General Topics

Prevention of Heart Disease Starts in Childhood | Cardiology

What Is Heart Disease Starts In Childhood?

You might think heart disease is a problem for adults and not for your young children. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says, obesity affects 1 in 5 children. Diet and exercise habits that began in childhood can start a heart-healthy life. Or heart damage for life.

Some of the preventable causes of heart disease in adults that begin in childhood are:

  • Obesity
  • Unhealthy diet
  • A buildup of plaque (or fat deposits) in the arteries
  • Diabetes
  • Exposure to cigarette smoke
  • Unhealthy changes in cholesterol levels
  • High blood pressure
  • Lack of physical exercise (sedentary lifestyle)

Despite the fact that the risk of heart disease can run in families, eating a healthy diet can help every child reduce their risk of developing heart disease. In the event that coronary illness runs in your family, converse with your youngster’s medical care supplier about whether their cholesterol and circulatory strain ought to be estimated normally, notwithstanding weight checking.

What can I do to prevent heart disease in my child?

There are many ways to help your child develop healthy lifestyle habits that reduce the risk of heart disease. To start, get regular medical care for your child. This means having at least a yearly physical examination. Regular medical checkups are the best way to detect and treat risks of heart disease that generally do not show symptoms, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol.

You also need to be smart about food. You can greatly reduce your child’s risk of developing heart disease by providing foods low in fat, sugar, and salt instead of processed foods, such as sausages, potato chips, and biscuits. Snack time is a good place to start. Offer baby-friendly foods, such as baby carrots, apples, or grape slices. Offer baby-sized portions of other healthy foods, such as low-fat yogurt, raisins, and peanuts. Look for baby-friendly breakfast cereals made with whole grains and low in sugar.

Set limits on less mobile entertainment. Computer, television, and video game time should not exceed one to two hours per day. Encourage exercise instead and find ways to make it enjoyable. Children five years and over should get at least 30 minutes of exercise each day. Babies may not like the idea of exercise, but they generally want to play. Encourage active play that matches your child’s interests and abilities. For example, if your child loves video games, consider moving games, which combine video games with physical activity. Better yet, involve the whole family! Join a family-friendly gym, or take a daily walk or bike ride together.

Talk to your children about healthy options and set an example. Children are more likely to develop healthy lifestyle habits if their parents teach them healthy behaviors and practice what they preach.

Healthy food, healthy hearts

A balanced diet is important for children and teenagers, not only to prevent heart disease but also to encourage healthy growth and development. A diet that prevents heart disease has three important parts. The first is to keep your daily caloric intake at the right level. Eating too many calories can cause weight gain and affect the heart, the second being fat reduction. The USDA recommends that children limit the amount of fat – especially saturated fat – that they eat. The third is a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. A good rule of thumb is to eat fruits and vegetables with a variety of colors to get a comprehensive source of nutrients.

Here are guidelines for creating a heart-healthy diet in childhood:

  • Breastfeed for as long as possible. Aim to spend an entire year, even when serving solid foods.
  • Feed your baby mostly fruits and vegetables, along with whole grains, lean protein, and low-fat dairy products. Cut back on red meat and choose leaner cuts if you decide to eat red meat.
  • Watch portion sizes. The recommended daily amounts of healthy foods for children are:
    • 2 ounces of lean protein (fish and poultry) per day for children ages 2 to 3 years, 3 ounces to 4 ounces for children 4 to 8 years old, and 5 ounces to 6 ounces for children ages 9 to 18
    • 2 cups of low-fat dairy products for children under the age of eight, and 3 cups for children ages 9 to 18
    • 5 cups of fruit
    • 5 cups of vegetables
    • 6 ounces of whole grains
  • Don’t eat junk food often. If you eat out, make healthy choices (like a grilled chicken sandwich instead of cheese bacon) and keep portion sizes reasonable.
  • Don’t give your children sugary drinks. Instead, serve water and low-fat milk.
  • Cut sweets and sweets to a minimum and consider using fresh fruit as an alternative to sweets.
  • Choose whole grains like brown rice over refined grains like white rice for more nutrients and fiber.
  • Don’t ask children to finish everything on their plate. Allow the kids to tell you when they feel full.

Healthy lifestyle, healthy heart

Many of the daily choices children and teens make affect their risk of developing heart disease. Here are some options you can encourage your children and teens to make to help protect their hearts:

  • Do about 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity most days of the week in childhood. This can be divided throughout the day into two or more periods of activity.
  • Since many kids trade activity in exchange for sitting in front of the TV or computer, keep screen time less than two hours a day.
  • Do not expose your children to cigarette smoke. Ban smoking in your home and car. Do not take your children to places where people smoke cigarettes. If you smoke, quitting smoking can help you and your children.
  • Remember that you are the most important role model for your children. Your children and teens will learn their best heart-healthy options by watching you.
Disease General Topics

Symptoms of Central Nervous System Depression | Neurology

What is central nervous system depression?

Central command brain. It commands his lungs and lungs to breathe and his heart to beat. It controls all the other parts of your body and mind, how you feel, and interacts with the world around you. The spinal cord maintains nerve impulses, allowing your brain to communicate with the rest of your body.

When the functions of the CNS slow down, this is called central nervous system depression. Slowing down a bit is not dangerous. Of course, sometimes it even helps. But if it slows down too much, it can quickly turn into a fatal event. People should use sleeping pills, pain relievers, and other CNS depressants with caution.

A person can benefit from taking the correct dose of central nervous system depression patients, such as opioid pain relievers. However, an overdose of these drugs can reduce CNS activity to dangerous levels. The CNS contains the brain and spinal cord. It regulates many bodily functions, including breathing and the heart, sending messages through the spinal cord between the brain and other nerves.

It plays a role in essential physiological processes:

Involuntary processes: These do not require conscious thought. These regulate vital organs such as the heart, lungs, and stomach. They are responsible for functions that include digestion and blood circulation.

Voluntary processes: These include conscious thinking. They allow people to move their arms and legs or blink. Central nervous system depression patients are drugs and other substances that slow down the CNS. Most central nervous system depression patients work by increasing the chemistry of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which inhibits or slows the transmission of messages between cells. 

Symptoms of central nervous system depression

Mild CNS decline can make you feel less anxious and more relaxed. Therefore, central nervous system depression patients are used to treat anxiety and insomnia. People with CNS depression have various overdose symptoms. Factors affecting the impact of CNS depression:

  • Type and dose of a substance
  • The severity of illness or injury
  • The size of the person
  • The individual’s medical history
  • Mild symptoms
  • Mild symptoms of CNS depression
  • Lack of coordination and little sense of space.
  • Muscular weakness
  • sloth
  • Dizziness
  • Disorientation
  • Speaks slow or stutters
  • Short piri or shallow breathing
  • Heart rate decreased slightly
  • Constipation
  • Dry mouth
  • Volatility and anxiety
  • Unhappy
  • Blurred, altered, or double vision
  • Severe symptoms
  • Symptoms of acute CNS depression:
  • Decreased heart rate
  • Respiratory rate less than 10 breaths per minute
  • Severe confusion or memory loss
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Lack of criteria
  • Blue lips or fingers
  • Irritability and aggression
  • Cold or clammy skin
  • Sudden and intense mood change
  • Slow reactions

If a person has any of these symptoms, they should seek medical attention immediately. Lastly, severe symptoms can lead to unresponsiveness, coma, and death.

Long-term effects: Continued use of some CNS depressants is harmful in the long term because the body cannot excrete these substances.

Effects can include:

  • Thinking, memory, and judgment problems.
  • Confusion and confusion
  • Muscular weakness
  • Loss of coordination
  • Speak slow

Also, a person may need more and more medications to experience the same benefits. This leads to a greater dependence on needs. Some people may need rehabilitation treatment to stop taking medicine.

Severely depressed CNS can lead to forgetfulness or coma. Without prompt treatment, it can be fatal.

Causes central nervous system depression?

Some drugs affect the neurotransmitters in your brain, causing brain activity to decrease. It makes your breathing slow and shallow. Slow heart rate.

Common causes of central nervous system depression are the use of drugs, medications, or alcohol. Initially, they cause a mild stimulating effect or a sensation of pleasure. But make no mistake about it, these substances are CNS depressants. Some specific antidepressants:

Barbiturates: They are sometimes prescribed before surgery. They can also be used as anticonvulsants. Because they are so powerful, they are not currently prescribed for anxiety and insomnia.

