What does a 24-hour Holter Monitor detect? | Cardiology

What is a holter monitor?

The Holter monitor is a small, battery-powered medical device that measures your heart’s activity, such as rate and rhythm. Your doctor may ask you to use one if they need more information about how your heart is working than a routine electrocardiogram (EKG) can provide.

A 24-hour Holter monitor is a continuous test to record your heart rate and rhythm for 24 hours. You wear a Holter monitor for 12 to 48 hours while going about your regular daily routine. This device has electrodes and electrical wires just like a regular EKG, but it has fewer leads. It can detect not only your heart rate and rhythm but also when you feel chest pain or symptoms of an irregular heartbeat or an irregular heartbeat.

The Holter monitor test is sometimes called a mobile ECG. There are different kinds of gadgets that can be utilized to gauge heart movement for longer time frames.

Why holter monitor?

In the event that you have signs or manifestations of a heart issue, for example, an unpredictable heartbeat (arrhythmia) or unexplained blacking out, your PCP may arrange a test called an electrocardiogram. An EKG is a short, non-invasive test that uses electrodes attached to your chest to check your heart’s rhythm.

However, sometimes, the EKG doesn’t detect any abnormalities in your heart rhythm because you are only connected to the device for a short time. If your signs and symptoms indicate that an irregular heartbeat may be causing your condition, your doctor may recommend that you wear a Holter monitor for a day or so. Over this time, the Holter monitor may be able to detect an irregularity in your heart rhythm that the EKG cannot detect.

Your doctor may also order a Holter monitor if you have a heart condition that increases your risk of developing an abnormal heart rhythm. Your doctor may suggest wearing a Holter monitor for a day or two, even if you don’t have any symptoms of an abnormal heartbeat.

How would I prepare for a holter monitor?

  • Your health care provider will explain the procedure and you can ask questions.
  • You do not need to fast (neither eat nor drink).
  • Depending on your medical condition, your healthcare provider may require another specific preparation.

What happens during a holter monitor?

Holter monitor is generally recorded on an outpatient basis. Procedures may vary depending on your condition and the practice of your healthcare provider.

In general, Holter screen recording follows this process:

  • You will be asked to remove any jewelry or other items that may interfere with the reading.
  • You will be asked to undress from the waist up so that the electrodes can be attached to your chest. The technician will ensure your privacy by covering you with a sheet or gown and only exposing the necessary skin.
  • The areas where the electrode stains are placed are cleaned, and in some cases, the hair may be shaved or trimmed so that the electrodes are closely attached to the skin.
  • Electrodes will be attached to your chest and abdomen. The Holter monitor will be connected to the electrodes by wires. The small screen box may be worn over your shoulder like a shoulder bag or around your waist or it may be attached to a belt or pocket.
  • Find out if you will have to change the batteries in the display. Make sure you know how to do this and that you have extra batteries on hand.
  • Once you are connected to the monitor and given instructions, you can return to your usual activities, such as work, housework, and exercise, unless your health care provider tells you otherwise. This will allow your healthcare provider to identify issues that may only occur with certain activities.
  • You will be asked to keep a diary of your activities while wearing the screen. Write down the date and time of your activities, especially if any symptoms, such as dizziness, heart palpitations, chest pain, or other previously encountered symptoms, occurred.

After the procedure

Once your observation period is over, you will return the device to your doctor’s office, along with the notes you kept while wearing a Holter monitor. Your doctor will compare data from the recorder and the activities and symptoms you noted.

What are the risks of a Holter monitor?

The Holter monitor is an easy way to assess heart function. The risks associated with a Holter monitor are rare. It can be difficult to keep the electrodes attached to your skin, and you may need extra tape. It can be uncomfortable when removing sticky electrodes and tape. If the electrodes are run for a long time, they may cause tissue breakdown or skin irritation at the application site. There might be different dangers relying upon your particular ailment. Make certain to talk about any worries with your medical care supplier before wearing the screen.

Certain factors or circumstances may interfere or affect the results of a Holter monitor. These include, but are not limited to:

  • Near magnets, metal detectors, high-voltage electrical wires, and electrical appliances such as razors, toothbrushes, and microwave ovens. Cell phones and MP3 players can also interfere with signals and they should be at least 6 inches away from the display box.
  • Smoking or using other forms of tobacco
  • Certain medications
  • Excessive sweating, which may cause the strings to loosen or fall off

Understanding the results

After the test period, the person returns to their doctor to have the screen removed. Provide any notes for the doctor to review and the doctor will consider screen readings and the person’s notes when making a diagnosis.

Holter monitor readings may reveal an underlying heart condition, new symptoms, and potential triggers. It may also help show the problems caused by medications. A person may have to wait for one to two weeks for the test results.


Overview of Heart Failure Specialists | Cardiology

Who are heart failure specialists?

A cardiologist is a doctor who specializes in treating diseases of the cardiovascular system. Heart failure specialists are involved in many aspects of human health, so cardiologists must be extensively trained to specialize in this field of study. A cardiologist specializes in treating heart failure and other conditions related to the heart and vascular system.

All physicians complete a training program called residency after completing medical school. But cardiologists receive considerable training beyond that. Heart failure specialists spend many more years in fellowships, during which they train with experienced cardiologists and focus on patients with heart failure and problems affecting the cardiovascular system. At the end of this period, professionals are eligible to write the test to become board-certified cardiologists.

What kinds of procedures do heart failure specialists do?

Heart transplantation

Heart failure specialists do heart transplants. Ir is a surgical procedure that removes a diseased heart from a person and replaces it with a healthy one from an organ donor. To remove the heart from the donor, two or more health care providers must declare the donor brain-dead.

Preparation of heart transplantation

If your doctor recommends a heart transplant, they will send you to a heart transplant center for evaluation. Or you can choose your exchange center. When calculating a heart transplant center, consider the number of heart transplants a center performs each year and the survival rate.

You should also check if the exchange center provides other services that you need. These include coordinating support groups, helping with travel arrangements, helping you find local homes for your recovery period, or directing you to organizations that can help you with these concerns.

