Overview of Cardiac Surgeon | Cardiology

What is a cardiac surgeon?

A cardiac surgeon is also known as a cardiothoracic surgeon or cardiovascular surgeon. The cardiac surgeon is a doctor who specializes in surgical procedures on the heart, lungs, esophagus, and other organs of the chest. This includes surgeons called cardiac surgeons, cardiovascular surgeons, general thoracic surgeons, and congenital cardiac surgeons.

Cardiac surgery is the specialty of medicine for the surgical treatment of pathologies of the heart and thoracic aorta. The spectrum of modern heart surgery can be understood through its late 19th-century history. Since then, cardiac surgery has evolved thanks to the work of many dedicated cardiac surgeons offering even more treatments for different heart conditions. This development continues to this day.

Most of the time, the diagnosis of heart disease begins with your primary care physician, who will refer you to a cardiologist. If your cardiologist decides that you need surgery, he or she will refer you to a heart surgeon who will be a new member of your heart health team.

What does a cardiac surgeon do?

Cardiac surgeons play an important role in the health care team. They work on diseases that occur in the organs within the chest and in the skeletal structures and tissues that make up the chest cavity.

The diagnosis of heart disease begins with the patient’s primary care physician, who then refers the patient to a cardiologist. If your cardiologist decides that you need surgery, he or she will refer you to a cardiothoracic surgeon who will be a new member of your heart health team.

Cardiac surgeons work on diseases that occur in the organs within the chest and in the skeletal structures and tissues that make up the chest cavity.

Difference between a cardiologist and cardiac surgeons

The cardiologist has completed a residency in internal medicine and a fellowship in cardiology. They specialize in the medical or endovascular treatment of heart problems. The cardiac surgeons have completed the general surgical residency and the cardiothoracic fellowship. They specialize in the surgical treatment of cardiac and pulmonary cysts and other intrathoracic problems.

The cardiologist generally evaluates patients with heart problems, manages heart failure, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and can perform echocardiography and endovascular work such as cardiac catheterization and stenting.

The cardiac surgeons remove lungs and other intrathoracic tumors, replace or repair heart valves, and perform other intrathoracic surgical procedures, including bypass grafts and aneurysm repair.

Types of cardiac surgeries

Common types of cardiac surgeries are:

  • Catheter ablation: This procedure uses radio waves or coagulation to silence an abnormal area of ​​the cardiovascular system. The abnormal area is often found during the electrophysiology study. This procedure breaks the problematic electrical circuit that causes an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).
  • Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG): In CABG, the most common heart surgery, the surgeon takes a healthy artery or vein from other parts of the body and connects it to supply blood past the blocked coronary artery. The grafted artery or vein bypasses the blocked part of the coronary artery, creating a new path for blood to flow to the heart muscle. This often happens in more than one coronary artery during a single surgery. CABG is sometimes called heart bypass surgery or coronary artery bypass surgery.
  • Heart transplant: A surgical option to treat advanced heart failure, a condition that occurs when the heart cannot pump enough oxygenated blood to meet the needs of the body’s organs.
  • Heart valve replacement: Heart valve surgery and procedures are performed to repair or replace a heart valve that is not working properly due to valvular heart disease (also known as heart valve disease). Heart valve surgery is open-heart surgery in the chest, through the breastbone. It is a major operation that takes two hours or more and can take several weeks to recover. There are newer and less invasive procedures suitable for certain types of heart valve disease, but they are only performed in a few hospitals.
  • Insertion of a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD): Pacemakers and implantable cardiovascular defibrillators (ICD) are small devices that feed the heart through thin, flexible wires called leads. They are placed under the skin, under the collarbone. In most cases, we can place the devices on a patient with minimally invasive techniques (overnight or overnight).
  • Congenital heart surgery: Corrective surgery to correct or treat a genetic heart defect.
  • Valve surgery: Heart valve surgery is open-heart surgery to replace or repair one of the four heart valves. Heart valves regulate one-way blood flow through the four chambers of your heart. Think of them as doors that open and close to allow blood to pass through.
  • Mycctomy/myotomy: This is an operation that surgically removes a thickened wall of the heart. It is used when medications can no longer control the symptoms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

The procedure of cardiac surgeon

Special tubes with a deflated balloon attached to the coronary arteries are threaded. The balloon is inflated to expand blocked areas where blood flow to the heart muscle is reduced or cut off. Often combined with the placement of a stent (see below), it helps open the artery and reduces the chance of another blockage. The body is considered less aggressive because it is not kept open. It ranges from 30 minutes to several hours. You need to stay in the hospital overnight.