Medicines of this group:

  • Mephoborbital (Mabral)
  • Sodium Pentobarbital (Nembutal)
  • Phenobarbital (luminal sodium)
  • Benzodiazepines

These medications, which are considered safer than barbiturates, are prescribed to treat anxiety and insomnia. There are many benzodiazepines, which you may have heard of:

  • Alprazolam (Genox)
  • Diazepam (volume)
  • Triazolam (holcian)
  • Opiates
  • They are usually prescribed for pain. Common opioids include:
  • Codeine
  • Hydrocodone (Vicodin)
  • Morphine (Kadian)
  • Oxycodone (Percocet)
  • Heroin is also an opiate.
  • Sleeping pills
  • Some sleep aids also fall into this category. In addition to:
  • Eszopiclone (Lunesta)
  • Jaleplan (Sonata)
  • Zolpidem (Ambien)

In small doses, these medications can slow down brain function and cause a feeling of calm or sleepiness. An overdose can reduce your heart and breathing rates. Risk when the CNS slows down too much, which can lead to loss of consciousness, coma, and death.

Combining alcohol with other central nervous system depression patients improves its effectiveness and, in many cases, can be fatal.

Medical causes: Central nervous system depression can also be caused by serious health events.

Chronic medical conditions can lead to CNS depression. These include:

  • Diabetes
  • Thyroid problems
  • Liver disease
  • Nephropathy

Direct injury to the brain can also cause CNS depression. These include:

  • Brain aneurysm
  • Tumor
  • Career
  • Infection
  • Injury from a fall or accident.

Any event that causes a decrease in blood flow and oxygen to the brain, such as a severe heart attack, can also lead to CNS depression.

Other reasons

Many other things in your environment can cause central nervous system depression when ingested or inhaled. One of those products is a chemical found in a wide variety of consumer goods, including ethylene glycol, antifreeze, and de-icing products. When taken, this chemical is toxic to the CNS, kidneys, and heart. It can cause serious health problems, including death.

The risk factor of central nervous system depression

When people use CNS depressants, it can be dangerous for several reasons:

  • Dependence
  • Withdrawal symptoms when use is discontinued
  • Overdose
  • Long-term adverse effects

Abuse can occur if one person uses another person’s action medications, takes more than the recommended dose, or uses medications that have not been prescribed by a doctor.

Combining ingredients: The combination of central nervous system depression patients, for example, alcohol with sleeping pills is dangerous. The combination of CNS depressants, opioids, and alcohol increases its effectiveness. There can be serious adverse reactions and fatal consequences.

Sometimes a person may not realize that there is an overdose risk when using opioid pain relievers and then drinking alcohol. First, people should check with their doctor to see if it is safe to take medications for CNS depression and any of the following:


  • Over-the-counter medications with symptoms similar to pain relievers
  • Allergy medications
  • Sleeping aids
  • Tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants (TCAs) also exacerbate the effects of CNS depressants, especially drowsiness.

Dependence and withdrawal: Some CNS depressants become less effective over time, causing the person to feel the need to take larger doses. If they stop using the drug, the original symptoms will return more severe than before. A person who wants to stop using a CNS depressant should do so gradually to avoid adverse effects. Your doctor can help you do this.

Overdose: Central nervous system depression overdose can happen by accident, but people sometimes choose to take more than the recommended dose for a “severe” effect. This can lead to an overdose and death. People deliberately take high doses of these drugs to end their lives.

A person can recover from an overdose, but research in the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology shows that some people continue to have problems with daily functioning after leaving the hospital.

Long-term effects: Some types of central nervous system depression can also have long-term effects, causing someone to have trouble thinking, confusion, speech problems, loss of coordination, and muscle weakness. Addiction to CNS depressants can see a person’s social and family problems, difficulties at work, and the inability to work on a daily basis.

Opioid Crisis: Some Statistics

Since 2000, more than 300,000 Americans have died from opioid overdoses. Data from 2016 estimated at least 64,000 overdose deaths from overdose, the highest number ever recorded in the United States.

Treatment for central nervous system depression

Serious symptoms of central nervous system depression include loss of consciousness, coma, and death. Anyone with these symptoms needs immediate medical attention. Treatment of CNS depression or CNS depression overdose depends on the ingredients.

Some CNS medications contain antidotes that can reverse their effects. These include naloxone for opioid overdose and flumazenil for benzodiazepine overdose. A person may need emergency care if they do not know they are overdosing on CNS depression, especially after accidentally abusing their medicine or due to a medical problem.

Anyone with signs of CNS depression or an overdose in someone else should call emergency services or the local Poison Control Center for guidance.

In these cases, treatment may include:

  • Monitors a person’s heart and breathing rate.
  • Giving oxygen through an oxygen mask or respirator
  • Give stimulant medications to increase a person’s heart rate

Prevention of central nervous system depression

If you have a medical condition that causes central nervous system depression, talk to your doctor. Discuss the best way to maintain your health and how to identify complications from your illness in advance.

When your doctor prescribes an action ointment, make sure you understand its purpose and how long it will take. Ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain the potential risks.

To reduce the chances of CNS depression due to substances, follow these tips:

  • Tell your doctor about other medications you take and any other medical conditions you have, including problems with addiction.
  • Follow directions for taking your medications. Never increase the dose without consulting your doctor. Consult with your doctor when you want to stop taking the medication.
  • When taking CNS depressants, don’t drink alcohol or take other medications that are also CNS depressants.
  • Inform your doctor if you’re having troubling side effects.
  • Never share prescription medications with others. Store medicines, alcohol, and other potentially hazardous materials safely away from children and pets.
General Topics

Symptoms and Treatment for Brain Stem Stroke | Cardiology

What is a brain stem stroke? 

The brain stem stroke regulates breathing, eye movement, facial movement, heart rate, and blood pressure. Sitting just above the spinal cord, the brain stem controls your breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. It also controls your speech, swallowing, hearing, and eye movements. Impulses sent by other parts of the brain travel through the brain stem on their way to various body parts.

We’re dependent on brain stem function for survival. A brain stem stroke threatens vital bodily functions, making it a life-threatening condition. When the blood supply to a part of the brain is cut off, a stroke occurs because the blocked artery or blood vessels are leaking. The brainstem is located at the base of the brain and is responsible for receiving and transmitting information throughout the body.

The brain stem regulates essential bodily functions, namely:

  • Breathing
  • Swallow
  • Eye movement
  • Facial movement and sensation
  • Listening
  • Heart rate
  • Blood pressure
  • Brain stem strokes affect a person’s basic bodily functions and can lead to chronic problems.

Symptoms of brain stem stroke

Dizziness and loss of balance are common symptoms of a stroke. Because the brain stem regulates different types of motor functions, strokes in this area of the brain can cause a wide variety of symptoms. Brainstem strokes affect important bodily functions, including:

  • Breathing
  • Swallow
  • Heart rate

The brain stem receives different signals from the brain and sends them to different parts of the body. Brainstem strokes interrupt these signals, so people may experience physical symptoms, such as numbness or weakness in the face, arms, or legs.

Other common symptoms of a stroke:

  • Dizziness
  • Loss of balance
  • Vertigo
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Trouble speaking or swallowing
  • Headache
  • Confusion

Stroke syndromes of the brain system

Some stroke syndromes of the brain system have an unrelated set of symptoms because their control is in small concentrated areas of the brain system that share the same blood supply.

Ondine’s curse: Ondine’s curse due to a lower spinal injury affects voluntary breathing.

Weber syndrome: Weber syndrome is a stroke of the midbrain that causes weakness in the front of the body, which is accompanied by weakness of the eyelids and weakness of eye movements.

Blockage syndrome: Blockage syndrome affects strokes and leads to complete paralysis and inability to speak, the ability to move consciousness, and intact eyes. This may be due to a very abnormal salt and fluid balance.

Wallenberg syndrome: Also known as a lateral spinal syndrome, Wallenberg syndrome causes sensory deficits of the face on the same side as stroke and sensory deficits of the body.