Once you have determined a center, you must undergo an evaluation to find out if it is eligible for conversion. The evaluation will check you:

  • There is a heart condition that benefits from transplantation
  • You may benefit from other less aggressive treatment options
  • They are healthy enough to undergo surgery and post-transplant treatments
  • If you smoke, you agree to quit
  • They are ready to follow the medical program prescribed by the conversion team
  • The donor can mentally manage the waiting of the heart
  • Have a support network of family and friends to help you through this stressful time

Percutaneous coronary intervention

Heart failure specialists do percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, formerly called stent angioplasty) is a non-surgical procedure that uses a catheter (a thin, flexible tube) to place a small structure called a stent to open the heart’s blood vessels. Plaque formation, a condition known as atherosclerosis.

Preparation of percutaneous coronary intervention

Shortly before your procedure, you may be given a sedative to help you relax.

Hair can be cut in the groin area around the catheter insertion.

An intravenous (IV) line is included so that medication can be given quickly if needed.

Electrodes are placed on your body to monitor your heart, and a small device called a pulse oximeter may be placed on your finger or ear to determine the level of oxygen in your blood.

Coronary artery bypass

Heart failure specialists do coronary bypass surgery redirects blood around a blocked or partially blocked a section of the artery in your heart to improve blood flow to the heart muscle. This process takes a healthy blood vessel from your leg, arm, or chest and connects it past the blocked arteries in your heart.

Although coronary bypass surgery does not cure heart disease that causes complications (atherosclerosis or coronary artery disease), it can reduce symptoms such as chest pain and .piri. For some, this procedure improves heart function and reduces the risk of dying from heart disease.

Preparation of coronary artery bypass

There are many things you can and should do in the days and weeks leading up to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Instructions on surgery will be given by the surgeon.

CABG surgery is an invasive procedure that takes a long time to recover, so it is important that you carefully prepare for surgery, as well as for the days and weeks following surgery. Try to keep your life simple during the recovery period by paying the bills in the days after your surgery and arranging for someone to help you. It is also important to plan for any problems that may arise. Most of the preparations you make before surgery can help you when you are recovering.

Valve replacement

Heart failure specialists do heart valve surgery is a procedure used to treat heart valve disease. Heart valve disease means that at least one of the four heart valves is not working properly. Heart valves allow blood to flow through your heart in the right direction.

Preparation of valve replacement

Your doctor will provide you with specific information and instructions on how to prepare for your procedure. In addition to your instructions, there are a few things you can consider in the weeks and days leading up to the process.

Ask your doctor what level of activity is appropriate. Short-term exercise can also be difficult, depending on the severity of the aortic stenosis. It is important to be aware of new symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, or epilepsy that may arise during exercise.

Consult your doctor to find out the day of your procedure and what medications you should or should not take.

Eat a healthy diet: Talk to your doctor about what foods are recommended. Also, talk to your doctor if you stop eating or drinking before the procedure.

Get a dental exam: Since oral bacteria can cause a valve infection, it is important to visit your dentist before your valve replacement procedure to ensure that you are in good dental health.

Plan recovery: Some are discharged from the hospital within days of the procedure, while others take longer to get home. Your doctor can tell you when it is safe to go home. It is important to create details such as who will drive you home, who will be with you or help you prepare food.


How is a Spirometry Test Performed | Cardiology

What is spirometry?

Spirometry (Spy-Ram-Uh-Tree) is a simple office test used to assess how well your lungs are working by measuring how much air you breathe, how much you breathe, and how fast you breathe. Spirometry is used to diagnose asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other conditions that affect breathing.

Preparation for a spirometry test?

You should not smoke for an hour before the spirometry test. You should avoid alcohol even that day. Eating too much of a meal can also affect your breathing ability.

Don’t wear tight clothing that restricts your breathing. Your doctor may have instructions on whether to use inhalers or other options before the test.

Procedure of spirometry

You sit in a chair and place the clip over your nose to close your nostrils. Then take a deep breath and inhale into a tube as fast and hard as you can. You need to wrap your lips tightly around the tube to get all the air in. Generally, the test is administered three times each time so that the results are the same.

The tube is connected to a machine called a spirometer. It records how much air your lungs breathe and how fast you breathe. All of this information can help your doctor determine what is causing your breathing problems.

Duration of the test: The spirometry test usually takes 45 minutes. Depending on the waiting time, it may be longer. Ask your doctor if the test will take longer so that you don’t rush or delay other appointments.

Interpreting Results

As soon as your test results are available, your doctor can review them with you at your appointment. Spirometry provides two important measures of lung function:

Forced Key Capacity (FVC): A measure of the amount of air that can be expelled from the lungs with a full breath

Forced expiratory volume (FEV1): The amount of air you exhale from your lungs per second

Risk factors of spirometry

  • Spirometry is a painless test. Most people have no problem with this. Depending on your health, deep breathing can make you feel a little tired or light.
  • If you have heart disease or recent surgery, see your doctor to make sure spirometry is not a problem for you.



Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Overview | Cardiology

What Is Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)?

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer to produce detailed images of the structures in and around the heart. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is used to detect and monitor heart disease and to assess the anatomy and function of the heart in patients with heart disease at birth and heart disease that develops after birth.

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging does not use ionizing radiation to produce images and may provide better images of the heart in certain situations. Tell your doctor about any health problems, recent surgeries, or allergies and whether there is a possibility that you could be pregnant. The attractive field isn’t destructive, yet it might make some clinical gadgets breakdown.

Most bone transplants do not pose any risk, but you should always tell the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technician if you have any devices or metal in your body. Instructions for eating and drinking before the test vary between facilities. Unless told otherwise, take your regular medications as normal. Leave all adornments at home and wear-free, open to apparel. You may be required to wear a hospital gown during the examination. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor to take a mild sedative before the exam.

What is an MRI of the heart?

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a test that uses a large magnet, radio signals, and a computer to make images of the body’s organs and tissues. In this case, imaging of the heart is performed. The MRI machine is large and tube-shaped. It makes a solid attractive field around the body. Some MRI machines are more open.

The magnetic field lines up hydrogen protons in your body. Radio waves eject the protons out of position. When they rearrange them to the correct position, they send out radio signals. The computer receives the signals and turns them into images of the body. This image appears on the display screen. Magnetic resonance imaging may be used in place of a CT scan when studying organs or soft tissues.

