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Equipment

Cardiac Imaging Equipment – an Overview | Cardiology

What Is Cardiac Imaging Equipment?

Cardiac imaging equipment i.e., As innovative technology advances in the medical field, there is also the possibility of inadvertently visualizing the heart and its vascularity. The practice of modern cardiovascular medicine requires not only the diagnosis but also the management of various cardiovascular diseases, as well as the guidance of invasive procedures.

These cardiac imaging equipment methods include myocardial perfusion imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) by echocardiography and nuclear scintigraphy. The Cardiac imaging method par excellence for visualizing the coronary arteries remains the invasive technique of coronary angiography by coronary catheterization.

Each model can be used individually or in combination as cardiac imaging equipment, depending on the desired diagnostic requirements. These studies are now commonly used in conjunction with the medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests including cardiac imaging equipment to define the practice of modern cardiovascular medicine.

In addition, the appropriate guidelines for the use of these cardiac imaging equipment techniques are now standardized to optimize diagnosis and cost-effectiveness and to evaluate the ideal imaging technique to be used in specific patient situations to minimize risk to the patient. Cardiac imaging tests can explain the structure and function of the heart.

Standard imaging tests & equipment used

Here are the Cardiac imaging tests

  • Chest x-ray
  • CT
  • MRI
  • Echocardiography

Chest x-ray

Chest x-rays are often used as a starting point in diagnosing the heart. Posterior and lateral views provide insight into the atrial and ventricular size and shape and pulmonary vasculature, although additional testing including Cardiac imaging tests is almost always necessary for accurate classification of the structure and function of the heart.

CT

The scanner uses a series of x-ray images along with a body relief contrast dye to provide the most detailed images of the heart and surrounding structures. It provides accurate cardiac visualization and analysis in 30 seconds. UC San Diego Health has three high-definition 64-slice CT scanners.

These 64-slice scanners take images of the heart between beats, providing clearer and more detailed images of the heart that could not be obtained with previous technology.

These advanced CT scanners can deliver radiation only when needed during heart snapshots, further reducing the patient’s exposure to radiation. Since high levels of radiation can cause lifelong health problems, the goal is to get the best quality images with the lowest radiation.

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging which is one of the parts of Cardiac imaging tests visualizes the heart by detecting hydrogen atoms using superconducting magnets, especially those attached to water and fat molecules. These hydrogen atoms are called nuclear spin.

Although the direction of this spin is usually random, the spin can be aligned by a strong magnetic field. When the arrangement of these hydrogen atoms is temporarily altered, faint electromagnetic signals are emitted, which can be detected and used to create a reflection of the heart.

MRI can measure the size, shape, function, and characteristics of heart tissue in a single session. It can reproduce more than echocardiography with low interobserver variability, allowing for more precise reference ranges to better distinguish health from disease.

Additional benefits of cardiac MRI include the ability to detect scarring in the heart using late growth of gadolinium and detect other abnormalities in the heart muscle, such as infiltration of iron or amyloid protein. The drawbacks of MRI include the potential for lengthy protocols and claustrophobia.

Also, some types of pacemakers cannot be scanned by MRI by some people who have metal implants, such as defibrillators, although most modern pacemakers are safe to use with an MRI scanner. Other metallic structures, such as prosthetic valves and coronary stents, are usually not problematic.

Echocardiography

The biological effects of diagnostic ultrasound have been documented in experimental studies conducted at the molecular, cellular, and animal levels.17 The effects depend on the characteristics of the sound wave, the sensitivity of the exposed tissue, and the duration of exposure. Effects can be broadly classified as thermal and mechanical effects. With current diagnostic ultrasound technology, biological effects are unlikely to occur directly through the heating of tissues.

Among the mechanical effects of ultrasound, the potential risk is cavitation: formation of microbubbles and rhythmic oscillations produced from gases dissolved in living tissue. The mechanical indicator of the acoustic cavity is developed as an ICT and is displayed as a safety parameter on modern ultrasound machines.

