart contractions. They are useful for treating heart failure, high blood pressure, and some heart rhythm disorders. It is also used to control migraines and fainting spells. This large group includes propranolol, atenolol, and metoprolol.
  • Digoxin: Digoxin (a type of digitalis) is one of the oldest heart medications, it makes the contraction of the heart muscle stronger and more efficient, slows the heart rate, and helps remove excess fluid from the body tissues. It’s sometimes used to treat heart failure and some heart rhythm disorders. Lanoxin is a popular drug in this class.
  • Diuretics: In children, diuretics are the medications most commonly used to manage mild to moderate degrees of congestive heart failure. These medications help the body get rid of water and salt. This group includes furosemide (“Lasix”), bumetanide, and spironolactone.

Interventional catheterization

For the many children with heart problems, surgery was the only treatment option. Today, minimally invasive procedures, such as interventional catheters, are often considered the first treatment option and are performed routinely in place of surgery. Interventional catheterization can provide a permanent solution for some conditions or a short-term solution for heart conditions in children who will need surgery later.

Diagnostic vs. Interventional catheterization

What is the difference? In terms of what your child will experience, and how you will prepare for the procedure, there is very little, if any, difference between diagnostic and interventional catheters. In both procedures, thin, flexible catheters are inserted into a vein or artery in the groin area and directed to the heart.

Catheters and balloon stents may be used to open narrowed valves or arteries. There are also special files and devices that are inserted through the catheter, used to block unwanted blood vessels and holes in the wall between the chambers of the heart.

Advanced imaging for earlier diagnosis

Our PCPs and emergency clinics utilize the most recent imaging gear and innovation to rapidly and precisely analyze an assortment of cardiovascular sicknesses, so patients can get therapy as fast as could reasonably be expected.

In the event that your youngster gives indications or manifestations of procured coronary illness, our pediatric cardiologist will probably suggest either an echocardiogram or attractive reverberation imaging of the heart (MRI). An echocardiogram is a non-invasive cardiology procedure that uses sound waves to evaluate the heart’s structure and function. An echocardiogram is used to diagnose and monitor the progression of this heart disease. However, in some cases, the cardiologist may want a more specialized image of your heart called a cardiac MRI. Cardiac MRI can produce 3D images of heart organs and tissues that enable specialists to more accurately evaluate heart function, the extent of the infection, or inflammation of the heart in disorders such as myocarditis.


After your child is treated for a heart defect, he or she will have regular check-ups with the cardiologist and/or pediatrician. For problems not related to their heart, they can still see your GP. If you are concerned about your child, talk to your child’s doctor, pediatrician, or cardiologist.

General Topics

Overview of Nervous System Problems in Women | Neurology

What are the nervous system problems in women?

The nervous system problems in women may be a complex and complicated system that regulates and coordinates bodily activities. it’s made from two main divisions, including the following:

  • Central system nervous: It consists of the brain and medulla spinalis.
  • Peripheral system nervous: It consists of all the opposite neural elements, including the peripheral nerves and therefore the autonomic nerves.

In addition to the brain and medulla spinalis, the main organs of the system nervous include the following:

  • Eyes
  • Ears
  • Sensory organs of taste
  • Sensory organs of smell
  • Sensory receptors located within the skin, joints, muscles, and other parts of the body.

The nervous system is subject to various disorders. It can be harmed by the following:

  • Trauma
  • Infections
  • Degeneration
  • Structural defects
  • Tumors
  • Interruption of blood flow
  • Autoimmune disorders

Nervous system problems in women can involve the following:

  • Vascular disorders, like stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, and extradural hematoma and hemorrhage
  • Infections, like meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and epidural abscess
  • Structural disorders, like brain or medulla spinalis injury, Bell’s palsy, cervical spondylosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, brain or medulla spinalis tumors, peripheral neuropathy, and Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Functional disorders, like headache, epilepsy, dizziness, and neuralgia
  • Degeneration, like paralysis, MS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s chorea, and Alzheimer’s disease

Symptoms of nervous system problems in women

The following are the foremost common general signs and symptoms of nervous system problems in women. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently.