For what reason do individuals have MRI checks for heart issues?

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can enable your PCP to analyze various heart conditions, including:

  • Tissue damage from a heart attack
  • Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle to help determine whether a blocked heart artery is the cause of chest pain (angina)
  • Problems with the aorta: The main artery of the heart – such as a tear, aneurysm (bulge), or narrow
  • Diseases of the pericardium (the outer lining of the heart muscle) such as constrictive pericarditis
  • Heart muscle disease, such as heart failure or an enlarged heart, and abnormal growths, such as cancerous tumors
  • Heart valve disorders, such as regurgitation
  • Congenital heart problems and the success of the surgical repair

MRI may be used in place of other tests that use ionizing radiation or contrast dyes containing iodine, or both, such as X-rays, angiography, and computerized tomography (CT) scans. The use of an MRI to examine blood vessels and how blood flows through them is called magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Unlike conventional X-ray angiography, this procedure does not require catheter insertion into the arteries. MRI techniques may also be used to measure heart function or how much blood the left ventricle can pump to the body.

How to prepare for Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging?

Prior to the test, tell your PCP in the event that you have a pacemaker. Depending on the type of pacemaker, your doctor may suggest another testing method, such as an abdominal CT scan. However, some pacemaker models can be reprogrammed prior to the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) so that they are not disrupted during the scan.

Since cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses magnets, it can attract metals. You should alert your doctor if you have had any type of metal implants from previous surgeries. These may include:

  • Artificial heart valves
  • Stents
  • Clips
  • Plates
  • Screws
  • Implants
  • Pins
  • Staples

Your primary care physician may need to utilize an uncommon colour to feature your heart. This dye is a gadolinium-based contrast agent that is administered intravenously. It differs from the dye used during a CT scan. Allergic reactions to the dye are rare. However, you should tell your doctor before giving an IV if you have had any concerns or a history of allergic reactions in the past.

What happens during cardiac magnetic resonance imaging?

Usually, a radiologist or an MRI technician will perform the examination in a hospital, clinic, or imaging centre, using special equipment.

  • You will lie on a movable table that slides inside the MRI machine. The machine looks like a long metal tube.
  • Depending on which part of your body is to be scanned, a small coil may be placed over that part of the body to send the radio waves and receive the MRI signal.
  • Your technician will be watching you from another room. You can talk to him or her with a microphone. In some cases, a friend or family member may stay in the room with you.
  • The MRI machine will create a strong magnetic field around you, and the radio waves will be directed to the area of your body to be imaged. You will not feel the magnetic field or radio waves.
  • During an MRI scan, the magnet makes clicking, squeaking, and other noises. You may be given earplugs or you can listen to music with headphones to help block out the noise.
  • In some cases, you may have an intravenous (IV) line in your hand or arm to inject a contrast agent into your veins (for MRA). The contrast agent produces better images of tissues and blood vessels. It does not contain iodine and is less likely to cause an allergic reaction compared to agents used in computed tomography (CT).
  • The MRI scan takes between 30 and 90 minutes.

You will need to lie still during the exam because the movement can blur your body images. If you are not comfortable in confined spaces, tell your doctor before the test. You can get a sedative to help you stay calm. Some clinics have machines with shorter magnets or wider openings to make you more comfortable.

After a Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

After the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging test, you should be able to drive yourself home, unless you have been given anti-anxiety or sedative medication. It may take your doctor some time to review and interpret the images.

Initial results from a cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of your heart may be available in a few days. However, overall results may take up to a week or more. When results are available, your doctor will review them with you and discuss any follow-up steps you should take.

Who deciphers the outcomes and how would I get them?

A radiologist, a doctor trained in supervising and interpreting imaging scans, analyzes the images. The radiologist will send a marked report to your essential consideration or alluding doctor, who will impart the outcomes to you.

Follow-up examinations may be required. If so, your doctor will explain why. Sometimes, follow-up testing is done because the potential anomaly needs further evaluation with additional perspectives or a special imaging technique. A follow-up test may also be done to see if there is any change in the abnormal condition over time. Sometimes follow-up checks are the best way to find out if treatment has been successful or if the abnormal condition is stable or has changed.

What are the risks of MRI scans?

Mainly about implanted devices and metalworking (see above). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans use a very strong magnetic field that can move iron-containing objects with great force. That is why it is important to tell us about any metal objects in your body. If you are not sure, we can have an X-ray.

There are potential risks about the contrast agent (dye) sometimes used, but this only happens if you have kidney problems, as your kidneys need to remove the dye from your body. So you will have a blood test for kidney function before the scan. In patients with severe kidney problems, they usually reduce or completely avoid the dose.


4 Types and Procedures of Stress Test | Cardiology

What Is a stress test?

Doctors use a stress test, also known as an exercise test or a treadmill test, to see how well a patient’s heart works during physical activity.

A stress test can also help a doctor advise patients on the best type of physical activity for them. A stress test usually involves walking on a treadmill or riding a stationary bike while monitoring the patient’s breathing, blood pressure, and heartbeat.

Some patients, such as those with arthritis, will not be able to do the activities involved in a stress test during exercise. Instead of exercising, the patient can take medication to make the heart work harder, as might happen during exercise.

Types of stress tests

We recommend different types of stress tests based on your general health and symptoms. Our doctors and imaging specialists are experienced in performing stress tests and interpreting the results.

1. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET):

This comprehensive test assesses how well your heart and lungs are working together to deliver oxygen-rich blood to your body. It also shows how well your muscles are using oxygen while you exercise at increased levels. CPET can evaluate:

  • Reasons for shortness of breath
  • Fitness level and ability to exercise, especially after a heart attack or heart surgery
  • Lung function

The CPET test is similar to the exercise stress test but it also measures lung function, including:

  • The amount of oxygen your body uses during exercise
  • Your breathing pattern
  • The amount of carbon dioxide you produce

We use this test not only to identify many types of heart and lung disease but also to:

  • Monitor people who already have these conditions and check for disease progression
  • Measure how well treatments are working
  • Determine if the exercise restrictions are due to a heart or lung problem

2. Exercise stress test

This test uses an EKG during exercise to assess blood flow to your heart. We do a stress test while exercising on the treadmill or stationary bike at a gradually increasing rate. We use this test to raise your heart rate so we can detect heart problems affecting blood flow.