Tissues containing gas-filled contrast agents may show capillary rupture when exposed to ultrasound, but so far there is no evidence that patients or clinical staff pose a significant health risk due to the condition. Exposure to medical ultrasound.

Here are the types of Cardiac imaging tests which are clearly explained how these Cardiac imaging tests are conducted.

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Tests

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Overview | Cardiology

What Is Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)?

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer to produce detailed images of the structures in and around the heart. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is used to detect and monitor heart disease and to assess the anatomy and function of the heart in patients with heart disease at birth and heart disease that develops after birth.

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging does not use ionizing radiation to produce images and may provide better images of the heart in certain situations. Tell your doctor about any health problems, recent surgeries, or allergies and whether there is a possibility that you could be pregnant. The attractive field isn’t destructive, yet it might make some clinical gadgets breakdown.

Most bone transplants do not pose any risk, but you should always tell the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technician if you have any devices or metal in your body. Instructions for eating and drinking before the test vary between facilities. Unless told otherwise, take your regular medications as normal. Leave all adornments at home and wear-free, open to apparel. You may be required to wear a hospital gown during the examination. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor to take a mild sedative before the exam.

What is an MRI of the heart?

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a test that uses a large magnet, radio signals, and a computer to make images of the body’s organs and tissues. In this case, imaging of the heart is performed. The MRI machine is large and tube-shaped. It makes a solid attractive field around the body. Some MRI machines are more open.

The magnetic field lines up hydrogen protons in your body. Radio waves eject the protons out of position. When they rearrange them to the correct position, they send out radio signals. The computer receives the signals and turns them into images of the body. This image appears on the display screen. Magnetic resonance imaging may be used in place of a CT scan when studying organs or soft tissues.

For what reason do individuals have MRI checks for heart issues?

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can enable your PCP to analyze various heart conditions, including:

  • Tissue damage from a heart attack
  • Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle to help determine whether a blocked heart artery is the cause of chest pain (angina)
  • Problems with the aorta: The main artery of the heart – such as a tear, aneurysm (bulge), or narrow
  • Diseases of the pericardium (the outer lining of the heart muscle) such as constrictive pericarditis
  • Heart muscle disease, such as heart failure or an enlarged heart, and abnormal growths, such as cancerous tumors
  • Heart valve disorders, such as regurgitation
  • Congenital heart problems and the success of the surgical repair

MRI may be used in place of other tests that use ionizing radiation or contrast dyes containing iodine, or both, such as X-rays, angiography, and computerized tomography (CT) scans. The use of an MRI to examine blood vessels and how blood flows through them is called magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Unlike conventional X-ray angiography, this procedure does not require catheter insertion into the arteries. MRI techniques may also be used to measure heart function or how much blood the left ventricle can pump to the body.

How to prepare for Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging?

Prior to the test, tell your PCP in the event that you have a pacemaker. Depending on the type of pacemaker, your doctor may suggest another testing method, such as an abdominal CT scan. However, some pacemaker models can be reprogrammed prior to the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) so that they are not disrupted during the scan.

Since cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses magnets, it can attract metals. You should alert your doctor if you have had any type of metal implants from previous surgeries. These may include:

  • Artificial heart valves
  • Stents
  • Clips
  • Plates
  • Screws
  • Implants
  • Pins
  • Staples

Your primary care physician may need to utilize an uncommon colour to feature your heart. This dye is a gadolinium-based contrast agent that is administered intravenously. It differs from the dye used during a CT scan. Allergic reactions to the dye are rare. However, you should tell your doctor before giving an IV if you have had any concerns or a history of allergic reactions in the past.

What happens during cardiac magnetic resonance imaging?

Usually, a radiologist or an MRI technician will perform the examination in a hospital, clinic, or imaging centre, using special equipment.