Types of brain stem stroke 

There are two main types of strokes, both of which affect the brain stem:

Ischemic stroke:

  • Ischemic strokes occur when blood clots form in narrow arteries in the head or neck and cut off the blood supply to an area of the brain.
  • Ischemic strokes are the most common type, accounting for 87% of all strokes. About 10% of all ischemic strokes affect the brain stem.
  • A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a mini-stroke or warning stroke, when the blood supply to the brain is briefly interrupted. TIAs cause milder symptoms than full ischemic strokes, and most symptoms clear up within an hour.

Brain-vascular hemorrhagic accident:

  • Brain bleeding or hemorrhage occurs when weak blood vessels leak or open, creating swelling and pressure. This stress damages the tissues and cells of the brain.
  • Hemorrhagic strokes are less common than other types of strokes but account for 40 percent of all stroke deaths.

Risk factors of brain stem stroke

High blood pressure increases the risk of stroke. Anyone can have a stroke, but specific genetic factors such as family history, gender, race, and age put some people at higher risk for stroke than others. Women have more strokes than men and are more likely to die from a stroke than men.

Some risk factors specific to women:

  • Use of hormone replacement therapies
  • Long-term use of birth control pills in combination with other risk factors such as smoking
  • The pregnancy
  • People of African American and Hispanic descent are also at risk for stroke.
  • Most strokes occur in people over the age of 65. However, research suggests that the rate of stroke hospitalizations and the presence of risk factors for stroke in young children has increased significantly.

Medical conditions that increase the risk of stroke:

  • Hypertension
  • High cholesterol
  • Atrial fibrillation (AFib)
  • Diabetes
  • is blackberry
  • Heart disease (CVD)
  • Lifestyle risk factors

People cannot control genetic factors, but they can control lifestyle factors that increase the risk of stroke. Behaviors that increase the risk of high blood pressure or clotting increase the risk of stroke.

Behaviors that increase the risk of stroke:

  • Smoke tobacco
  • Excessive drinking
  • Consumption of illicit drugs
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Lack of food 

Diagnosis of brain stem stroke

Brain stem stroke is a fatal medical emergency. If you have symptoms that indicate a stroke, your doctor may order imaging tests such as an MRI, CT scan, Doppler ultrasound, or angiogram. The cardiac function test may include an EKG and an echocardiogram. Additional diagnostic procedures may include blood tests, as well as kidney and liver function tests. 

Treatment for brain stem strokes

When an ischemic stroke occurs, the first line of treatment is clotting or drawing the blood. If a stroke is diagnosed quickly, blood thinners can be given. If possible, a catheter can be used to clot during a procedure called an embolectomy. In some cases, angioplasty and stenting are used to widen and keep the artery open. Bleeding For a stroke, the bleeding must stop.

Sometimes a clip or coil is placed over the aneurysm to stop the bleeding. Medications to reduce clotting may also be needed. During this time, your medical team will need to take extra steps to keep your heart and lungs working. Brain stem stroke is a medical emergency. You need immediate treatment to save lives and reduce the risk of permanent complications.

Treatment depends on the type, location, and severity of the stroke:

Ischemic stroke: In the treatment of ischemic stroke, blood flow is restored through clotting. The methods include the following:

  • Anticoagulant drugs, such as tissue plasminogen activator (T-PA), help dissolve clots and restore blood flow to the affected area.
  • Antiplatelet drugs such as warfarin. The doctor may prescribe aspirin if a person has a lower risk of having a heart attack or stroke and bleeding. Current guidelines do not recommend the use of aspirin as in the past.
  • Endovascular therapy, which is a surgical procedure that involves the use of mechanical reclaimers to clot the blood.
  • Other devices, such as balloons or stents, can be used to open narrow blood vessels and improve blood flow.

Brain-vascular hemorrhagic accident: Treatment of hemorrhagic strokes focuses on controlling bleeding and reducing stress on the brain. Treatment methods:

  • Give medicine to control blood pressure and prevent seizures.
  • Spiral embolization, which is a surgical procedure that helps blood to clot in a weakened vessel. Clotting reduces bleeding and prevents blood vessels from reopening.
  • Once bleeding in the brain has been controlled, doctors can perform surgical procedures to prevent the ruptured blood vessel from bleeding again.

Prevention of brain stem strokes

It is estimated that 80 percent of strokes are preventable. People can reduce their risk of stroke by making the following lifestyle changes:

  • It controls the levels of lipids and cholesterol
  • Control blood pressure with medications and behavior changes
  • Manage medical conditions like diabetes
  • Give up smoking
  • Eat a diet low in fat and sodium
  • Make sure you have plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables in your diet
  • At least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise per week or at least 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic exercise per week
  • Restoration and perspective
  • Brain stem stroke can lead to serious chronic problems. Medications and behavior changes can help reduce the risk of future strokes.
  • Physical therapy improves muscle strength and coordination and ultimately helps people regain lost motor skills.
  • Speech and language and occupational therapy can help people improve their cognitive skills, such as memory, problem-solving, and judgment.
  • Some people with stroke and severe disabilities need counseling to adjust.
General Topics

Congenital Heart Defects in Children – an Overview | Cardiology

What are congenital heart defects in children?

Congenital heart defects in children (CHDs) are the most well-known sort of birth deformity. With advances in medical care and treatment, children with CHD live longer and healthier lives. Find out more facts about coronary heart disease below.

What are congenital heart defects (CHDs)?

Coronary artery disease is present at birth and can affect the structure and functioning of a baby’s heart. It can affect how blood flows through the heart and out to the rest of the body. Coronary artery disease can vary from mild (such as a small hole in the heart) to severe (such as missing or poorly formed parts of the heart).

About 1 in 4 babies born with a heart defect suffer from critical coronary heart disease (also known as a serious congenital heart defect). Babies with critical coronary heart disease need surgery or other procedures in the first year of life.

Types of congenital heart defects in children

Babies and children with all types of congenital heart defects receive expert diagnosis and treatment from specialists at the Pediatric Congenital Heart Program. Congenital heart defects in children occur at birth and affect the heart or blood vessels. Hundreds of heart defects can arise as a baby develops in the womb, and some infants may have more than one. Some defects cause no health challenges for years; in fact, some may never pose a health risk.

However, many infants require treatment with surgery or catheter procedures to repair congenital heart defects in children immediately or in the first few months of life. Others may need medication as a bridge to surgery or other procedures, or as the only therapy to manage symptoms.

Our experts treat babies and children with all types of congenital heart defects in children, including:

  • Aortic valve stenosis
  • Atrial septal defect
  • Ebstein’s anomaly
  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
  • Interrupted aortic arch
  • Coarctation of the aorta
  • Complete atrioventricular canal defect
  • Patent ductus arteriosus
  • Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
  • Transposition of the great arteries
  • Tricuspid atresia
  • Pulmonary valve stenosis
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Truncus arteriosus
  • Ventricular septal defect

Symptoms of congenital heart defects in children

Serious congenital heart defects in children usually appear soon after birth or within the first few months of life. They can include signs and symptoms:

  • Pale gray or blue skin color (cyanosis)
  • Rapid breathing
  • Swelling in the legs, abdomen, or areas around the eyes
  • Shortness of breath during feeding, resulting in poor weight

Less serious congenital heart defects in children may not be diagnosed until later in childhood, because your child may not show any noticeable signs of a problem. If signs and symptoms occur in older children, they may include:

  • Feeling short of breath easily during exercise or activity
  • Fatigue easily during exercise or activity
  • Fainting during exercise or activity
  • Swelling in the hands, ankles, or feet

Causes of congenital heart defects in children

Doctors don’t always know why a child has a congenital heart defect. It tends to run in families. Things that make congenital heart defects in children more likely include:

  • Genetic or chromosomal problems in a child, such as Down syndrome
  • Taking certain medications or alcohol or drug abuse during pregnancy
  • A viral infection, such as rubella (rubella) in the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy

How are heart defects treated?

Youngsters with minor heart deformities may not require any treatment. However, some children suffer from severe symptoms that require medical or surgical treatment during the first year of life. They will be taken care of:

  • Pediatric cardiologists: Doctors who specialize in treating children’s heart problems
  • Pediatric heart surgeons: Specialists in pediatric heart surgery

Procedures performed through cardiac catheterization – such as balloon angioplasty or valvuloplasty – can dilate blood vessels or a blocked valve. Another procedure, blockage of the catheter device, can close abnormal openings or holes in the heart or blood vessels without surgery.