The exercise stress test only measures the electrical activity of your heart, not the lung function like CPET. We use this test to:

  • Determining safe levels of exercise after a heart attack or heart surgery
  • Diagnosing and determining the severity of coronary heart disease and other types of heart disease
  • Diagnose an arrhythmia
  • Find out what causes symptoms that only appear during exercises, such as shortness of breath, fainting or an irregular heartbeat
  • Treatment planning guidance, such as medications, cardiac catheterization (minimally invasive heart procedures), surgery or implantation

3. Pharmacologic stress test

This stress test assesses the blood flow to your heart using an EKG but does not involve any physical activity. We recommend a drug stress test for people who are unable to exercise due to physical limitations such as arthritis, joint or back conditions, injury or disability. For this test, you receive medication to stimulate your heart and make it beat harder and faster as if you were exercising.

Use the drug stress test to:

  • Determine safe levels of physical activity if you have a heart attack or heart surgery
  • Diagnosing many types of heart disease and determining their severity
  • Guiding decisions about treatment options, such as medication, cardiac catheterization (minimally invasive heart procedures), surgery or implantation
  • Evaluate how well your treatment increases blood flow to the heart

4. Nuclear stress test

This type of stress test includes a radioactive dye and imaging studies to show blood flow to the heart, both at rest and when the heart rate is elevated. As with other types of stress tests, we record the electrical activity of your heart with an EKG.

During a nuclear stress test, you receive an injection of a radioactive dye through an intravenous (IV) line. The dye travels through the bloodstream and your heart. While you’re still at rest, we scan your heart with a special camera that captures the radioactive dye to show blood flowing into and through your heart.

In the second part of the test, you start exercising on a treadmill or stationary bike. If you are unable to exercise, we can give you medicine to increase your heart rate. Then we check more images of your heart to capture blood flow to the heart during increased activity.

Nuclear stress tests show which parts of the heart are receiving enough blood and which ones are not. The tests provide details that can indicate heart disease and severity and show tissue damage from a previous heart attack.

Why stress test is done?

Your doctor may recommend a stress test to:

  • Diagnose coronary artery disease: Coronary arteries are the main blood vessels that supply your heart with blood, oxygen, and nutrients. Coronary artery disease develops when these arteries are damaged or sick – usually due to a buildup of plaques containing cholesterol and other substances (plaques).
  • Diagnose heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias): Arrhythmias occur when the electrical impulses that coordinate your heart’s rhythm do not work properly, causing your heart to beat too fast, too slowly or irregularly.
  • Guide treatment of heart disorders: If you’ve already been diagnosed with heart disease, an exercise stress test can help your doctor know how well treatment is working. It can also be used to help create a treatment plan for you by showing how much exercise your heart can handle.
  • Your doctor may use a stress test to help determine the timing of heart surgery, such as valve replacement. In some people with heart failure, results of a stress test may help a doctor determine whether you need a heart transplant or other advanced treatments.

Your doctor may recommend an imaging test, such as a nuclear stress test or an echocardiogram stress test if an exercise stress test doesn’t determine the cause of your symptoms.

By what means should I prepare for the exercise stress test?

  • Do not eat or drink anything except water for the 4 hours before the test.
  • Do not drink or eat anything containing caffeine for the 12 hours before the test.
  • Do not take the following heart medications on the day of the test, unless your doctor tells you otherwise or if medication is needed to treat chest discomfort on the day of the test:
    • Isosorbide dinitrate(for example, Isordil, Dilatrate SR)
    • Isosorbide mononitrate(for example, ISMO, Imdur, Monoket)
    • Nitroglycerin(for example, Deponit, Nitrostat, Nitro-Bid)
  • If you are using a breathing inhaler, bring it to the test.

You may also be asked to stop taking other heart medications on the day of the test. If you have questions about your medications, ask your doctor. Do not stop taking any medication without first consulting with it.

During the stress test

You will slowly start exercising on a treadmill or stationary bike, then gradually increase the speed of the treadmill or resistance bike until your heart works at the target heart rate for your age. Most often, the stress test includes an electrocardiogram to measure the electrical activity of your heart while you exercise on a treadmill or on a stationary bike. Your doctor may also measure the blood oxygen level, blood pressure, heart rate.

During the test, you’ll exercise for 10 to 15 minutes. And we have better stress test equipment. Your primary care physician will stop the test on the off chance that you give any indication of a heart issue, in the event that you are too worn out to even consider continuing the test.

If you are not able to exercise, your doctor will give you the medication for over 10 to 20 minutes through an intravenous (IV) line into a blood vessel.

Your doctor may also take pictures of your heart during or immediately after a stress test to see how well blood flows through your heart and how well your heart pumps blood when it beats. These images can be taken by echocardiogram or by injecting a radioactive dye into a vein, which is called a nuclear heart scan. The amount of radiation in the dye is safe for you and those around you. However, if you are pregnant, this test should not be performed due to the risks it may pose to your unborn baby.

If your doctor also wants to know how well your lungs are working, you may be asked to wear a mask or mouthpiece to measure the gases you breathe in during the stress test.

Following up after an exercise stress test

After the test, you will be given water and asked to rest. If your blood pressure rises during the test, the nurse may continue to monitor your blood pressure.

A couple of days after the test, your primary care physician will survey the outcomes with you. The test can reveal an irregular heartbeat or other symptoms that indicate coronary artery disease, such as blocked arteries.

If your doctor determines that you may have coronary artery disease or other heart problems, he may begin treatment or order further tests, such as a nuclear stress test.

Risk factors

These tests are usually safe. Sometimes, exercise or medication that increases the heart rate can cause symptoms such as chest pain, dizziness, or nausea. You will be monitored closely throughout the test to reduce the risk of complications or to treat any health problems quickly.

The radioactive dye used for a nuclear stress test is safe for most people. In rare cases, it may cause an allergic reaction. Also, a nuclear stress test is not recommended for pregnant women, as the dye may be harmful to a fetus.