  • You will lie on a movable table that slides inside the MRI machine. The machine looks like a long metal tube.
  • Depending on which part of your body is to be scanned, a small coil may be placed over that part of the body to send the radio waves and receive the MRI signal.
  • Your technician will be watching you from another room. You can talk to him or her with a microphone. In some cases, a friend or family member may stay in the room with you.
  • The MRI machine will create a strong magnetic field around you, and the radio waves will be directed to the area of your body to be imaged. You will not feel the magnetic field or radio waves.
  • During an MRI scan, the magnet makes clicking, squeaking, and other noises. You may be given earplugs or you can listen to music with headphones to help block out the noise.
  • In some cases, you may have an intravenous (IV) line in your hand or arm to inject a contrast agent into your veins (for MRA). The contrast agent produces better images of tissues and blood vessels. It does not contain iodine and is less likely to cause an allergic reaction compared to agents used in computed tomography (CT).
  • The MRI scan takes between 30 and 90 minutes.

You will need to lie still during the exam because the movement can blur your body images. If you are not comfortable in confined spaces, tell your doctor before the test. You can get a sedative to help you stay calm. Some clinics have machines with shorter magnets or wider openings to make you more comfortable.

After a Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

After the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging test, you should be able to drive yourself home, unless you have been given anti-anxiety or sedative medication. It may take your doctor some time to review and interpret the images.

Initial results from a cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of your heart may be available in a few days. However, overall results may take up to a week or more. When results are available, your doctor will review them with you and discuss any follow-up steps you should take.

Who deciphers the outcomes and how would I get them?

A radiologist, a doctor trained in supervising and interpreting imaging scans, analyzes the images. The radiologist will send a marked report to your essential consideration or alluding doctor, who will impart the outcomes to you.

Follow-up examinations may be required. If so, your doctor will explain why. Sometimes, follow-up testing is done because the potential anomaly needs further evaluation with additional perspectives or a special imaging technique. A follow-up test may also be done to see if there is any change in the abnormal condition over time. Sometimes follow-up checks are the best way to find out if treatment has been successful or if the abnormal condition is stable or has changed.

What are the risks of MRI scans?

Mainly about implanted devices and metalworking (see above). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans use a very strong magnetic field that can move iron-containing objects with great force. That is why it is important to tell us about any metal objects in your body. If you are not sure, we can have an X-ray.

There are potential risks about the contrast agent (dye) sometimes used, but this only happens if you have kidney problems, as your kidneys need to remove the dye from your body. So you will have a blood test for kidney function before the scan. In patients with severe kidney problems, they usually reduce or completely avoid the dose.

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Disease

Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments of Stroke | Neurology

What is a Stroke?

A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is cut off or reduced, preventing the brain tissue from receiving oxygen and nutrients. Brain cells die in minutes. It is a medical emergency and prompt treatment is very important. Proactive action reduces brain damage and other problems.

Other names

  • Brain attack
  • Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
  • Hemorrhagic stroke (includes intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage)
  • Ischemic stroke (includes thrombotic stroke and embolic stroke)

Signs/symptoms of stroke

  • Unexpected numbness or weakness in the face, arms, or legs, especially on one side of the body.
  • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or trouble understanding speech.
  • Sudden trouble seeing with one or both eyes.
  • Sudden trouble walking, loss of balance, dizziness, or lack of coordination.
  • Sudden, severe headache for no apparent reason.

Types of strokes

The treatment for stroke depends on its type. The three main types of stroke are:

  • Ischemic attack: It is one of the three types of strokes. It is also known as cerebral ischemia and cerebral ischemia. This type of attack is caused by a blockage in the artery that supplies blood to the brain. The blockage reduces blood flow and oxygen to the brain, leading to damage or death of brain cells. If circulation is not restored quickly, brain damage can be permanent.
  • Hemorrhagic attack: Hemorrhagic attack when blood from an artery begins to bleed into the brain. This occurs when weak blood vessels break and bleed into the surrounding brain. The pressure of the filtered blood damages the brain cells, and as a result, the damaged area becomes unable to function properly.
  • Transient ischemic attack (a warning or “mini-stroke”): Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is an attack that lasts only a few minutes. This occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is briefly blocked. Symptoms of TIA are similar to other stroke symptoms, but they don’t last long. They happen suddenly.