Symptoms of nervous system problems in women can include:

  • Persistent or sudden headache
  • A headache that changes or is different
  • Loss of sensation or tingling
  • Weakness or loss of muscle strength
  • Loss of sight or diplopia
  • Memory loss
  • Impaired brain
  • Lack of coordination
  • Muscular stiffness
  • Tremors and seizures
  • Back pain that radiates to the feet, toes, or other parts of the body
  • Loss of muscle mass and difficulty speaking
  • New language impairment (expression or comprehension)

The symptoms of nervous system problems in women may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

There are many sorts of nervous system problems in women, including:

  • Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
  • Epilepsy
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Paralysis agitans
  • Migraines

Causes of nervous system problems in women

If you think that you simply or a beloved could also be affected by one among these nervous system problems in women, you’ll even be wondering what causes a nervous disorder. The causes of such dysfunction are often quite diverse. Both the medulla spinalis and therefore the brain is insulated by numerous membranes that will be susceptible to force and pressure. Peripheral nerves located deep under the skin also can be susceptible to damage. Nervous system problems in women can affect a whole neurological pathway or one neuron. Even a little alteration during a neuron’s structural pathway may result in dysfunction. As a result, neurological disorders are often thanks to a variety of causes, including:

  • Lifestyle-related causes
  • Infections
  • Genetics
  • Nutrition-related causes
  • Environmental influences
  • Physical injuries


Medication Options for nervous system problems in women

While it’s understandable that the thought of being diagnosed with a nervous disorder is often terrifying, it’s important to know that there are medication options for nervous system problems in women. These options can assist you or your beloved in better control your condition, reduce symptoms, and improve your quality of life.

Neurological drugs: Possible options for nervous system problems in women

The type of drugs which will be wont to treat your nervous disorder will depend upon your condition. Possible neurological drug options may include corticosteroids, which are often indicated for the treatment of MS . this sort of drug can help decrease inflammation. Medications that affect dopamine, like levodopa, are commonly utilized in the treatment of Parkinson’s to assist with stiffness and tremors.

Side effects of medicines

When taking medication to treat any condition or disorder, it’s important to know that you simply may experience certain side effects. The side effects of medicines associated with the treatment of neurological disorders may vary counting on your own situation and therefore the sort of medication in question. In some cases, you’ll develop a dependence on the drugs you’re taking. this will occur albeit it’s a prescription and you’re taking it to treat significant ill health, like a nervous disorder.

Depression and neurological problems

Depression and neurological problems are often interrelated. thanks to the debilitating nature of depression, people that suffer from it, also as neurological problems, can find it challenging to recover without professional assistance. There are many treatment options available that will assist you to treat your depression, including combination therapy with medications.

Dual diagnosis: Addiction and neurological disorders

Seeking the assistance of a middle that gives the power to form a dual diagnosis, as the diagnosis of an addiction aggravated by a nervous disorder, is critical to achieving optimal recovery. If one problem is treated but the opposite isn’t treated, the probabilities of a full recovery may decrease. At a treatment center that focuses on addressing both addiction and neurological issues, you’ll be ready to receive the critical assist you need for your addiction while ensuring that your nervous disorder is treated also.

Diagnosis of nervous system problems in women

Assessing and diagnosing harm to the sensory system is confounded and complex. A significant number of the equivalent symptoms happen in various mixes among the various issues. To additionally confound the symptomatic cycle, numerous issues don’t have complete causes, markers, or tests.

Notwithstanding a total clinical history and physical test, symptomatic strategies for nervous system problems in women may incorporate the accompanying:

  • Computed tomography scan (also called a CT or CAT scan)
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Electrodiagnostic tests, such as electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Arteriogram (also called an angiogram)
  • Spinal tap (also called a lumbar puncture)
  • Evoked potentials
  • Myelogram
  • Neurosonography
  • Ultrasound (also called sonography)

Treatment of nervous system problems in women

Neurological disorders are undoubtedly one of the foremost terrifying diseases that humans face. Other sorts of dysfunction, like cancer or viruses, are a minimum of easily understood, if not so easily treated. A malfunctioning pancreas, problematic because it could also be, doesn’t strike the guts of what it means to be human, and can basically leave its victim intact as an individual.

Knowledge is usually the sole power that exists against the vagaries of neurological diseases. Learning the causes of neurological problems can make the difference between a totally voting patient who is responsible for his or her own care decisions and a helpless and terrifying subject who is preoccupied with mysterious ailments that make no sense.

Therapies for neurological disorders

Aside from the question of cure, sometimes patients with neurological problems can receive rehabilitation as a part of an attempt to revive some lost function. this is often usually a hopeful sign because it is rare to seek out a patient assigned to therapy when there’s little or no hope of a minimum of partial recovery. Therapies for nervous system problems in women can often consist of:

  • Lifestyle changes to stop or minimize the impact of such conditions.
  • Physiotherapy to regulate symptoms and restore some function
  • Pain management, as many deficiencies are often related to considerable discomfort
  • Medications to revive function or prevent a worsening of the patient’s condition

Cognitive therapy treatments

One approach to treating primarily behavioral neurological problems is understood as cognitive behavioral therapy, formerly referred to as talk therapy. CBT focuses on reorienting a patient’s thoughts and behavior associated with their disability. While this is often obviously not an adequate response to several brain and systema nervosum disorders, like paralysis agitans or epilepsy, it’s shown a big effect in treating ADHD, anxiety, and other mood disorders. , and a spread of mainly psychogenic deficiencies.