If the information gathered during the exercise stress test shows that your heart function is normal, you may not need any other tests. However, if the results are normal and symptoms continue to worsen, your doctor may recommend nuclear or other stress tests that include an echocardiogram before and after exercise or taking medications to increase blood flow to your heart. These tests are more exact and give more data about your heart work, yet they are likewise more costly.

If the stress test results indicate the possibility of coronary artery disease or an irregular heartbeat, your doctor will use the information to create a treatment plan. You may require extra tests, for example, a coronary angiogram. If you have a stress test to help determine a treatment for heart disease, your doctor will use the results to plan or change your treatment.


Polysomnography (Sleep Study) Procedure | Neurology

What is Polysomnography?

Polysomnography, also called a sleep study, is a test used to diagnose sleep disorders. Polysomnography records cerebrum waves, blood oxygen level, pulse, and breathing, just as eye and leg developments during the examination.

Polysomnography is usually done in a sleep disorders unit within a hospital or a sleep centre. The test records your sleep patterns at night. Polysomnography is sometimes performed during the day to accommodate the shift workers who usually sleep during the day.

In addition to helping diagnose sleep disorders, polysomnography can be used to help adjust your treatment plan if you have already been diagnosed with a sleep disorder.

Why do I need a polysomnography?

A doctor can use polysomnography to diagnose sleep disorders. The symptoms of sleep apnea, which is a disorder in which breathing constantly stops and starts again, is often evaluated during sleep. Symptoms include sleep apnea:

  • Daytime sleepiness despite rest
  • Constant and loud snoring
  • Periods of holding your breath during sleep, followed by inhalations for air
  • Frequent bouts of awakening during the night
  • Sleep without rest

Polysomnography can likewise enable your PCP to analyze the accompanying rest issues:

  • Sleep-related seizure disorders
  • Periodic limb movement disorder or restless legs syndrome, which involves uncontrolled bending and extending of the legs during sleep
  • REM sleep behaviour disorder, which involves the realization of dreams during sleep
  • Chronic insomnia, which involves difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) warns that if sleep disorders are not treated, they may increase your risk:

  • Heart disease
  • Stroke
  • High blood pressure
  • Depression

There is also an association between sleep disturbances and an increased risk of injuries associated with falls and car accidents.

How do you prepare for the sleep study?

You may be advised to avoid drinks or foods containing alcohol or caffeine during the afternoon and evening hours before polysomnography. Liquor and caffeine can adjust your rest examples, and they may intensify indications of some rest problems.

A nap in the afternoon before a sleep study is discouraged. You will usually be asked to shower or shower before your sleep study. However, do not apply lotions, gels, cologne, or make-up before the test, as they can interfere with the use of the electrodes.

Polysomnography procedure

People usually arrive at a sleep centre in the evening to stay overnight to monitor their sleep patterns.

The environment is usually set up in a style similar to a hotel room, with a private bathroom and little noise or light to distract the individual. The room is equipped with a video camera to capture the movement and behaviour of the individual during his sleep, in addition to an audio system that allows any sounds to be monitored. This also allows for communication with technicians, if needed, for example, if the patient needs to go to the bathroom at night.

After the individual is ready to sleep according to their nighttime routine, a sensor will be placed on the scalp, temples, chest, and legs. The sensors are associated with the registering framework, through long wires that permit the person to move unreservedly in the bed. A blood oxygen level monitor is also placed on the patient’s finger or ear to monitor changes.

It’s normal to have a harder time falling asleep more than usual in an unfamiliar environment, but this will not affect the results as each stage of sleep will eventually arrive, even if bedtime is longer.

Depending on the purpose of polysomnography, there may be other specific machines involved in the study. For example, a positive airway pressure (PAP) machine can help improve breathing for individuals with sleep apnea. In the morning, the sensors are removed and the individual can leave the sleep centre and continue normal daily activities immediately.

Are there any risks?

Polysomnography usually does not carry any risks.

Nonetheless, now and again, an individual may respond to the cement that connects the sensors to their body. If they are concerned about this, they should talk to the technician beforehand.

What do the results of a polysomnogram mean?

One of your roles as a sleep technologist is to record sleep stages and recorded events and plan them for your doctor’s review. Your observations during the study are crucial in helping the sleep doctor identify specific conditions, which means you need to take notes such as disturbances during the various stages of sleep, which are identified by brain waves and eye movements, which may indicate REM sleep behaviour disorder or narcolepsy. . You may also notice changes in heart rate and breathing along with changes in blood oxygen levels that indicate sleep apnea.

Other observations may include repetitive leg movements that may indicate periodic limb movement disorder or unusual movements and noises during sleep that indicate the potential for REM sleep. There are many possibilities that can only be discovered through the strong combination of skilled sleep technologists and information gathered by electrodes and sensors connected to patients.


Overview of Electronystagmography (ENG) | Neurology

What is Electronystagmography (ENG)?

Electronystagmography (ENG or electrocardiogram) is used to evaluate people with vertigo (a false sense of spinning or movement that can cause vertigo) and some other disorders that affect hearing and vision. Electrodes are set at areas above and underneath the eye to record electrical activity.

By measuring changes in the electrical field within the eye, ENG can detect nystagmus (rapid, involuntary eye movement) in response to various stimuli. If nystagmus does not occur upon stimulation, there may be a problem within the ear, the nerves supplying the ear, or certain parts of the brain. This test may also be used to distinguish lesions in different parts of the brain and nervous system.

Purpose of an ENG

ENG detects disturbances in the parts of the inner ear responsible for steering, posture, and balance, as well as in the nerves that connect your brain to your eyes and ears.

Your doctor may recommend this test if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Severe or persistent dizziness
  • Vertigo (meaning the room is spinning)
  • Problems with balance
  • Unexplained hearing loss

Your doctor may also perform ENG if you have any of the following conditions:

  • Usher syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects vision, balance, and hearing
  • Acoustic neuroma: A benign tumor of the auditory nerve (vestibular-cochlear)
  • Labyrinthitis: Inflammation of the inner ear
  • Meniere’s disease: A problem of the inward ear that influences equalization and hearing
  • Any suspected lesion on your inner ear

What are the risks of an ENG test?

There is very little risk of Electronystagmography (ENG). A few people may encounter wooziness or sickness during the test. Electronystagmography (ENG) ought not to be utilized in the event that you have a pacemaker. The device may interfere with the pacemaker function.