Some problems, such as small or medium-sized ventricular septal defects, may close or get smaller as the child grows. While waiting for the hole to close, the child may have to take medications. Complex Congenital heart defects in children detected early may need a series of processes ending when the child is approximately 3 years old.

Testing and diagnosis of congenital heart disease

Several serious congenital heart diseases are detected during pregnancy, during a routine ultrasound examination. Other conditions may be diagnosed soon after birth. Less serious heart conditions may not be diagnosed until children get older and begin to show certain signs or symptoms of congenital heart disease.

During pregnancy, if your doctor thinks your baby may have CHD, you will likely be referred to a pediatric cardiologist for further testing. The type of diagnostic tests performed will depend on the form of coronary heart disease your child may have. Examples of tests used include a fetal echocardiogram, electrocardiogram (EKG), magnetic resonance imaging of the heart (MRI), and cardiac catheterization. If you are referred to the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, you will be seen through the Heart Center’s Fetal Heart Program.

Risk factors for congenital heart defects in children

Most Congenital heart defects in children are caused by problems early in the development of your baby’s heart, and the cause is unknown. However, some environmental and genetic risk factors may play a role. They include:

  • Rubella (German measles): German measles infection during pregnancy can cause problems with the development of your baby’s heart. Your doctor can test for immunity to this viral disease before pregnancy and vaccinate you against it if you are not immune.
  • You can reduce the risk of Congenital heart defects in children by carefully controlling diabetes before trying to conceive and during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes generally does not increase your baby’s risk of developing a heart defect.
  • Some medications taken during pregnancy may cause birth defects, including congenital heart defects. Provide your doctor with a complete list of all medications you take before trying to conceive.
  • Medicines known to increase the risk of congenital heart defects include thalidomide (Thalomide), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACE), statins, acne medication isotretinoin (Absorica, Amnstim, and Claravis), and lithium.
  • Drinking alcohol during pregnancy: Avoid drinking alcohol during pregnancy because it increases the risk of Congenital heart defects in children.
  • Smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of a congenital heart defect in the baby.
  • Congenital heart defects in children sometimes run in families and may be associated with an inherited syndrome. Many children with Down syndrome – which is caused by an extra chromosome 21 (trisomy 21) – have heart defects. A missing (deleted) piece of genetic material on chromosome 22 also causes heart defects.
  • Genetic testing can detect such disturbances during fetal development. If you already have a baby with a congenital heart defect, a genetic counselor can estimate the odds that your next child will have it.

Complications of congenital heart defects in children

Complications depend on the type of congenital heart defect you have. Include some potential complications:

  • Arrhythmia
  • Blood clots
  • Developmental disorders and delays: Children with congenital heart defects are more likely to have behavior problems. They are also more likely to have speech and attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder.
  • Emotional health issues: Depression, anxiety, and PTSD are common among people with congenital heart defects.
  • Endocarditis: A type of heart inflammation
  • Endocrine disorders: Include thyroid problems, bone health problems, and diabetes. Problems with the hormones that deal with calcium can cause bone problems.
  • Heart failure: Heart failure is the leading cause of death in adults with congenital heart defects. Some children with congenital heart defects develop heart failure.
  • Kidney disease
  • Liver disease
  • Pneumonia: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in adults with congenital heart disease.
  • Pregnancy complications: Women with congenital heart defects are at increased risk of developing complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Read more in the Living With section.
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Stroke

Outlook and follow-up care for congenital heart disease

Children with congenital heart disease are monitored by specialists called pediatric cardiologists. These doctors diagnose heart disease and help manage children’s health before and after surgical repair of a heart problem. The specialists who correct heart problems in the operating room are known as pediatric cardiovascular surgeons or cardiothoracic surgeons.

It is imperative that individuals born with congenital heart disease who have reached adulthood transition to the appropriate type of heart care. The type of care required depends on the type of CHD the person has. Generally, people with mild types of Congenital heart defects in children can be cared for by a community adult cardiologist. People with more complex types of coronary heart disease will need care at a center that specializes in adult congenital heart disease, such as the Philadelphia Adult Congenital Heart Center.

How can congenital heart disease be prevented?

Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant can take certain precautions to reduce the risk of having a baby with a congenital heart defect:

  • If you are planning to become pregnant, talk to your doctor about any prescription or over-the-counter medicines you are taking.
  • If you have diabetes, make sure your blood sugar levels are controlled before pregnancy. It is also important to work with your doctor to manage illness during pregnancy.
  • If you have not been vaccinated against rubella or rubella, avoid exposure to the disease and talk to your doctor about prevention options.
  • If you have a family history of congenital heart defects, ask your doctor about genetic testing. Certain genes may contribute to abnormal heart development.
  • Avoid drinking alcohol and using drugs during pregnancy.

Symptoms and Causes of Ventricular Fibrillation | Cardiology

What is Ventricular fibrillation?

Ventricular fibrillation is a serious heart condition that causes abnormal heart rhythms. It can be fatal. For many people with this disorder, irregular heart rhythms are the first and only sign of coronary artery disease.

Ventricular fibrillation (VFib) can be confused with atrial fibrillation (AFib). Both involve irregular heart rhythms but affect different parts of the heart.

Atrial fibrillation can also indicate a serious heart condition, but it is usually a symptom of a chronic problem, not a life-threatening feature in and of itself.

Alternative names

VF; Fibrillation – ventricular; Arrhythmia – VF; Abnormal heart rhythm – VF; Cardiac arrest – VF; Defibrillator – VF; Cardioversion – VF; Defibrillate – VF.

Causes of ventricular fibrillation

Ventricular fibrillation can have several root causes, including:

  • Insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle
  • Damage to the heart muscle (from a heart attack, for sample)
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Problems with the aorta
  • Drug toxicity
  • Sepsis (severe body infection)

Symptoms of ventricular fibrillation

When VF occurs, the two chambers at the bottom of your heart cannot pump with enough force to move blood through your body. These lower chambers are called ventricles. This causes your blood pressure to drop quickly and prevents blood from circulating through your body. As a result, the blood cannot reach your vital organs.

Fainting or loss of consciousness are the most common symptoms of VF; early symptoms include:

  • Chest pain
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Fast, fluttering heartbeat
  • Difficulty breathing

These first symptoms may occur an hour or less before fainting or unconsciousness occurs.

Risk factors for ventricular fibrillation

The most common risk factors are:

  • A weakened heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)
  • A previous or acute heart attack
  • Genetic diseases such as extensive or short QT syndrome, Brugada disease, or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Certain medications that affect heart function
  • Electrolyte abnormalities

Diagnosis of ventricular fibrillation

To diagnose V-fib, your healthcare provider will consider:

  • Your vital marks, such as blood pressure and pulse
  • Heart function tests, such as an EKG
  • Your medical and general health history
  • An explanation of your symptoms that you, a loved one, or a bystander provide
  • A physical exam

Treatment for ventricular fibrillation

  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Prevent new episodes

Ventricular fibrillation should be treated as an extreme emergency. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should be started as quickly as possible. It should be followed by defibrillation (an electric shock to the chest), as soon as the defibrillator is available. Then, medicines used to treat abnormal heart rhythms may be given to help maintain a normal heart rhythm.

When ventricular fibrillation happens within hours after a heart attack in people who are not in shock and do not have heart disappointment, immediate cardioversion restores normal rhythm in 95% of people and the prognosis is good. Shock and heart failure propose severe damage to the ventricles. If the ventricles are severely damaged, even direct cardioversion has only a 30% success rate, and 70% of people who are resuscitated die without regaining normal function.

People who are successfully resuscitated from ventricular fibrillation and survive are at high risk for another episode. If ventricular fibrillation is caused by a rescindable disorder, that disorder is treated. Otherwise, most people have an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) surgically implanted to correct the problem if it recurs. ICDs continuously monitor the heart rate and rhythm, automatically detect ventricular fibrillation, and deliver a shock to convert the arrhythmia to a normal rhythm. These people are also often given medications to prevent recurrences.


If you have a first-degree relative (parent, brother, or child) with an inherited heart condition (congenital heart disease), talk to your doctor about genetic screening. Early identification of an inherited heart problem can guide preventive care and reduce the risk of complications.