It’s several advantages, one among which is that it doesn’t pose the danger of side effects like medications or other interventions might. CBT can often be administered by someone aside from a physician, although it must be administered by licensed therapists. it’ll often be among the primary options for patients, given its generally non-invasive nature.

Other therapeutic methods

Clearly, CBT isn’t necessary in the case of patients recovering from a stroke, traumatic injury, or degenerative brain diseases. In cases like these, other therapeutic methods are preferred. These can range from medications like neuroleptics (haloperidol and chlorpromazine, for example) that are wont to treat organic brain disorders like schizophrenia, to comparatively simple pain relievers, like ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and opiates to treat the painful effects of the many neurological diseases.

Residential inpatient neurological treatment centers

One of the choices nearby might be any number of residential inpatient neurological treatment centers. These institutions, sometimes mentioned simply as rehabilitation centers, often focus their attention on treatable disorders, the most ones being problems of alcoholic abuse and other chemical dependencies.

Luxury neurological treatment facilities

The sometimes bitter pill of relocation and treatment can be sweetened considerably at the prospect of admission to one of the many luxury neurological treatment facilities. They are mostly inpatient or residential care facilities but provide care in a resort-like setting.

Executive neurological treatment programs

Often, those with behavioral deficiencies, such as addictions to substances or processes, will have a difficult time breaking away from the ongoing demands of everyday life. They may have jobs that don’t allow them time off or family responsibilities. In cases like these, you can arrange treatment into an executive neurological treatment program that specializes in quickly addressing the needs of the inpatient clinical patient and quickly reintegrating them into their jobs and families.

Outpatient neurological rehabilitation and treatment programs

Sometimes patients and their care providers feel that the demands of hospital care are excessive or impossible due to life circumstances. In cases like this, outpatient neurological rehabilitation and treatment programs may be the most desirable option for treatment. By maintaining a stable residence, a patient in this type of therapeutic treatment course will often present to an outpatient clinic for a specified period to receive agreed-upon care.

Prescription and over-the-counter drugs

A valuable adjunct to the clinical care of those with nervous system problems in women is the provision of effective prescription and non-prescription medications. While not all brain and nervous system conditions respond to medication, a surprising number do, and it is rare for a healthcare provider to overlook such a powerful tool for managing the effects of neurological problems.


Overview of Cardiac Electrophysiology | Cardiology

What is cardiac electrophysiology?

All heart activity is regulated by cardiac electrophysiology stimuli. The area called the sinoatrial node produces electrical impulses that stimulate the rest of the heart muscle to contract rhythmically. Problems with the heart’s electrical system can contribute to arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythms).

While some types of arrhythmia are not serious, others can lead to cardiac arrest, heart disease problems, and other life-threatening conditions. When the heart needs medical help, structural problems sometimes require a “mechanic” or a “plumber” to fix circulatory problems. In other cases, you may need an “electrician” or a cardiac electrophysiologist.

Syncope expert assessment and management of sudden loss of consciousness, which is sometimes associated with a heart rhythm disorder. Treatment of abnormally fast heart rhythms with pharmaceuticals, cardiac electro auto, or ablation therapy.

Management of atrial fibrillation, which is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in adults in the United States. This condition is associated with impaired physical function, thromboembolic stroke, and heart failure. Our cardiac electrophysiologists offer multiple treatment options (individual and in combination) including specialized medical management, catheter ablation, electro-nautical alignment, and left atrial appendage closure.

Dynamic electroanatomic mapping to guide catheter-based interventions to replace or remove defective tissue that causes abnormal heart rhythms. Setting up a pacemaker or coordinating electrical impulses in the heart to treat unacceptable slow or unreliable heart rates. Placement of defibrillators for the treatment of dangerous heart rhythms and the restoration of a healthy heart rhythm. 

Understanding cardiac electrophysiology

It is important to understand how the heart’s electrical system works. The heart muscle contains specialized cells that can produce electrical impulses. In healthy hearts, these impulses propagate in a reversible pattern, causing the heart muscle to contract and pump blood. However, if you have a heart rhythm disorder or arrhythmia, the electrical signals do not travel throughout the heart muscle.

Electrophysiology studies (EPS) are done to evaluate the electrical activity of your heart. By using special catheter tubes that can transmit electrical impulses, doctors can see where electrical signals begin and travel in your heart. This will help them identify the exact area of your heart that is the source of the problem.

If your doctor decides where your arrhythmia starts, he or she can treat your condition in the same way. In many cases, doctors destroy a small area of tissue in the heart that causes arrhythmia in a low-risk procedure called catheter ablation. Depending on the type of rhythm disorder you have, your doctor may set up a pacemaker or implantable cardiovascular defibrillator (ICD) to monitor and correct your heart arrhythmia when it begins. 