Rapid changes to the posture needed for the test may worsen back or neck problems. The test for calories in water may cause mild discomfort. If you have previously been diagnosed with a perforated tympanic membrane, you should not have a portion of water calories on the ENG test.

There may be various risks depending upon your specific affliction. Talk about any worries with your medical services supplier before the strategy. Certain factors or circumstances may interfere with ENG. These include:

  • Earwax
  • Impaired vision
  • Frequent blinking
  • Certain medicines, those are sedatives, tranquilizers, and anti-vertigo medicines

How to prepare for the test?

Before the tests, you’ll likely be asked to do the following:

  • Tell your doctor about the medications you are taking: It may ask you to stop taking it 72 hours before the test.
  • Abstain from caffeine and alcohol: No drinking or coffee for 48 hours before the completion date.
  • No food: Most doctors recommend avoiding eating at least 4 hours in advance.
  • Clean your ears: Ear blockage and earwax can distort the results, so a medical assistant may wash the ear canals before the procedure if they are not clear.
  • Prepare a trip afterwards: Usually, this is good advice for many medical procedures, just in case you do not want to drive.

The test can be distorted if you have double vision or blink a lot. Also, you shouldn’t have an Injex device if you have a pacemaker for your heart. You can usually go home after your recovery, although the test can also be taken during a hospital stay. The test takes up to 90 minutes.

What happens during an electronystagmography?

So now it’s time for ENG. You might be a little hungry, you might be tired, and you might be nervous. What can you expect? In fact, the procedure includes several tests. Prior to beginning, your primary care physician will clean your brow, sanctuaries, and cheeks with liquor. Then, you attach the electrodes to those areas using a paste.

In some testing facilities, instead of electrodes, you may be provided with a binocular camera that looks like virtual reality glasses. The tests performed with this system are known as videography or VNG. These devices capture your eye movements on video and can measure them just like electrodes.

The tests include:

  • The calibration test: Utilizing just your eyes, you will be gotten some information about 6 to 10 feet away or think to and fro between focuses on a divider. This test measures visual impairment, a condition in which your pupils have difficulty judging distances to targets.
  • The tracking test: Also known as the nystagmus test, it is similar to the sobriety test offered by the police. But in Muhandis, you are usually sitting or lying down. (Nystagmus is a condition in which your eyes are out of your control.) In this test, you try to stare at a steady light, directly in front of you or at an angle, without moving your eyes around you.

There are two related tracer tests:

  • The first is the pendulum tracking test. In it, you are tracking a light that moves back and forth like a pendulum without moving your head.
  • The other is the optokinetic test, in which you track multiple moving objects without turning your head. Things may move at high speeds and enter and leave your field of vision.

The positional test: Now is the time to move your head. Often your doctor will ask you to perform what is called the Dex-Halpike maneuver. While sitting at a table, you will turn your head to one side and quickly lie down with your head – supported by your doctor – about 20 degrees below the surface of the table. You’ll remain there for 30 seconds, at that point sit upstanding once more. You will repeat it with your head on the other side. Your doctor will notice the effect on your eyes.

The water caloric test: While lying down, your doctor will inject a stream of cold or warm water into one ear, then the other. (Air is sometimes used.) If you are not vertigo, your eyes should reflexively twitch. Your doctor may not perform all of the tests. On the off chance that you have neck or back issues, she may recommend something different.

After the electronystagmography test

  • Once the test is finished, your provider will remove the electrodes and wash off the electrode paste. Do not rub your eyes to prevent spreading the electrode paste.
  • Your provider will monitor you for any signs of weakness, dizziness, and nausea. You may need to rests or sit for a couple of moments to recuperate.
  • Your healthcare provider will tell you when to start any medications you stopped taking before the test. Your healthcare provider may give you other instructions after the procedure, depending on your specific situation.
  • You may also have vertical videography (VNG). This is a test that likewise identifies eye development. But it uses video cameras instead of electrodes.


If your ENG test results are abnormal, it could indicate a problem with your inner ear or the area of the brain responsible for controlling the movement of your eyes.

Other diseases or injuries to the auditory nerve can cause vertigo, including:

  • Vascular disorders that cause bleeding in the ear
  • Ear tumors
  • Genetic disorders
  • Damage to the inner ear
  • Ototoxic drugs
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Viral infections such as chickenpox, measles, and influenza
  • Movement disorders
  • Chemical poisoning

Procedure of Cerebrospinal fluid analysis | Neurology

What is a Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis?

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis is a way to look for conditions affecting the brain and spine. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis is a series of laboratory tests that are performed on a sample of cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear fluid that serves to provide nutrients to the central nervous system (CNS). The focal sensory system includes the mind and spinal line.

The cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the choroid plexus in the brain and then reabsorbed into the bloodstream. The fluid is completely replaced every few hours. In addition to providing nutrients, cerebrospinal fluid flows around the brain and spine, providing protection, and carrying waste.

A cerebrospinal fluid sample is usually collected by performing a lumbar puncture, also known as a spinal tap. Sample analysis includes measurement and examination:

  • Fluid pressure
  • Red blood cells
  • Chemicals
  • Viruses
  • Bacteria
  • White blood cells
  • Proteins
  • Glucose
  • Other invasive organisms or foreign substances

It can include analysis:

  • Measurement of the physical properties and appearance of CSF
  • Synthetic tests on substances in your cerebrospinal liquid or correlations with levels of comparative substances in your blood
  • Count cells and write down which cells are in your CSF
  • Determine which microorganisms could cause infectious diseases

The cerebrospinal fluid is in direct contact with the brain and spine. So a cerebrospinal fluid analysis is more effective than a blood test for understanding central nervous system symptoms. However, obtaining a cerebrospinal fluid sample is more difficult than obtaining a blood sample. Entering the spinal canal with a needle requires master information on the life systems of the spine and away from any basic states of the cerebrum or spine that may expand the danger of inconveniences from the methodology.

What is it used for?