People who have survived VF may be in a coma or have long-term damage to the brain or other organs.


Overview of Peripartum cardiomyopathy | Cardiology 

What is peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM)?

Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare heart failure. It occurs during pregnancy or straightaway after delivery. This condition weakens the heart muscle and causes the heart to dilate. As a result, the heart does not pump blood decently to the rest of the body.

PPCM is similar to dilated cardiomyopathy in that it affects the left ventricle of the heart. The main pumping chamber of the heart is: pumping blood from the heart and to the rest of the body. Normally, the left ventricle sends blood from the heart efficiently with enough pressure to reach all parts of the body.

In PPCM, the left ventricular chamber expands. As the ventricle becomes larger than normal, the muscle wall expands and becomes thinner. It weakens your muscles, which means you work less. This causes less blood to be expelled from the heart and less energy than usual. Inadequate blood circulation causes fluid to build up in the tissues, especially the lungs, which means that less oxygen is available to the body’s organs. This effect is called “heart failure” when it causes symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and extreme fatigue because the heart does not meet the body’s normal oxygen demands.

Symptoms of Peripartum cardiomyopathy

The symptoms of peripartum cardiomyopathy are similar to the symptoms of heart failure. You can experience:

  • Fast heartbeat or palpitations
  • Chest pain
  • Excessive fatigue
  • Fatigue during physical activity
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Swelling of the feet and ankles
  • Increased urination at night

Causes of Peripartum cardiomyopathy

During pregnancy, your heart sends 50 percent more blood. This is because you need to transfer oxygen and essential nutrients to your growing baby. There is no definite cause for peripartum cardiomyopathy. However, doctors believe that this condition occurs when excessive blood pumping is combined with other risk factors. This combination puts additional pressure on the heart.

Risk factors for Peripartum cardiomyopathy

A variety of risk factors increase your chances of developing this condition, including:

  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Personal history of heart disease, including myocarditis
  • Malnutrition
  • Of smoking
  • Alcoholism
  • Multiple pregnancies
  • Those over 30
  • Medications for preterm labor 

How is peripartum cardiomyopathy diagnosed?

Your doctor will review your symptoms and perform a physical exam. A device called a stethoscope helps the doctor listen for cracking sounds in the lungs and abnormal sounds in the heart. Your doctor will also monitor your blood pressure. It can be lower than normal and can drop significantly when you stand up.

Different types of imaging tests can measure your heart rate. These tests also determine the speed of blood flow. Some lung and lung damage can also be seen on these imaging tests. Exams may include:

  • X-ray of the whole chest
  • CT scan to obtain detailed images of the heart
  • Nuclear heart scan to show the heart chambers
  • Sound waves (echocardiogram) to create moving images of the heart

What are the treatment options for peripartum cardiomyopathy?

Women who develop this condition stay in the hospital until their symptoms are under control. And your doctor will recommend treatment based on the severity of your condition. Peripartum cardiomyopathy heart damage is irreversible. However, a damaged heart can still function for a long time, depending on the severity of the damage. The severity of the damage also determines whether a heart transplant is necessary.

The outlook for women with peripartum cardiomyopathy is good for those whose hearts return to normal size after delivery. It happens to 30-50 percent of women. In all cases, 4% of patients require a heart transplant and 9% die as a result of the heart transplant procedure.

In severe cases, doctors may recommend a heart transplant or a heart balloon pump. However, for most women, symptoms are controlled and reduced during treatment.

Your doctor may prescribe the following medications to control your symptoms:

  • Beta-blockers: Drugs that lower blood pressure and improve blood flow by blocking the hormone adrenaline
  • Digitalis: Medications that strengthen the heart to improve pumping and circulation
  • Diuretics: Medications that lower blood pressure by removing excess water and salt from the body

Women with this condition must also follow a low-salt diet to maintain blood pressure. They should completely avoid alcohol and tobacco products. These products can make symptoms worse.

Peripartum cardiomyopathy can affect your health for the rest of your life, even after successful treatment. Follow up with regular check-ups and take all prescribed medications.

What are the complications associated with peripartum cardiomyopathy?

Serious problems are:

  • Arrhythmia
  • Blood clots, especially in the lungs.
  • Circulatory heart failure
  • Death


Certain lifestyle habits can lower your risk. This is especially important for new moms. Attention:

  • Exercise regularly
  • Eat a low-fat diet
  • Avoiding cigarettes
  • Avoiding alcohol

Women diagnosed with peripartum cardiomyopathy are at increased risk of developing this condition in future pregnancies. In these cases, women may consider taking birth control to prevent pregnancy.


Treatment and Diagnosis of Sciatica | Neurology

What is sciatica?

Sciatica is an indication of pain that radiates along the path of the sciatic nerve, which branches from the lower back through the hips and glutes and down each leg. Sciatica usually affects only one side of your body.

Sciatica occurs most often when a herniated disc, a bone spur in the spine, or narrowing of the spine (spinal stenosis) compresses part of the nerve. This causes swelling, pain, and often some deadness in the affected leg.

Although the pain associated with sciatica can be severe, most cases resolve with non-surgical treatments within a few weeks. People who have severe sciatica associated with significant leg weakness or bladder or bowel changes may be candidates for surgery.

Alternate name

  • Sciatic neuritis

Symptoms of sciatica

Pain that discharges from the lower spine (lumbar) to the buttock and back of the leg is the symbol of sciatica. You may feel the discomfort almost somewhere along the nerve path, but it likely to follow a path from the lower back to the buttock and the back of the thigh and calf.

Pain can vary widely, from a mild ache to a sharp burning impression or excruciating pain. Sometimes it can feel like a shock or electric shock. It can be worse when you cough or sneeze, and sitting for a long time can make symptoms worse. Typically only one side of your body is affected.

Some people also have shudder, tingling, or muscle weakness in the affected leg or foot. You may feel pain in one part of your leg and impassiveness in another part.

Sciatica occurs when the sciatic nerve is pinched, usually by a herniated disc in the spine or by an overgrowth of bone (bone spur) in the vertebrae. More rarely, the nerve can be compacted by a tumor or damaged by a disease such as diabetes.

Causes of sciatica

Sciatica occurs when the sciatic nerve is pinched, typically by a herniated disc in the spine or by an overgrowth of bone (bone spur) in the vertebrae. More rarely, the nerve can be compacted by a tumor or damaged by a disease such as diabetes.

Risk factors

Risk factors for sciatica include:

  • Years. Age-related changes in the spine, such as herniated discs and bone spurs, are the most common causes of sciatica.
  • Obesity. By collective stress on the spine, excess body weight can add to the spinal changes that trigger sciatica.
  • Occupation. A job that requires you to turn your back, carry heavy loads, or drive a motor vehicle for long periods of time can affect sciatica, but there is no conclusive evidence for this link.
  • Sitting for a long time. People who sit for long periods or have a sedentary lifestyle are more likely to develop sciatica than active people.
  • Diabetes. This disorder, which affects the way your body uses blood sugar, raises your risk of nerve damage.

Diagnosis of sciatica

During the physical exam, your doctor can monitor your muscle strength and reflexes. For example, you may be asked to walk on your toes or heels, get up from a squat, and while lying on your back, raise your legs one at a time. The pain that results from sciatica will generally get worse during these activities.

Imaging tests

Many people have herniated discs or bone limbs that will show up on X-rays and other imaging tests, but have no signs. Therefore, doctors do not usually order these tests unless the pain is severe or does not improve within a few weeks.

  • Bone scan. An X-ray of the spine may reveal an overgrowth of bone (bone spur) that may be demanding on a nerve.
  • MRI. This way uses a powerful magnet and radio waves to produce cross-sectional images of your back. An MRI produces detailed images of bones and soft tissues, such as herniated discs. During the test, you lie on a table that is moved toward the MRI machine.
  • Computed tomography. When a CT scan is used to image the spine, you may have a contrast dye injected into your spinal canal before the x-rays are taken, a procedure called a CT myelogram. The dye then circulates around the spinal cord and spinal nerves, which appear white on examination.
  • Electromyography (EMG). This test measures the electrical impulses produced by your nerves and the responses of your muscles. This test can confirm nerve compression caused by herniated discs or narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis)

Treatment for sciatica

If your pain does not improve with self-care measures, your doctor may suggest some of the following treatments.