Causes of stroke

It can treat certain conditions for which you can have a stroke. Other things that put you at risk will not change:

Hypertension: Your doctor calls this blood pressure. If your blood pressure is usually 140/90 or higher, your doctor will discuss treatments with you.

Tobacco: Smoking or chewing can increase your chances of having a stroke. Nicotine makes your blood pressure go up. Cigarette smoke increases fat in the main cervical artery. It also makes your blood thicker and more likely to clot. Secondhand smoke can affect you too.

Heart disease: This condition includes defective heart valves, as well as atrial fibrillation or irregular heartbeat, which account for about a quarter of all strokes in most adults. You can also have arteries clogged by fatty deposits.

Diabetes: People who suffer from it tend to have high blood pressure and are overweight. Diabetes can damage your blood vessels, making you more likely to have an attack. If you have a stroke when your blood sugar levels are high, your brain injury is high.

Risk factors of stroke

Main risk factors:

  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Cardiovascular diseases- Coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart valve disease, and carotid artery disease.
  • High levels of LDL cholesterol
  • Smoking
  • Brain aneurysms or arteriovenous deformities (AVM). AVMs are malformed arteries and veins that open to the brain.
  • Inflammatory infections or conditions such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.
  • A stroke can occur at any age, but the risk is higher in children and adults younger than 1 year. In adults, the risk increases with age.
  • At a younger age, it is more common in women than in men. But women live longer, so the risk of stroke is higher during their lifetime. birth control pills or use hormone replacement therapy can cause a stroke. Women are also at higher risk during pregnancy and during the postpartum weeks. High blood pressure during pregnancy, due to pre-eclampsia, increases the risk of stroke later in life.
  • Race and ethnicity: It is more common in African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, and Hispanic adults than in white adults.
  • Family history and genetics: If your parents or other family members have had a stroke, you are at special risk of having a stroke at a young age. Certain genes can affect your risk of stroke, including those that determine your blood type. People with blood type AB (which is not normal) are at higher risk.

Other risk factors that can be controlled, including:

  • Anxiety, depression, and high levels of stress. Working long hours and not having much contact with friends, family, or others outside the home also increases the risk of this disease.
  • Living or working in areas with air pollution.
  • Other medical conditions such as bleeding disorders, sleep apnea, kidney disease, migraine, and sickle cell anemia.
  • Other medicines that cause blood thinning or bleeding.
  • Other unhealthy lifestyle habits such as eating unhealthy foods, not engaging in regular physical activity, drinking alcohol, sleeping too much (more than 9 hours), and using illicit drugs such as cocaine.
  • Excess weight and delays or extra weight load around the waist and abdomen.

Diagnosis of stroke

The first step in evaluating the patient is to determine whether the patient is experiencing an ischemic or hemorrhagic attack so that appropriate treatment can begin. Head CT or MRI is usually the first test done.

Physical exam: Your doctor will perform various tests, such as listening to your heart and checking your blood pressure. They will also do a neurological exam to see how a possible stroke affects your nervous system.

Blood test: You may have several blood tests, including tests to see if your blood clots quickly, if your blood sugar is too high or too low, and if you have an infection.

Computed tomography (CT): A CT scan is done to view a detailed image of your brain. The CT scan shows bleeding, ischemic attack, tumor, or other conditions in the brain. Doctors can inject a dye into the bloodstream (CT angiography) to see the blood vessels in the neck and brain in more detail.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): An MRI is done to create a detailed view of your brain. MRI can detect brain tissue damaged by ischemic attack and brain hemorrhage. Your doctor may inject a dye into a blood vessel (magnetic resonance angiography or magnetic resonance venography) to view the arteries and veins and enhance blood flow.