Techniques performed by specialists in cardiac electrophysiology

A cardiac electrophysiologist can perform a variety of tests to diagnose problems with the electrical activity of the heart, including:

Electrocardiogram: An electrocardiogram measures the electrical activity of the heart through electrodes placed on the skin.

Tilt table test: Designed to detect problems associated with dizziness or fainting, you must lie on the table while monitoring the EKG and blood pressure monitor for the bow table test. The table stands out from the lie, and the cardiologist describes the changes in heart activity and blood pressure.

Ambulatory monitors: Your heart specialist may ask you to wear a special heart monitor attached to your chest throughout the day, which will give you a better idea of ​​potential problems with heart function.

Electrophysiology study: During an electrophysiology study, the cardiologist makes a small puncture in the blood vessel, which allows small catheters to be placed in the heart. Patients are awake during the procedure, although they receive local anesthesia to prevent pain at the catheter insertion site. The doctor sends information about the origin of the arrhythmia through electrical catheters through catheters. 

Cardiac electrophysiology treatments

  • Electrocardiogram
  • Holter monitor
  • Cardiac event monitor
  • Tilt table test
  • Electrophysiology study

Your treatment will depend on the type and severity of the arrhythmia (depending on where it occurs and how it affects your heart rhythm). These treatments can include:

Lifestyle changes: Reducing or eliminating triggers such as alcohol, certain medications, caffeine, and stress can ease the arrhythmia on its own (persistent arrhythmia).

Medications: Antiarrhythmic medications, such as calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, and blood thinners (such as aspirin or warfarin), can help control abnormal heart rhythms. Actions need careful monitoring to prevent side effects, and you may need other tests to see if this treatment is working.

Catheter procedures: Long, flexible leads to enter the heart and stop the arrhythmia at its source, often to cure the arrhythmia. These minimally invasive procedures include cutting abnormal power lines using radiofrequency heat (catheter ablation) or coagulation therapy (known as cryotherapy or cryoablation).

Robotic catheterization and surgery: Specialized system for catheter-based mapping of the chambers of your heart. The system allows for more precise and consistent catheter movement during complex cardiac procedures.

Cryoablation: This procedure restores normal electrical conduction by clotting the heart tissue or pathways that block the normal movement of electrical impulses from the heart.

Cardioversion: If your heart is beating too fast, cardiac electrophysiology can apply an electrical shock to the chest wall to restore normal heart rhythm.


Equipment for the treatment of arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation (AFib) As part of your treatment plan, your doctor may recommend an implantable device:

Monitoring device: People with atrial fibrillation are at increased risk of stroke because clots form in the chambers above the heart. The Watchman device can reduce this risk and provide an alternative to blood-thinning medications such as warfarin (which prevents clotting).

Pacemakers: We use pacemakers to treat slow heartbeats. The device sends electrical impulses to the heart to maintain an optimal heart rate.

Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD): This device corrects malignant arrhythmia in the heart’s ventricles (the lower chambers that send blood to the rest of the body). The ICD monitors your heart rhythm and interrupts dangerous arrhythmias by giving an electric shock.

Life west: This temporary external body device detects and counteracts malignant heart rhythm abnormalities.

  • Example of an x-ray showing a pacemaker
  • Living with an adjustable device

After you have received the mountable device, you need to take more precautions to ensure that it works properly.


Types of Congenital Heart Specialists | Treatments | Cardiology

Before knowing about congenital heart specialists, first of all, everyone needs to know about congenital heart disease and also types.

What Is congenital heart disease?

Congenital heart disease is one or more problems with the heart’s construction that are present from birth. Congenital means that you were born with a defect. Congenital heart disease, also called a congenital heart defect, can change the way blood flows through your heart. Some congenital heart defects may not cause any problems. However, complex defects can cause grievous complications.

Advances in diagnosis and treatment have allowed children with congenital heart disease to survive into adulthood. Former the signs and symptoms of congenital heart disease don’t appear until you’re an adult. If you have congenital heart disease, you will likely need care throughout your life. Inquire your doctor to determine how often you need to be tested.


All cardiologists are not the same. While each doctor undergoes education and training related to the heart, they specialize in different types of heart problems. It is important that you be treated by a cardiologist trained in caring for the type of heart disease you have.

There are two major types of heart problems:

Congenital: Heart abnormalities present at birth.

  • Some examples are holes in the heart, deformed valves, or pump chambers
  • It is most often diagnosed in infancy
  • Usually, there is no specific cause or prevention

Acquired: Heart abnormalities that develop over time.

  • Examples include coronary artery disease, weak heart muscles, and valve leakage
  • It is often diagnosed later in life
  • It may be caused by smoking, infection, or diseases such as diabetes

If you have congenital heart disease (CHD), it is important that your health care team understands your unique heart. Patients with coronary artery disease can have hearts that look and function differently than a normal heart. Some hearts can be underdeveloped or on the other side of the chest or with vessels in abnormal places.