The types of medications that may be prescribed for sciatica pain include:

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Muscle relaxants
  • Narcotics
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Anti-seizure drugs

Physical therapy

Once your acute pain recovers, your doctor or physical therapist can design a rehabilitation program to help avoid future injuries. This generally includes exercises to correct your posture, strengthen the muscles that support your back, and improve your flexibility.

Steroid injections

In some cases, your doctor may recommend injecting a corticosteroid medicine into the area around the affected nerve root. Corticosteroids help reduce pain by suppressing irritation around the irritated nerve. The effects typically wear off in a few months. The number of steroid injections you can receive is limited because the risk of serious side effects increases when the injections occur too often.


This option is usually kept for when the compressed nerve causes significant faintness, loss of bowel or bladder control, or when you have pain that progressively worsens or does not improve with other therapies. Surgeons can remove the bone spur or the part of the herniated disc that is pressing on the pinched nerve.


Although most people make a full recovery from sciatica, often without treatment, sciatica can potentially cause permanent nerve damage. Seek immediate medical attention if you have:

  • Loss of sensation in the affected leg
  • Weakness in the affected leg
  • Loss of bowel or bladder function


Sciatica cannot always be prevented, and the condition may recur. The following can play a key role in protecting your back:

  • Exercise regularly. To keep your back strong, pay special helpfulness to the core muscles – the muscles in the abdomen and lower back that are important for proper posture and alignment. Ask your doctor to commend detailed activities.
  • Maintain proper posture when sitting. Choose a seat with good lower back support, armrests, and a swivel base. Reflect placing a pillow or rolled towel on your lower back to maintain your normal curve. Keep your knees and hips level.
  • Use good body mechanics. If you are standing for long periods, rest one foot on a stool or small box from time to time. When lifting something heavy, let your lower edges do the work. Move up and down. Keep your back traditional and bend only your knees. Keep the load close to your body. Avoid lifting and turning simultaneously. Find a partner to lift if the object is heavy or uncomfortable.

Prevention of Enlarged Heart (Cardiomegaly) | Cardiology

What is an enlarged heart (cardiomegaly)?

An enlarged heart (cardiomegaly) means that your heart is larger than normal. Your heart expands if the muscles work too hard or the chambers expand. An enlarged heart is not a disease. It is a symptom of a heart defect or condition that causes the heart to become harder, such as cardiomyopathy, heart valve problems, or high blood pressure.

An enlarged heart does not pump blood as efficiently as an enlarged heart. This can lead to problems like stroke and heart failure. Certain conditions can cause the heart muscle to thicken, leaving one of the heart’s chambers larger. Depending on the condition, the enlarged heart can be temporary or permanent. An enlarged heart can be treated by correcting the cause. Treatment for an enlarged heart may include medications, medical procedures, or surgery.

Types of an enlarged heart

The heart enlarges because of damage to the heart muscle. Up to a point, an enlarged heart can still pump blood normally. As the condition progresses, though, the heart’s pumping ability declines. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the main type of enlarged heart. The walls of both sides (also known as ventricles) become thin and stretched. This enlarges your heart.

In the other types, the muscular left ventricle becomes very thick. High blood pressure may cause your left ventricle to enlarge (a type known as hypertrophy). The thickening (which doctors call hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) can also be inherited. An enlarged heart keeps more of its pumping ability when it’s “thick” rather than “thin.”

What are the symptoms of an enlarged heart?

Sometimes an enlarged heart doesn’t cause any symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they include:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
  • Swelling of the legs and ankles due to increased fluid (edema)
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness

Symptoms that indicate a medical emergency:

  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty holding your breath
  • Pain in the arms, back, neck, or jaw.
  • Epilepsy

Causes of an enlarged heart

An enlarged heart is caused by conditions that cause your heart to pump harder than normal or damage your heart muscle. Sometimes the heart becomes enlarged and weak for unknown reasons. This is called idiopathic cardiomegaly. Damage from a congenital (congenital) heart condition, a heart attack, or an abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia) can cause your heart to dilate. Other conditions associated with an enlarged heart include:

  • Hypertension: Your heart needs to pump hard to supply blood to the rest of your body, to stretch and tighten your muscles.
  • High blood pressure: Causes the left ventricle to dilate, eventually weakening the heart muscle. High blood pressure also expands the chambers above the heart.
  • Heart valve disease: The four valves in your heart allow blood to flow in the right direction. If the valves are damaged due to conditions such as rheumatic fever, heart defects, infections (infective endocarditis), irregular heartbeats (atrial fibrillation), connective tissue disorders, certain medications, or radiation treatments for cancer, your heart may enlarge.
  • Cardiomyopathy: This heart disease makes it difficult for your heart to pump blood throughout your body. As it develops, you can try to pump more blood into the vagina.
  • High blood pressure in the artery connecting the heart and lungs (pulmonary hypertension). Your heart needs to be pumped hard to move blood between your lungs and your heart. As a result, it can expand to the right side of your heart.
  • Fluid around your heart (pericardial effusion): Fluid buildup in the sac that contains your heart makes your heart appear enlarged on a chest X-ray.
  • Blocked arteries in your heart (coronary artery disease): With this condition, fatty plaque in the coronary arteries blocks blood flow through the coronary arteries, leading to a heart attack. When a section of the heart muscle dies, your heart must pump hard to get enough blood to the rest of your body, causing it to expand.
  • Low red blood cell count (anemia): Anemia is a condition in which there are not enough healthy red blood cells to carry enough oxygen to the tissues. Untreated chronic anemia can cause a fast or irregular heartbeat. Your heart needs to pump more blood so there is no oxygen in the blood.
  • Thyroid disorders: Both a dysfunctional thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) and an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) can lead to heart problems, including an enlarged heart.
  • Excess iron in the body (hemochromatosis): Hemochromatosis is a disorder in which your body does not metabolize iron properly, which occurs in various organs, including the heart. It causes enlargement of the left ventricle due to the weakening of the heart muscle.
  • Rare diseases that affect your heart, such as amyloidosis: Amyloidosis is an abnormal protein that circulates in the blood and can build up in the heart, disrupting the heart’s function and causing it to expand.

Diagnosis of an enlarged heart

An early diagnosis of an enlarged heart is very necessary to control or improve the condition. On a physical exam, the doctor may hear abnormal heart sounds or fluid in the lungs or swelling in the legs, ankles, or abdomen. Advanced tests to carefully diagnose, treat, and monitor the condition effectively include:

  • Blood tests: Blood tests measure the levels of certain fats, cholesterol, sugar, and proteins in the blood, which indicate heart conditions.
  • Cardiac catheterization: A long, thin flexible tube is inserted through a blood vessel in the arm or groin and into the heart. The contrast material is injected through a tube and a kind of X-ray video is taken to show how the heart is working and to see the heart block. A small piece of the heart tissue may be taken for laboratory analysis.
  • Chest X-ray: A simple imaging test of the lungs, lungs, heart, and aorta.
  • Computed tomography (CT) angiography: This non-invasive exam shows the arteries in the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. This test is especially useful in patients with pacemakers or stents.
  • Echocardiogram: This ultrasound test uses sound waves to take moving images of the heart’s chambers and valves.
  • Electrocardiogram (EKG): An EKG measures the electrical activity of the heart and can detect an enlarged heart and determine whether the heart is overactive or damaged. The electrical currents of the heart are detected by 12 to 15 electrodes through the adhesive tape on the arms, legs, and chest.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): A large magnet, radio waves, and a computer are used to create images of the heart and blood vessels.
  • Stress test: This test is done while you exercise. If a person is unable to exercise, medications are given to increase the heart rate. In addition to the ECG, the test shows changes in blood pressure along with heart rate, rhythm, or electrical activity. Exercise-The heart works harder and beats faster when heart tests are done.

How enlarged heart is treated?

Your doctor will prescribe a treatment plan for the condition that is causing your heart. For example:

  • Hypertension: ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and beta-blockers
  • Irregular heart rhythm: Antiarrhythmic drugs, pacemakers, and implanted automatic defibrillator (ICD)
  • Heart valve problems: Surgery to repair or replace a damaged valve
  • Narrow coronary arteries: Percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), and nitrates
  • Heart failure: Diuretics, beta-blockers, inotropes, and, in some minorities, the left ventricular assist device (LVAD)
  • Other approaches can address congenital heart defects. If you try some treatments and they don’t work, you may need a heart transplant.