Carotid ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create detailed images of the inside of the carotid arteries in your neck. This test increases fatty deposits (plaques) in the carotid arteries and increases blood flow.

Cerebral angiogram: In this abnormally used test, your doctor will make a small incision, usually in the groin, inserting a thin, flexible tube (catheter) through your main arteries and into your carotid or vertebral artery. Your doctor will then inject a dye into your blood vessels and make them visible under X-ray images. This procedure provides a detailed view of your brain and the arteries in your neck.

Echocardiogram: An echocardiogram can detect the source of clots in your heart, which can travel from your heart to your brain and cause your stroke.

Treatments for stroke

Treatment is based on the type of stroke.

Ischemic stroke: Treatment for this disease focuses on the restoration of blood to the brain.

  • You can get a freeze-thaw medicine called tissue plasminogen activator (TPA). This medicine improves recovery from a stroke. Doctors try to give this medicine within 3 hours of the start of symptoms. Some people can get help if they can get this medicine within 40 hours of the first symptoms.
  • You can also get aspirin or another antiplatelet medicine.
  • In some cases, a procedure may be done to restore blood flow. The doctor uses a thin, flexible tube (catheter) and a small cage to remove the blood clot. This procedure is called a thrombectomy.

Hemorrhagic stroke: Treatment focuses on controlling bleeding, reducing stress on the brain, and stabilizing important signals, especially blood pressure.

  • To stop the bleeding, you may receive a blood transfusion, such as medicine or plasma. These are administered intravenously.
  • Look closely for signs of increased stress on the brain. These signs include restlessness, confusion, trouble following orders, and headaches. Excessive coughing, vomiting, or other measures taken to avoid lifting or crossing stools or straining to change position.
  • If the bleeding is from a ruptured brain aneurysm, surgery may be done to repair the aneurysm.
  • In some cases, medications may be given to control blood pressure, meningitis, blood sugar levels, fever, and seizures.
  • If a large amount of bleeding occurs and symptoms quickly get worse, you may need surgery. Surgery can remove the blood that collects inside the brain and reduce the pressure inside the head.

Complications of stroke

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): If the blood is moving too slowly through your veins, it can cause a clot or a lump in the blood vessels. When blood clots in a vein, it can cause deep vein thrombosis. DVT is more likely to occur in the lower leg or thigh, but can also occur in other parts of the body. The DVT case can be fatal if the blood clots and goes to an important organ. Medications and early mobilization treatment after stroke can prevent DVT and help a person return to walking and other activities quickly.

Convulsions: It can injure the brain, resulting in scar tissue. This scar tissue interferes with the electrical activity of the brain. Interruption of electrical activity can cause seizures. Epilepsy is one of the most common complications of ischemic attack, affecting 22% of survivors.

Pneumonia: Pneumonia is a leading cause of illness and death. According to the Indiana University School of Medicine, pneumonia is the most common cause of hospitalization. In the case of a stroke, difficulty swallowing may cause aspiration, or food or fluids may enter the airways, leading to a chest infection or pneumonia.

Cerebral edema: Inflammation is part of the body’s natural response to injury. Edema refers to inflammation due to trapped fluid. If edema occurs in the brain, it can cause serious problems. Cerebral edema restricts blood supply to the brain, resulting in brain tissue death. Inflammation of the brain is one of the major complications of ischemic attack. Getting medical treatment as soon as the symptoms of a stroke are noticed reduces the chance of developing severe brain edema.

Bladder problems: There is a lot of bladder-related problems that can arise from a stroke. Often, stroke survivors have a strong urge or need to urinate frequently. When stroke survivors are unable to reach the bathroom or relieve themselves adequately because of the inability to remove clothing, this is called functional incontinence. Consequently, when a stroke survivor is unable to empty their bladder completely, this is called urinary retention. If this happens, the person will need a catheter to make sure the bladder is completely empty.