While it may seem strange to the untrained eye, it may be normal for someone trained in the treatment of CHD. Congenital cardiologists understand all the unique ways hearts can be formed and the surgeries used to treat them.

Types of Congenital heart specialists

Pediatric Congenital heart specialists

  • Pediatric congenital heart specialists treat infants and children with coronary heart disease
  • Diagnosis of coronary artery disease in infants
  • Defines treatment plans
  • Cares about the growth of the heart
  • Pediatric congenital heart specialists determine whether the initial intervention (catheter or surgery) is necessary

Adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) cardiologist

  • It treats adolescents and adults with coronary artery disease
  • It takes care of the aging heart
  • Cares about hearts when the body changes like during pregnancy or illness
  • He watches hearts to make sure his childhood surgeries are still working
  • Determines whether secondary intervention is required

If you have a heart condition, it is imperative that you see a cardiologist trained in treating your type of problem. Congenital heart patients have very unique hearts and undergo specialized surgeries. Congenital heart specialists understand congenital heart disease and what treatments are best.

ACHD cardiologists or congenital heart specialists have dedicated their careers to treating adults with coronary heart disease. You care enough about your car to find the right kind of specialist, shouldn’t you do the same for your heart?

What does congenital heart specialists do?

Congenital heart disease means there is a problem with the structure of your heart that is present from birth. Congenital heart disease is usually diagnosed in infancy or childhood and people diagnosed early to deal with it throughout their lives, requiring ongoing care and potentially additional surgeries.

Others do not know about their illness until adulthood and try to understand what that means for them. The University of Michigan Adult Congenital Heart Program has experience caring for both types of patients and our program also works closely with the Michigan Congenital Heart Center.

Reasons you might need adult congenital heart care by Congenital heart specialists

Congenital heart disease affects at least 1 in 100 live births. Its severity ranges on a wide range, from small holes between the heart chambers that close naturally, to abnormal, life-threatening structures, such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome, which require a series of complex surgeries. As an adult with congenital heart disease, you may need our program sponsorship for a number of reasons; For example, you can:

  • Be at risk of developing an arrhythmia (arrhythmia)
  • You had surgery as a child and it would require another surgery as an adult
  • You underwent a transplant as a child and are now too small for your adult body
  • The valve was replaced as a child which had worn off over time
  • You are pregnant or want to become pregnant, and you and your baby need to be monitored regularly

What Medications Give by the Congenital heart specialists?

Some mellow intrinsic heart imperfections can be treated with meds that help the heart work all the more proficiently. You may also need medicines to prevent blood clots or to control an irregular heartbeat.

Surgeries and other procedures

A few medical procedures and methodologies are accessible to treat grown-ups with inherent coronary illness.

  • Implantable heart devices: A device that helps control the heart rate (pacemaker) or that corrects a life-threatening irregular heartbeat (an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or cardioverter and defibrillator) may help improve some complications associated with heart defects Congenital.
  • Catheter-based treatments: Some congenital heart defects can be repaired using catheterization techniques. These treatments allow repair without open-heart surgery. Instead, the doctor inserts a thin tube (catheter) into a vein or artery in the leg and guides it to the heart with the help of X-ray images. Once the catheter is in place, the doctor passes small tools through the catheter to repair the defect.
  • Open-heart surgery: On the off chance that catheter methodology can’t fix your heart deformity, your primary care physician may suggest an open-heart medical procedure.
  • Heart transplant: If a serious heart defect cannot be repaired, a heart transplant may be an option.

Follow-up care is given by congenital heart specialists

If you are an adult with congenital heart disease, you are at risk of developing complications – even if you underwent surgery to repair a defect during childhood. Lifelong follow-up care is important. Ideally, congenital heart specialists or cardiologist trained in treating adults with congenital heart defects will care for you.

Follow-up care may include regular check-ups of the congenital heart specialists and occasional blood and imaging tests to detect complications. How often you will need to see your doctor depends on whether your congenital heart disease is mild or complex.


About Huntington’s disease and Treatments of HD | Neurology

What is Huntington’s disease?

Huntington’s disease is an uncommon hereditary ailment that causes the reformist breakdown (degeneration) of nerve cells in the cerebrum. Huntington’s disease has a significant impact on a person’s functional abilities and usually results in disturbances in movement, thinking (perception), and mental disorders.

Huntington’s disease side effects can show up whenever, however, they regularly first show up when individuals are in their 30s or 40s. If the condition develops before the age of 20, it is called Young Huntington’s disease. When Huntington’s disease develops early, symptoms are somewhat different and the disease may progress faster.

Medicines are available to help manage the symptoms of Huntington’s disease. But treatments cannot prevent the physical, mental, and behavioral deterioration associated with the condition.