The cerebrospinal fluid analysis may include tests to diagnose:

  • Irresistible maladies of the cerebrum and spinal line, including meningitis and encephalitis. CSF tests for infection check white blood cells, bacteria, and other substances in the cerebrospinal fluid
  • Autoimmune disorders, for example, Guillain-Barré disorder and multiple sclerosis (MS). CSF tests look for these disorders for high levels of certain proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid. These tests are called albumin protein.
  • Bleeding in the brain
  • Brain tumors

Why do I need a cerebrospinal fluid analysis?

You may need a cerebrospinal fluid analysis if you have symptoms of an infection in the brain or spinal cord, or an autoimmune disorder, such as multiple sclerosis (MS).

Symptoms include inflammation of the brain or spinal cord:

  • Fever
  • Severe headache
  • Stiff neck
  • Confusion
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Double vision
  • Changes in behaviour
  • Seizures
  • Sensitivity to light

Symptoms of MS include:

  • Blurred or double vision
  • Weak muscles
  • Muscle spasms
  • Dizziness
  • Tingling in the arms, legs, or face
  • Bladder control problems

Side effects of Guillain-Barré disorder remember shortcoming and shivering for the legs, arms, and chest area. You may also need a cerebrospinal fluid analysis if you have had an injury to the brain or spinal cord, or have been diagnosed with cancer that has spread to the brain or spinal cord.

What happens during a cerebrospinal fluid analysis?

Your cerebrospinal liquid will be gathered through a strategy called a spinal tap, otherwise called a lumbar puncture. A spinal tap is usually performed in a hospital. During the cerebrospinal fluid analysis procedure:

  • You will either lie on your side or sit on the exam table.
  • The health care provider will clean your back and inject an anaesthetic into your skin, so you will not feel pain during the procedure. Your supplier may put desensitizing cream on your back before this infusion.
  • When the zone on your back is totally desensitized, your supplier will embed a flimsy, empty needle between two vertebrae in the lower part of your spine. The vertebrae are the small spine that the backbone is made of.
  • Your provider will draw a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid for testing. This will take about five minutes.
  • You will need to remain still while drawing the fluid.
  • Your supplier may request that you lie on your back for an hour or two after the methodology. This may keep you from getting a migraine a short time later.

How to prepare for the Cerebrospinal fluid analysis test?

You needn’t bother with any unique groundwork for the CSF investigation, however, you might be approached to exhaust your bladder and inside before the test.

Diseases detected by CSF analysis

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis can accurately distinguish a wide range of central nervous system diseases that are difficult to diagnose. Conditions it found include CSF analysis:

Infectious diseases

Infections, microscopic organisms, growths, and parasites can contaminate the focal sensory system. Certain injuries can be found by analyzing the cerebrospinal fluid. Common central nervous system infections include:

  • Meningitis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV)
  • Fungal infections
  • Encephalitis
  • West Nile virus


Intracranial bleeding can be detected by analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid. However, isolating the exact cause of the bleeding may require additional investigations or investigations. Common causes include high blood pressure, stroke, or aneurysm.

Immune response disorders

A Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis test can detect disorders of the immune response. The immune system can damage the central nervous system through inflammation, destruction of the myelin sheath around nerves, and antibody production.

Include common diseases of this type:

  • Guillain-Barré syndrome
  • Neurosyphilis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Multiple sclerosis


Cerebrospinal fluid analysis can detect primary tumors in the brain or spine. It can also detect metastatic cancers that have spread to the central nervous system from other parts of the body.

Risks and considerations

  • Some people experience a headache between 24 and 48 hours after the operation. People describe the pain as a dull or throbbing pain in the front of the head, sometimes spreading to the neck and shoulders.
  • Over-the-counter medications can help ease the pain, but if the pain is severe or accompanied by sickness and vomiting, it is important to seek medical attention.
  • To reduce the risk of developing a post-lumbar headache, the person will be asked to lie down quietly and not raise their head for one to two hours after the procedure.
  • A lumbar puncture is performed below the end of the spinal cord where there are small strings of nerves. Sometimes the needle can touch a small vein, causing the painful tap.
  • If this happens, a small amount of blood may leak into one or more samples, which could affect the results.
  • Some people experience lower back pain in the area where the operation was performed, while others may also experience pain in the back of their legs. Doctors usually recommend over-the-counter pain relievers, and the pain usually goes away within a few days.
  • A person may also experience some bruising and swelling associated with a small amount of fluid leaking under the skin. This tends to go away without treatment.

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis results

The cerebrospinal fluid that is collected during the lumbar puncture will contain protein and glucose and may also contain white blood cells. It will be examined for any disturbance in the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid or damage to the blood-brain barrier.

Initial tests performed on a CSF examination:

  • Color, clarity, and pressure during assembly
  • Protein levels
  • Glucose levels
  • Total number of cells present (number of cells)
  • Number of different types of cells present (differential cell counts)
  • Gram stain and its culture if the infection is suspected

Depending on the Cerebrospinal fluid analysis test results and the signs and symptoms the individual has experienced, the doctor may perform further tests.

These fall into four broad categories:

  • Physical characteristics: Includes measuring cerebrospinal fluid flow pressure, checking for normal colour and texture.
  • Chemical tests: Detect or measure chemicals in the cerebrospinal fluid, including protein and glucose levels, which are usually related to their concentration in the blood.
  • Cell number and differentiation: Any cells present can be counted and identified under a microscope.
  • Infectious disease tests: Several tests can identify microorganisms if the infection is suspected.

If the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis identifies any irregularities, the doctor will recommend further tests to help make a diagnosis.

Following up after a CSF analysis

  • Your follow-up and expectations will depend on why your CNS test is abnormal. It is likely that more tests will be required in order to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Treatment and results will vary.
  • Meningitis caused by a bacterial or parasitic infection is a medical emergency. Symptoms are similar to viral meningitis. However, viral meningitis is less life-threatening.
  • People with bacterial meningitis may receive broad-spectrum antibiotics until the cause of the infection is determined. Prompt treatment is essential to save your life. It can also prevent permanent central nervous system damage.

Procedure, Risk Factors, and Benefits of Biopsy | Neurology

What is a biopsy?

A biopsy is a more detailed examination of a sample of tissue taken from the body. The doctor should recommend a biopsy when the initial examination indicates that the area of body tissue is not normal. Doctors call an area of abnormal tissue a lesion, tumor, or mass.