Reasons for the procedure are:

  • Hugely increases blood flow through the blocked artery.
  • Decreases chest pain (angina).
  • Increases the strength of physical activity that has been restricted by angina or ischemia.
  • It can also be used to open the jugular and cerebral arteries to prevent stroke.

Future of cardiac surgeon

The future of cardiac surgery will have the potential to improve surgical techniques, innovate treatments, and diversify practice. However, personal development and education often stop slowly or completely after completing the training due to the reluctance of some experienced students to learn new techniques.

Cardiac surgeons must challenge this archetype by enhancing cardiac surgical residency through training methods and expanding clinical skill sets in open, minimally invasive, and percutaneous techniques, simulation training, and recruiting the best and brightest young practitioners. Cardiac surgeons must retrain, stay on the cutting edge of technological advancements, actively participate in future research, and continue to thrive in the ever-changing field of cardiac surgeons.


How is a Spirometry Test Performed | Cardiology

What is spirometry?

Spirometry (Spy-Ram-Uh-Tree) is a simple office test used to assess how well your lungs are working by measuring how much air you breathe, how much you breathe, and how fast you breathe. Spirometry is used to diagnose asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other conditions that affect breathing.

Preparation for a spirometry test?

You should not smoke for an hour before the spirometry test. You should avoid alcohol even that day. Eating too much of a meal can also affect your breathing ability.

Don’t wear tight clothing that restricts your breathing. Your doctor may have instructions on whether to use inhalers or other options before the test.

Procedure of spirometry

You sit in a chair and place the clip over your nose to close your nostrils. Then take a deep breath and inhale into a tube as fast and hard as you can. You need to wrap your lips tightly around the tube to get all the air in. Generally, the test is administered three times each time so that the results are the same.

The tube is connected to a machine called a spirometer. It records how much air your lungs breathe and how fast you breathe. All of this information can help your doctor determine what is causing your breathing problems.

Duration of the test: The spirometry test usually takes 45 minutes. Depending on the waiting time, it may be longer. Ask your doctor if the test will take longer so that you don’t rush or delay other appointments.

Interpreting Results

As soon as your test results are available, your doctor can review them with you at your appointment. Spirometry provides two important measures of lung function:

Forced Key Capacity (FVC): A measure of the amount of air that can be expelled from the lungs with a full breath

Forced expiratory volume (FEV1): The amount of air you exhale from your lungs per second

Risk factors of spirometry

  • Spirometry is a painless test. Most people have no problem with this. Depending on your health, deep breathing can make you feel a little tired or light.
  • If you have heart disease or recent surgery, see your doctor to make sure spirometry is not a problem for you.



Purpose and Stages of Cardiac catheterization | Cardiology

What is cardiac catheterization?

Cardiac catheterization is a procedure used to diagnose and treat certain cardiovascular conditions. During cardiac catheterization, a long, thin tube called a catheter is inserted into an artery or vein in the groin, neck, or arm and threaded into the heart through blood vessels.

Purpose of cardiac catheterization

The cardiac cath detects how well your heart is working, problems, and allows procedures to open blocked arteries. For example, during a cardiac cat, your doctor may say:

  • Take x-rays of narrow or blocked coronary arteries using a contrast catheter injected through a catheter. This is called coronary angiography or coronary arteriography.
  • Perform percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), such as coronary angioplasty with stenting, to open narrow or blocked sections of the coronary artery.
  • Check the pressure in all four chambers of your heart.
  • Take blood samples to measure the oxygen content in all four chambers of your heart.
  • Estimate the capacity of the shrink chambers.
  • Look for defects in the valves or chambers of your heart.
  • Remove a small piece of heart tissue for examination under a microscope (biopsy).

Complications of cardiac catheterization

Like most procedures performed on the heart and blood vessels, cardiac catheterization carries some risks. Major problems are very rare.

Risks of cardiac catheterization:

  • Injuries
  • Bleeding
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Race
  • Damage to the area where the artery, heart, or catheter is inserted
  • Irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmia)
  • Allergic reactions to color or medication.
  • Kidney damage
  • Infection
  • Blood clots

If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, tell your doctor before doing this procedure.