Symptoms of Huntington’s disease

Symptoms usually begin around the age of 30 to 50 years, but they can start much earlier or much later.

Symptoms may include Huntington’s disease:

  • Difficulty with concentration and memory
  • Depression
  • Tripping and Breaching
  • Involuntary jerking or restless movements of the limbs and body
  • Mood swings and personality changes
  • Problems with swallowing, speaking and breathing
  • Difficulty moving

Full-time nursing care is needed in the later stages of the condition. It is usually fatal about 15 to 20 years after symptoms begin.

Causes of Huntington’s disease

A single gene defect causes Huntington’s disease. It is considered an autosomal dominant disorder. This means that one copy of the abnormal gene is sufficient to cause the disease. If one of your parents had this genetic defect, you have a 50 percent chance of inheriting it. You can likewise give it to your children.

The genetic mutation responsible for Huntington’s disease differs from many of the other mutations. There is no substitute or missing section in the gene. Instead, there is a transcription error. A region within a gene is replicated multiple times. The number of duplicates tends to increase with each generation.

In general, symptoms of Huntington’s disease appear early in people who have a higher number of recurrences. The disease also progresses faster as more recurrences accumulate.


Not being able to do things that were easy before can lead to frustration and depression. Weight loss can worsen symptoms and weaken a patient’s immune system, making them more vulnerable to infections and other complications. HD itself is not usually fatal, but it can be choking, pneumonia, or other infection. At all stages, it is important to adjust the patient’s diet to ensure adequate food intake.

How is Huntington’s disease diagnosed?

Family history plays a major role in diagnosing Huntington’s disease. However, a variety of clinical and laboratory tests may be done to help diagnose the problem.

Neurological tests

The neurologist will perform tests to verify:

  • Reactions
  • Coordinate
  • Balance
  • Muscle strength
  • Energy
  • Sense of touch
  • He heard
  • Vision

Brain function and imaging tests

If you’ve had epileptic seizures, you may need an electroencephalogram (EEG). This test gauges the electrical action in your mind.

Brain imaging tests may also be used to detect physical changes in your brain.

  • MRI scans use magnetic fields to record images of the brain with a high level of detail.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scans combine several X-rays to produce a cross-section of your brain.

Psychiatric tests

Your doctor may ask you to undergo a psychological evaluation. This evaluation checks your coping skills, emotional state, and behavior patterns. The psychiatrist will likewise search for indications of impaired thinking.

You may be tested for drug use to see if the drugs could explain your symptoms.

Genetic testing

If you have multiple symptoms associated with Huntington’s disease, your doctor may recommend a genetic test. A genetic test can definitively diagnose this condition.

Genetic testing may also help you determine whether or not you have children. A few people with Huntington’s disease would prefer not to hazard passing the blemished quality onto the people to come.

Huntington’s disease treatment

HD is currently incurable. There is no treatment that can reverse or slow its progress. However, some symptoms can be controlled with medications and treatments.


Tetrabenazine (Xenazine) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat the jerky or involuntary movements or dance associated with HD.

Side effects consider depression & suicidal thoughts or actions.

Symptoms include:

  • Feeling sad and crying
  • Loss of enthusiasm for friends and previously enjoyable activities
  • Sleeping much than expected and feeling tired
  • Feelings of guilt or insignificance
  • Feeling more nervous, angry, or anxious than before
  • Eat less than usual, possibly with weight loss
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Thinking about harming oneself or ending one’s life

Any of these symptoms or any other mood changes should be reported to the doctor immediately. Anyone with a diagnosis of depression, especially with suicidal thoughts, should not use tetrabenazine.

They may include drugs that control movements, seizures, and hallucinations:

  • Clonazepam (Klonopin)
  • Clozapine (Clorazil)
  • Haloperidol

These medications may cause sedation as well as stiffness and stiffness.

For depression and some of the obsessive-compulsive features that can appear with HD, a doctor may prescribe:

  • Fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem)
  • Nortriptyline (Pamelor)
  • Sertraline (Zoloft)

Lithium might help treat intense emotions and mood swings.

Speech therapy

Speech therapy can help patients find ways to express words and phrases and communicate more effectively.

Physical and occupational therapy

A physical therapist can help improve muscle strength and flexibility, leading to better balance and a reduced risk of falls.

An occupational therapist can help the patient develop strategies to deal with concentration and memory problems, as well as make the home safer.

What is the long-term outlook for Huntington’s disease?

There is no way to prevent this disease from progressing. The rate of progression varies for each person and depends on the number of genetic repeats present in your genes. A lower number normally implies that the infection will advance all the more gradually.

People with Huntington’s disease usually live 15 to 20 years after symptoms begin. The beginning stage structure by and large advances at a quicker rate. People may only live for 10 to 15 years after symptoms appear.