Types of biopsy

Needle biopsy: Most biopsies are needle biopsies, which means that the needle is used to access suspicious tissue.

CT-guided biopsy: The CT scan images can help doctors determine the exact location of the needle in the target tissue.

Ultrasound-guided biopsy: An ultrasound scanner can help the doctor redirect a needle to an ulcer.

Bone biopsy: Bone biopsy is used for bone cancer. This can be done using a CT scan technique or by an orthopedic surgeon.

Bone marrow biopsy: A large needle is used to insert the bone marrow into the pelvic bone. It detects blood diseases such as leukemia or lymphoma.

Liver biopsy: A needle is inserted into the liver through the skin of the abdomen and captures the liver tissue.

Kidney biopsy: Similar to a liver biopsy, a needle is inserted into the kidney through the skin on the back.

Aspiration biopsy: A needle extracts material from the dough. This simple method is also known as fine-needle aspiration.

Prostate biopsy: Several needle biopsies are taken simultaneously from the prostate gland. To reach the prostate, a tube is inserted into the rectum.

Surgical biopsy: Open or laparoscopic surgery may be required to obtain a biopsy of the tissue. A piece of tissue or an entire lump of tissue may be removed.

Risks factors of biopsy

This procedure is generally safe and causes fewer injuries.

  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Accidental injury to adjacent structures such as the lung parenchyma during intestinal or kidney during an abdominal biopsy

Purpose of biopsy

If you have symptoms that are generally associated with cancer and your doctor finds an area of concern, you may need a test to determine if the area is cancerous. It is the only way to diagnose most cancers. Imaging tests, such as CT scans and X-rays, can help identify areas of concern, but they cannot differentiate between cancer and non-cancer cells.

Biopsies are often associated with cancer, but just because your doctor ordered this procedure, it does not mean you have cancer. Doctors use biopsies to check if abnormalities in your body are due to cancer or other conditions.

Preparing for a biopsy

How to prepare for the procedure depends on the type of disease you have. For example, there are no large preparations for a fine needle biopsy in the doctor’s office. In some cases, you may need to take your clothes off and put on a dress.

Before biopsy

Ask your doctor or nurse if you can eat or drink before the test. Also, take clarification on the regular usage of medicines. For some biopsies, your doctor may want to know if you are thinning your blood or taking aspirin. The doctor should be informed about the history and current use of medicines.

Tell your doctor about any drug allergies or other medical conditions you may have. A member of your healthcare team will explain the procedure to you. You will be asked to sign a consent form stating that you understand the advantages and disadvantages of it and that you agree to perform the test. Visit the doctor if any problem is faced.

During biopsy

The doctor will perform a biopsy based on the part of your body where you may be lying on your stomach or on your back or sitting during the procedure. For some types of biopsies, you may need to hold your breath while the needle is inserted. Your healthcare team will let you know in advance what to expect in the process.

Before the procedure, you will usually receive a form of anesthesia to prevent the perception of pain. The anesthesia procedure used by the doctor depends on the type of procedure.

The following types can be used:

Local anesthesia: Local anesthesia is an injection that numbs the area where the procedure is done. You may feel a sting when your doctor injects a local anesthetic through a needle.

Conscious anesthesia: Conscious anesthesia care Medicines are used to relax you. It is usually given through an intravenous (IV) tube and is often combined with local or regional anesthesia.

General anesthesia: General anesthesia during a major procedure, such as surgery, will knock you out. If you are under regular anesthesia, you may not be aware of this procedure.

After biopsy

After taking a tissue sample, your doctor will need to evaluate it. In some cases, this can be done during the diagnostic process. However, in most cases, the sample must be sent to a laboratory for analysis. Results can take anywhere from a few days to a few weeks.

Once the results come in, your doctor may call you to share the results or ask you to come to the next appointment to discuss the next steps. If the results show signs of cancer, your doctor can determine the type of cancer and the level of aggression from your biopsy. If your biopsy is done for a cause other than cancer, the lab report should be able to guide your doctor in the diagnosis and treatment of the condition.

Even if the results are negative, if the doctor’s suspicion of cancer or other conditions remains high, you may need another biopsy or a different type of biopsy. Your doctor will be able to guide you on the best course to follow. If you have any questions about it or the results before the procedure, do not hesitate to speak with your doctor. You may want to write down your questions and bring them to your next office visit.

Analysis and biopsy results

Once your doctor obtains a tissue sample, it is sent to a laboratory for analysis. It can be chemically treated or frozen and bisected into thin sections. Sections are placed on glass slides, stained to increase contrast, and studied under a microscope. The results can help your doctor determine if the cells are cancerous. If the cells are cancerous, results can tell your doctor where the cancer is – the type of cancer.

It can also help your doctor determine how aggressive your cancer is – cancer grade. The grade is sometimes expressed as a number on a scale of 1 to 4 and is determined by how the cancer cells look under a microscope.

Low-grade (grade 1) cancers are generally less aggressive, and high-grade (grade 4) cancers are generally more aggressive. This information can help guide treatment options. Other specialized tests on cancer cells can help guide treatment options.

In some cases, such as during surgery, a pathologist will immediately examine the sample and deliver the results to your surgeon within minutes. But in most cases, the results of it will be available in a few days. Some samples take longer to analyze. Ask your doctor how long to wait for your biopsy results.


Most biopsies only require local anesthesia, which means you don’t have to stay in the hospital overnight. However, an overnight stay is sometimes required when performing a biopsy under general anesthesia. Most types of biopsies are painless once the anesthesia begins to work, although it depends on where the sample was taken.

You may experience a dull ache, which can be treated with pain relievers as recommended by your doctor or surgeon. For some types, it takes a few hours in the hospital. You will need to put on stitches or get dressed before you go.


Needle biopsy is a reliable method of obtaining tissue samples to help determine whether the nodule is benign (not cancerous) or malignant.

  • It is less aggressive than open or closed surgical biopsies, and both involve a large incision in the skin.
  • In general, the procedure is not painful and the results are accurate when the tissue sample is surgically removed.
  • Recovery time is short and patients can resume normal activities soon.
  • Any procedure that involves cutting of the skin carries a risk of infection. The risk of infection that requires antibiotic treatment is less than one in 1,000.