Changes in lifestyle

With lifestyle changes like these, you can maintain an enlarged heart:

  • Exercise: Exercise most days of the week. Ask your doctor what types of exercises are safe for you.
  • Give up smoking: Techniques like nicotine restoration products and treatment can help stop it.
  • Lose weight: Weight loss will be followed by constant fatigue and tiredness.
  • Limit certain foods: Limit salt, cholesterol, and saturated and trans fats in your diet.
  • Avoid certain things: Drugs such as alcohol, caffeine, and cocaine should be avoided.
  • Chill out: Follow relaxation techniques like meditation or yoga to reduce stress.

Enlarged heart complications

The risk of complications from an enlarged heart depends on the enlarged part of the heart and the cause.

Problems with an enlarged heart include:

  • Heart failure: An enlarged left ventricle, one of the most serious types of enlarged heart, increases the risk of heart failure. In heart failure, the heart muscle weakens and the ventricles dilate (dissociate) until the heart can efficiently pump blood throughout the body.
  • Blood clots: Having an enlarged heart is more likely to cause blood clots in the lining of the heart. If clots enter the bloodstream, they can block blood flow to vital organs and even cause a heart attack or stroke. A clot on the right side of your heart can travel to your lungs, a dangerous condition called a pulmonary embolism.
  • Heart murmur: For people whose hearts are enlarged, two of the four heart valves, the mitral and tricuspid valves, do not close properly because they rupture, causing backflow of blood. This flow creates sounds called heart murmurs. Although it is not necessarily harmful, your doctor should monitor your heart murmurs.
  • Cardiac arrest and sudden death: Sometimes an enlarged heart can lead to heart rhythm interruptions. Heart rhythms that allow the heart to beat too slow or too fast to move blood can lead to epilepsy or, in some cases, cardiac arrest or sudden death.

Prevention of enlarged heart

  • Tell your doctor if you have a family history of conditions that can cause an enlarged heart, such as cardiomyopathy. If cardiomyopathy or other heart conditions are diagnosed early, treatments can prevent the disease from getting worse.
  • Controlling risk factors for coronary artery disease (smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes) can help reduce the risk of heart enlargement and heart failure by reducing the risk of a heart attack.
  • Eating a healthy diet and avoiding alcohol abuse or illicit drug use can help lower your chances of heart failure. Controlling high blood pressure with diet, exercise, and possibly medication can prevent many people with an enlarged heart from stopping.

Recovery after dilated heart surgery

The length of your hospital stay depends on the process.

  • After a coronary artery bypass graft, you spend a day or two in the intensive care unit and another three to five days in another unit before returning home. Full recovery can take 6 to 12 weeks. Your doctor will tell you when you are physically active again, return to work, or resume sexual activity.
  • Recovery after ventricular assist device surgery depends on your condition before surgery. You spend a day or two in the intensive care unit and another three to five days in another unit before going home. You make a slow transition from the hospital to the home, which may be the first day you are home, but you return to the hospital that night. Your doctor will advise you on activities you can participate in until you fully recover.
  • After heart valve surgery, you will spend one to two days in the intensive care unit and three to five days in another unit before going home. Full recovery can take 6 to 12 weeks. Your doctor will tell you when to be active again.
  • After heart transplant surgery, you spend several days in the intensive care unit before going home and several weeks in another unit. After discharge, you must be very close to the hospital for the first six weeks for frequent subsequent visits and lab tests. Your doctor will advise you on activities you can participate in until you fully recover.

Pulmonary Atresia Treatments and Preventive Options | Cardiology

What is pulmonary atresia?

Pulmonary atresia is a congenital heart defect that is usually diagnosed immediately after birth. In pulmonary atresia, the valve that allows blood from the heart to go to your or your baby’s lungs (pulmonary valve) does not form properly. Instead of opening and closing so blood can travel from the heart to the lungs, a solid sheet of tissue is formed. Therefore, the blood does not travel through its normal way to take oxygen from the lungs. Instead, some blood travels to the lungs and lungs through the heart and other natural components in your arteries.

These passages are necessary as your baby develops in the womb, and they usually close immediately after birth. Children with pulmonary atresia often have a blue cast on their skin because they are not getting enough oxygen. Pulmonary atresia is a life-threatening condition. Procedures to correct your baby’s heart condition and medications to help your baby’s heart work more efficiently are the first steps in treating pulmonary atresia.

Symptoms of pulmonary atresia

Symptoms of pulmonary atresia usually appear in the first hours or days of the baby’s life and may include:

  • Fast breathing
  • Blue on the skin, especially on the lips, fingers, and toes.
  • Cold, pale, or burning skin
  • Respiratory problems
  • Fatigue or tiredness
  • Irritated
  • Bad nutrition

Causes of pulmonary atresia

There is no cause for pulmonary atresia. To understand the problems caused by pulmonary atresia, it helps to know how the heart works.

How does the heart work

The heart is divided into four hollow chambers, two on the right and two on the left. In performing its basic function, pumping blood throughout the body, the heart uses its left and right sides for different tasks. The right side of the heart carries blood to the lungs through vessels called pulmonary arteries. In the lungs, the blood carries oxygen and returns to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins. Your baby sends blood through the aorta to the left side of the heart to supply oxygen to the body and the rest of the body.

Blood moves in one direction through your baby’s heart through valves that open and close when the heartbeats. The valve that allows your baby to draw oxygen from the heart and lungs to the lungs is called the pulmonary valve. In pulmonary atresia, the pulmonary valve does not develop properly, preventing it from opening. Blood does not flow from the right ventricle to the lungs.

Before birth, a malformed valve is not fatal because the placenta provides oxygen to your baby instead of the lungs. Blood entering the right side of your baby’s heart passes through the hole (foramen ovale) between the upper chambers of your baby’s heart, whereby oxygen-rich blood is pumped through the aorta to the rest of your baby’s body. After birth, your baby’s lungs need to supply her body with oxygen. In pulmonary atresia, without a functioning pulmonary valve, the blood must find another way to get to your baby’s lungs.

Foremen’s ovary usually closes immediately after birth, but remains open in pulmonary atresia. Newborns also have a temporary connection between the aorta and the pulmonary artery (ductus arteriosus). This route allows oxygen to travel through the lungs to the lungs, where your baby can take in oxygen to supply the body. The ductus arteriosus usually closes immediately after birth, but it can be left open with medication.

In some cases, there may be a second hole in the tissue that separates the main pumping chambers of your baby’s heart, called a ventricular septal defect (VSD). VSD allows blood to pass through the right ventricle to the left ventricle. Children with pulmonary atresia and VSD often have additional abnormalities in the lungs and the arteries that carry blood to the lungs. Without VSD, the right ventricle receives less blood flow before birth and often does not fully develop. This is a condition known as pulmonary atresia with the intact ventricular septum (PA / IVS).

Risk factors for pulmonary atresia

In most cases, the exact cause of a congenital heart defect such as pulmonary atresia is unknown. However, there are several factors that increase the risk of having a baby with congenital heart defects, including:

  • Parents with congenital heart disease
  • That delays the mother before conception
  • Smoking before or during pregnancy
  • A mother who does not adequately control her diabetes.
  • The use of certain types of medications during pregnancy, such as some acne medications and blood pressure medications.

Diagnosis of pulmonary atresia

Tests to diagnose pulmonary atresia may include:

  • Bone scan: X-rays show the size and shape of your baby’s internal tissues, bones, and organs. This will help your pediatrician see the extent of your baby’s pulmonary atresia.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): In this test, sensor pads attached to wires (electrodes) measure the electrical impulses that your child’s heart gives off. This test detects any abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia or dysrhythmia) and shows the tension of the heart muscle.
  • Echocardiogram: In an echocardiogram, sound waves create detailed images of your child’s heart. Your pediatrician will usually use an echocardiogram to diagnose pulmonary atresia. Before delivering your baby (fetal echocardiogram), your doctor can diagnose your baby’s pulmonary atresia using an echocardiogram of your abdomen.
  • Cardiac catheterization: In this test, your pediatrician will insert a thin, flexible tube (catheter) into the blood vessel in your baby’s groin and guide your baby’s heart using X-ray images. This test provides complete information about the structure of your heart. baby and his heart, pulmonary artery, and aortic blood pressure and oxygen levels. Your pediatrician may inject a special dye into the catheter so that the arteries are visible under the X-ray.