Causes of death include those with Huntington’s disease:

  • Infections, such as pneumonia
  • Suicide
  • Fall injuries
  • Complications of inability to swallow

Is Huntington’s disease Prevented?

People with a known family history of Huntington’s disease are understandably concerned about whether they might pass the Huntington gene to their children. These individuals may think about hereditary testing and family arranging choices.

If an at-risk parent is considering genetic testing, it may be helpful to meet with a genetic counselor. The genetic counselor will discuss the potential risks of a positive test result, which would indicate that the parent will develop the disease. Also, couples will need to make additional choices about having children or consider alternatives, such as prenatal testing for the gene or in vitro fertilization with donor sperm or eggs.

Another option for couples is IVF and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. In this process, eggs are removed from the ovary and fertilized with the father’s sperm in the laboratory. Embryos are tested for the presence of the Huntington gene, and only those that test negative for the Huntington gene are implanted in the mother’s womb.


Treatments of Coronary artery disease (CAD) | Cardiology

What is coronary artery disease?

Coronary artery disease is a narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, usually caused by the hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis (sometimes called “hardening” or “clogging” of arteries) is the buildup of cholesterol and fatty deposits (called plaques) on the inner walls of your arteries. These plaques can limit blood flow to the heart muscle by physically blocking the artery or causing abnormal artery abnormalities and function.

Without an adequate blood supply, the heart becomes starved of the oxygen and vital nutrients it needs to function properly. This can cause chest pain called angina. If part of the heart muscle is completely cut off from blood flow or if the energy requirements of the heart become much greater than the blood supply, then a cardiovascular failure (injury to the heart muscle) may happen.

Symptoms of coronary artery disease

When your heart is not getting enough arterial blood, you may experience a variety of symptoms. Angina (chest discomfort) is the most common symptom of coronary artery disease. Some people describe this discomfort as:

  • Tightness
  • Burning
  • Heaviness
  • Squeezing
  • Chest pain

These symptoms are also be mistaken for heartburn or indigestion.

Other symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD) include:

  • Pain in the arms or shoulders
  • Sweating
  • Dizziness
  • Shortness of breath

You may experience more symptoms when your blood flow is more restricted. If the blockage cuts off blood flow completely or almost completely, your heart muscle will begin to die if it doesn’t recover. This is a heart attack. Do not ignore any of these symptoms, especially if they are painful or last more than five minutes. Immediate medical treatment is essential.

Symptoms of CAD for women

Women may also experience the symptoms listed above, but they are also more likely to have:

  • Nausea
  • Back pain
  • Jaw pain
  • Vomiting
  • Shortness of breath without feeling chest pain

Men are more likely to develop heart disease than premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women at the age of 70 have the same risks as men. Due to decreased blood flow, your heart may also:

  • Become weak
  • Develop abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia) or rates
  • Fail to pump as much blood as your body needs

Your doctor will discover these heart abnormalities during the diagnosis.

Causes of coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease is thought in any case harm or injury to the inward layer of a coronary conduit, here and there as ahead of schedule as a youth. Damage can be caused by various factors, including:

  • Smoking
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Diabetes or insulin resistance
  • Not being active (sedentary lifestyle)

Once the inner wall of an artery is damaged, fatty deposits (plaque) made from cholesterol and other cellular waste products tend to congregate at the site of the injury. This process is called atherosclerosis. If the surface of the plaque breaks or ruptures, blood cells called platelets group together at the site to try to repair the artery. This blockage can block the artery, leading to a heart attack.

Coronary artery disease risk factors

Numerous things can make you bound to have coronary course ailment. Some you can change and some you can’t. They include:

  • Age: Especially being older than 65
  • Being overweight or obese
  • Diabetes
  • Family history: Especially if one of your close relatives got heart disease at a young age
  • Gender: Men are more likely to have heart attacks and have them early, compared to women, until the risk passes at the age of 70.
  • High blood pressure and high cholesterol
  • High stress
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Race: African Americans are at a higher risk than people of other races because they tend to have high blood pressure. The high rates of obesity and diabetes in some Asians and Spaniards may also put them at risk of developing heart disease.
  • Smoking or breathing secondhand smoke
  • Unhealthy diet: Including lots of foods high in saturated fats, trans fats, salt, and sugar

How is coronary artery disease diagnosed?

Your doctor will perform a physical examination and listen to your heart. He or she will also discuss symptoms, family history, diet, activity level, and other medical conditions. There is no single test that can diagnose coronary artery disease. If your doctor suspects you may have it, he or she may order one or more of the following tests.