Clinical depression: Clinical depression often occurs after a major health crisis. One in four stroke survivors suffers from severe depression. Depression can cause sadness, irritability, difficulty concentrating, helplessness, apathy, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, and sometimes even suicidal thoughts. It is important to treat depression with the help of mental health providers.

Pressure sores: When the soft tissue is pressed too hard on a hard surface such as a chair or bed, the blood supply to that area decreases. This causes the skin tissue to be damaged or die. When this happens, a sore throat can occur. Prevention with pressure sores is crucial: proper positioning and appropriate equipment are needed to prevent them. Stroke survivors should discuss appropriate equipment such as air mattresses and wheelchair cushions with their physician or therapist.

Contracts: Loss of movements over time contracts due to the abnormal reduction of soft tissue structures that extend into one or more joints. These include skin, tendons, ligaments, muscles, and joint capsules. Loss of movement in any of these structures restricts joint movement, leading to pain, stiffness, and eventually a contraction. Low-load, long-term stretch is the preferred method for contracture resolution. Such a product, Cybo Stretch, uses a revolutionary stretch technique to maintain or improve movement, while at the same time reducing joint damage and pain.

Shoulder pain: 80% of patients suffer from shoulder pain. Subluxation or partial dislocation of the shoulder, spasticity of the shoulder, tendon, and rotating cuff tears are the causes of shoulder pain. Shoulder pain can be treated by proper positioning, including joint support with orthotics, as well as early occupational and/or physical therapy intervention. In some cases, if the pain becomes chronic, the doctor may prescribe oral corticosteroids.

Waterfalls and accidents: Common impairments such as imbalance, sensory impairment, weakness, visual problems, and coordination disorder naturally increase the risk of falls and accidents. Physical and occupational therapy can help reduce this risk and restore stability and lost function. Home modifications and assistive devices can be purchased to help prevent falls and accidents while performing routine daily activities.

Prevention of stroke

The best way to help prevent a stroke is to eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly, smoke, and drink heavily.

These lifestyle changes lower your risk for problems:

  • Atherosclerosis (atherosclerosis)
  • Hypertension
  • High cholesterol levels

If you already have a stroke, making these changes can lower your risk of having another stroke in the future.

Diet: Stroke with diabetes has specific health problems that must be addressed through your diet under the guidance of a doctor. In general, the dietary recommendations for stroke recovery are similar to those for diabetics. Stroke patients are often advised to focus on eating lean protein and nutrient-rich fruits and vegetables while limiting sugar, salt, and fat. Most liquid meal replacements contain large amounts of sugar, including many yogurts, puddings, and jellies, which are delicious and very bland foods. If you have a stroke and diabetes patient, watch out for these and choose sugar-free versions.

Exercise: Exercise is a valuable component that is not yet used for post-stroke care. The American Heart Association / American Stroke Association recommends that survivors recommend exercise because they experience physical degeneration and often lead a sedentary lifestyle after a stroke.

This reduces your ability to carry out activities of daily living and increases your risk of having another stroke. Heart fitness, walking ability, and upper arm strength, as well as depression, cognitive function, memory, and memory. quality of life after a stroke can be improved by physical activity.

Stop smoking: Smoking or chewing tobacco increases your chances of having a stroke. Nicotine makes your blood pressure go up. Cigarette smoke increases fat in the main cervical artery. It also makes your blood thicker and more likely to clot. Secondhand smoke can affect it too.

Alcohol: Alcoholic beverages are high in calories and have no nutritional value. Reducing the amount of alcohol you drink can help you achieve and maintain a healthy weight.

Cut down on alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption contributes to many risk factors for stroke. If you already have a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), drinking only safe alcohol can help lower your risk of having another stroke.

High blood pressure: It is a major risk factor for stroke, and drinking too much alcohol can increase your blood pressure. Atrial fibrillation, a type of irregular heartbeat, is triggered by excessive alcohol consumption.

Diabetes: Being diabetic and being overweight increases your risk of having a stroke. Both risk factors are associated with excessive alcohol consumption.