Treatment of pulmonary atresia

Your child will need emergency medical help once symptoms of pulmonary atresia develop. The choice of surgeries or procedures depends on the severity of your child’s condition.


An intravenous drug called prostaglandin prevents the closure of the natural connection (ductus arteriosus) between the pulmonary artery and the aorta. This is not a permanent solution, but it will give your doctor more time to decide what type of surgery or procedure is best for your child.

Catheterization procedures

In some cases, it can be repaired through a long, thin tube (catheter) that is inserted into a large vein in your baby’s groin and connected to the heart. These policies include:

  • Balloon atrial septostomy: A balloon can be used to expand the natural hole (foramen ovale) in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart. This hole usually closes immediately after birth. Expanding this increases the amount of blood available to travel to the blood vessels.
  • Stent placement: Your pediatrician can place a stent tube at the natural connection between the aorta and the pulmonary artery (ductus arteriosus). This opening usually closes immediately after birth. Keeping it open allows blood to travel to the lungs.

Heart surgery

The surgical repair needed depends on the size of your child’s right ventricle and pulmonary artery. Babies with pulmonary atresia often require heart operations over time. Some examples:

  • Maneuvers: Creating a shunt (shunt) of the main blood vessels leading from the heart (aorta) to the pulmonary arteries allows adequate blood flow to the lungs. However, babies usually get over this shunt within a few months.
  • Glenn’s approach: In this surgery, one of the large veins that normally returns blood to the heart is connected directly to the pulmonary artery. Another large vein continues to supply blood to the right side of the heart, which sends it through a surgically repaired pulmonary valve. This helps the right ventricle grow.
  • Fonton approach: If the right ventricle is too small to be useful, surgeons can create a pathway using the Fontaine procedure, which, if not most, allows blood to flow directly into the pulmonary artery.
  • Heart transplant: In some cases, the heart is too damaged to repair and a heart transplant may be necessary.

Future treatments

Pulmonary atresia is likely to be repaired one day with fetal surgery during pregnancy. A recent small study has shown good results, but more research is needed.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Here are some tips for caring for your child after you return home from the hospital:

  • Make regular subsequent appointments with your pediatrician: Your baby will need regular appointments with a doctor trained in congenital heart conditions. These appointments should continue even as your child grows older. Ask your pediatrician how often to see your child.
  • Help your child stay active: Encourage regular play and activities that your child can tolerate, with plenty of opportunities for rest and sleep. Being active can help keep your child heart-healthy. As your child grows, talk with a cardiologist about what activities are best for him.
  • Keep up with routine well-child care: Standard vaccinations are encouraged for children with congenital heart defects, as well as vaccines against the flu, pneumonia, and respiratory syncytial virus infections.
  • Preventive antibiotics: Your child’s cardiologist may recommend that your child take preventive antibiotics before certain dental and other procedures to prevent bacteria from entering the bloodstream and infecting the inner lining of the heart (infective endocarditis). Practicing good oral hygiene — brushing and flossing teeth, getting regular dental checkups — is another good way of preventing infection.


  • Without treatment, pulmonary atresia is almost always fatal. Even after surgical repairs, you should carefully monitor your child’s health for any changes that may indicate a problem.
  • People with structural heart problems such as pulmonary atresia have a higher risk of developing endocarditis than the general population. Infective endocarditis is an inflammation of the valves and lining of the heart caused by a bacterial infection.
  • Even after treatment, people born with pulmonary atresia appear to be at higher risk for certain heart problems, such as abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia) and heart failure in adults.

Prevention of pulmonary atresia

Since the exact cause of pulmonary atresia is unknown, it may not be possible to prevent it. However, there are some things you can do to lower your baby’s risk of congenital heart defects, including:

  • Manage chronic medical conditions: If you have diabetes, controlling your blood sugar can lower your risk of heart disease. If you have other chronic conditions, such as high blood pressure or epilepsy, and you need medications, talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of these medications.
  • Do not smoke: Smoking cigarettes during pregnancy increases the risk of heart defects in your baby.
  • Maintain a healthy weight: If you’re obese, you have a higher risk of having a baby with a congenital heart defect.
  • Get a German measles (rubella) vaccine: If you develop German measles during pregnancy, it may affect your baby’s heart development. Being vaccinated before you try to conceive likely eliminates this risk. However, no link has been shown between rubella and the development of pulmonary atresia.

Prevention of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) | Neurology

What is chronic fatigue syndrome?

  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder considered by extreme fatigue or tiredness that does not go away with rest and cannot be explained by an underlying medical condition.
  • CFS may also be called myalgic encephalomyelitis (MS) or systemic stress intolerance disease (SEID).
  • The causes of chronic fatigue syndrome are not yet fully understood. Some theories include viral infection, psychological stress, or a mixture of factors.
  • Because no single cause has been identified, and because many other conditions produce similar symptoms, CFS can be problematic to diagnose.
  • There is no testing for CFS. Your doctor will have to rule out other causes of your fatigue when determining a diagnosis.
  • While CFS was previously a controversial diagnosis, it is now widely accepted as a medical condition.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome can affect anyone, although it is most common among women in their 40s and 50s. There is currently no cure, but treatment can relieve symptoms.

Causes of chronic fatigue syndrome

The cause of CFS is unknown. There may be more than one cause. It is possible that two or more triggers work together to cause the disease.

Symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome

Myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME / CFS) is about more than feeling tired all the time. It comes with many other symptoms that can make managing daily life difficult. Even simple things like walking to the mailbox or writing a letter can make things worse. Fatigue and symptoms can last 6 months or they can last for years. Sleep and rest don’t make it better either. A doctor can help relieve your symptoms, but you must first receive a diagnosis.

If you have ME / CFS, you will have these three “core” symptoms:

  • Reduced ability to perform usual activities for six months or more due to fatigue
  • Worsening of symptoms (difficulty thinking, trouble sleeping, sore throat, headaches, feeling dizzy or very tired). after regular physical or mental activity
  • Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep

Along with all three symptoms, you must have one of these for a chronic fatigue syndrome diagnosis:

  • Problems with thinking and memory
  • Worsening of symptoms when standing or sitting upright; You may feel lightheaded, dizzy, or weak, and you may have blurred vision or see spots.

Diagnosis of  chronic fatigue syndrome

There is no specific test for CFS / ME, so it is diagnosed based on your symptoms and ruling out other conditions that could be causing your symptoms.

  • Your GP will ask about your symptoms and medical history. You may also have blood and urine tests.
  • Since the symptoms of CFS / ME are similar to those of many common illnesses that generally improve on their own, a diagnosis of CFS / ME may be considered if it does not improve as quickly as expected.

Treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS / ME)

Treatment for ME / CFS aims to relieve symptoms. Your treatment will depend on how CFS / ME affects you.

Treatments include:

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
  • A structured exercise program called graded exercise therapy (GET)
  • Medicine to control pain, nausea, and trouble sleeping
  • Most people with CFS get better over time, although some people do not fully recover.

There are also likely to be periods when your symptoms get better or worse. Children and youth with CFS / ME are more likely to make a full recovery.

Risk factors

Factors that can increase your risk of chronic fatigue syndrome include:

  • Years: Chronic fatigue syndrome can occur at any age, but it most often affects young and middle-aged adults.
  • Sex: Women are diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome much more frequently than men, but women may just be more likely to report their symptoms to a doctor.


Possible complications of chronic fatigue syndrome include:

  • Lifestyle restrictions
  • Increase in absences from work
  • Social isolation
  • Depression

Prevention of chronic fatigue syndrome

10 tips to prevent Chronic fatigue syndrome:

  • Avoid overexertion
  • Get your Zzzz
  • Calm stress
  • Zap root diseases
  • Include an extra break at special events
  • Calculate your limits
  • Adopt a reasonable schedule
  • Increase your energy level with food
  • Exercise, but do it wisely
  • Keep your head up