  • EKG (electrocardiogram): This is a simple, painless test that monitors your heartbeat and rhythm. It also tests the strength and timing of your heart’s electrical signals. It involves placing electrodes (small wired pads) on your chest. The pads are held in place by a sticky substance.
  • Stress test: During this test, you will be asked to do exercise to exercise your heart. You will be associated with heart, pulse, and oxygen screens during the test. These screens can detect changes in heart rate, rhythm, electrical activity, or blood pressure during the test. The staff will also monitor you for shortness of breath or chest pain. If you are unable to exercise for medical reasons, the staff will administer medication to raise your heart rate. Your heart’s response to the exercise may suggest to your doctor that you have potential obstructions and need more testing.
  • This test is painless: It’s a test that uses sound waves to see an image of your heart as it beats. The image will give the doctors a look at the size and shape of your heart. It also shows the chambers and valves of your heart.
  • Chest X-ray: This is an X-ray image focusing on the area of your heart. X-rays can reveal signs of heart failure.
  • Blood tests: Your doctor will take a sample of your blood to be sent to the laboratory. The lab can test for certain conditions that increase the risk of coronary artery disease. This includes testing for some fats, cholesterol, sugar, and proteins.
  • Cardiac catheterization and coronary angiogram: This procedure is normally performed if other tests show that you have coronary artery disease. It is performed in the hospital. You will be given medication before the test to make you sleepy. However, you may still be awake. During the test, a thin, flexible tube is inserted into a blood vessel in your arm, groin (groin) or neck. The doctor will carefully move the tube into the coronary arteries and then inject a dye. X-rays are used to monitor the dye as it travels through the coronary arteries. This helps the doctor see blood flow through your heart and blood vessels. This test is generally painless.


Coronary heart disease can cause complications, including the following:

  • Acute coronary syndrome, including angina or heart attack
  • Arrhythmia
  • Heart failure
  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Sudden cardiac arrest

Complications of coronary heart disease can be life-threatening and lead to disability.

Coronary artery disease treatment

Coronary heart treatments usually include lifestyle changes and medications, sometimes in combination with heart procedures or surgery. The best treatment blend will be resolved dependent on your individual conditions.


There are many medications that can help treat coronary artery disease. Your doctor will likely prescribe a combination of drugs that will:

  • Lower the workload of your heart
  • Lower the overall risk of you having a heart attack
  • Lower cholesterol
  • Help relax the blood vessels
  • Help prevent blood clots from forming

You will be taking these medications for the rest of your life.

Cardiac procedures

Sometimes an angiogram is needed to show blockages and determine whether medications are sufficient to treat or whether angioplasty (using a balloon to open the blockage) and stent (a wire mesh tube to keep the artery open) is needed. Sometimes, coronary artery bypass surgery is necessary to connect new arteries or veins to bypass blockages.

Lifestyle changes

To manage coronary artery disease, it is important to:

  • Quit smoking because smoking cigarettes constricts blood vessels. Smoking cessation aids are available for patients who have difficulty quitting smoking on their own.
  • Get your cholesterol checked and get high cholesterol under control.
  • Eat a healthy diet low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and salt.
  • Exercise
  • Maintain a healthy weight: Losing weight if you are overweight reduces the burden that extra weight places on the heart. Regular exercise can help control weight and reduce other risk factors for coronary artery disease, such as high blood pressure.

Prevention of coronary artery disease

Take these steps to help prevent heart disease.

  • If you smoke, stop. There are numerous assets accessible to help you stop smoking.
  • Learn how to eat a heart-healthy diet by making simple substitutions. For the model, choose heart-solid fats to overspread and other immersed fats.
  • Lower high cholesterol with lifestyle changes, and if needed, statin medicines.
  • Lower high blood pressure using diet and medicines.
  • Get regular exercise, ideally at least 30 minutes most days. On the off chance that you have coronary illness, talk with your supplier about starting an activity schedule.
  • Talk with your provider about aspirin therapy.
  • Maintain a healthy body weight.
  • If you have diabetes, keep it well-managed to help prevent heart attack and stroke.

Even if you already have heart disease, following these steps will help protect your heart and prevent further damage.

Cardiac rehabilitation program

People who have coronary artery disease (CAD) can participate in a cardiac rehabilitation program. This expects to increment physical continuance, improve personal satisfaction, and forestall complexities.

Cardiac rehabilitation programs often include a combination of exercise, learning to manage disease and risk factors, as well as psychological support. The program is run by a team of specialists in the fields of medicine, physical therapy, nutritional sciences, and psychotherapy. Research has shown that cardiac rehabilitation that includes exercise is worth doing: It can improve the quality of life and increase life expectancy.

Cardiac rehabilitation is particularly recommended if someone has had a heart attack or if coronary artery disease (CAD) has already resulted in heart failure or if symptoms greatly affect normal daily activities. Your doctor can assist you in applying for cardiac rehabilitation to an appropriate motive. In Germany, this will usually be a statutory health insurance company or a pension fund.