Stages of cardiac catheterization

The catheter is guided by a small hollow plastic covering called a sheath. Once the catheter is in effect, your doctor will proceed with the necessary tests to confirm your condition.

Depending on what you are looking for, your doctor may do one of the following:

Coronary angiogram: During this procedure, contrast material or dye is injected through the catheter. Your doctor will use an X-ray machine as it travels through your heart’s arteries, chambers, valves, and vessels. Arteries

Heart biopsy: During this procedure, your doctor will take a sample of your heart tissue (biopsy) for a more detailed examination. If your doctor finds a malignant problem during catheterization, he may perform an additional procedure. These policies include:

Ablation: This procedure corrects cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat). Doctors use energy in the form of heat (radiofrequency energy) or cold (nitrous oxide or laser) to destroy heart tissue and stop irregular heart rhythms.

Angioplasty During the procedure: The doctor inserted a small inflatable balloon into the artery. The balloon is dilated to widen the narrowed or blocked artery. Angioplasty can be combined with the placement of a stent – a small metal coil that is placed in a blocked or blocked artery to prevent future narrowing problems.

Balloon valvuloplasty: During this procedure, doctors insert a balloon-tipped catheter into the narrow valves of the heart to open the confined space.

Thrombectomy (treatment of blood clots): During this procedure, doctors use a catheter that can remove blood clots and travel to organs or tissues.

How long does the procedure last?

The cardiac catheterization procedure generally takes 30 minutes, but preparation and recovery time can add several hours to your appointment (five to nine hours or more).

Before the cardiac catheterization

  • If you have diabetes, do not eat or drink anything for two hours before the test. Discuss this with your doctor. Not eating affects your blood sugar level and requires adjustments to your insulin dose.
  • Talk to your doctor about the medicine you are taking. They may ask you to stop taking them before the test, especially if you are taking antiplatelet medications such as comedian (warfarin) or aspirin, or Plavix. It is important to bring a list of your allergies, medications, and dosages to this procedure so the healthcare team knows what you are taking and how much you are taking.
  • We will give you a hospital gown. You will not use anything else during the process. Remove all clothing (including lingerie), jewelry, and glasses. The nursing staff or your doctor will notify you if you need to remove any dentures and/or hearing aids.
  • We ask that you sign consent forms for the process.
  • We prepare the catheter site (the area of ​​your body where the catheter enters).
  • We need to trim body hair and cleanse your skin with a special wash that kills germs.
  • We ask that you empty your bladder (P) before beginning your procedure.
  • When you are ready and ready for your procedure, we invite your family member or friend to come to the pre-operative room. They will stay with you until it is time for your policy.
  • If needed, you may have blood tests and a chest X-ray before the procedure.

During the cardiac catheterization

When you are at the Cardiovascular Intervention Center, you see television monitors, heart monitors, and blood pressure machines. You will be connected to an EKG to monitor your heart during the test.

You will be given an injection of anesthesia to numb the area around where the catheter will be inserted. It can be a bit uncomfortable. Tubes are then inserted to access the artery and/or vein. The catheter is gently passed through the artery, guided by X-rays, and reaches your heart. There should be no pain.

After the cardiac catheterization

After the procedure, your doctor will remove the catheters, sheath, and guidewire. A pressure bandage is applied to the area where the catheter is inserted to stop the bleeding. The pressure can be sustained by hand or with a sandbag or other device. You will be transferred to the recovery room, where you will lie down on the bed. Heart rate and blood pressure will be monitored.

Depending on your health before your cardiac catheterization and any additional procedures performed during your cardiac catheterization, you may need to spend the night in the hospital. You should follow your doctor’s instructions on what medications to take and when to start the activity.


About Cardiac Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan | Cardiology

What is a cardiac CT scan?

A cardiac CT scan of the heart is an imaging method that uses X-rays to create detailed images of the heart and its blood vessels.

However, unlike a traditional angiogram, which is an advanced X-ray of the arteries, the color is inserted into a small vein in the hand rather than the artery in the groin. You may also be given certain medications to slow your heart rate, which will make taking pictures easier.

  • This test is called a coronary calcium scan to see if there is calcium in your arteries.
  • This is called a CT angiogram if it looks at the arteries that carry blood to the heart. This test assesses whether these arteries are narrowed or blocked.
  • Tests sometimes look for problems with these structures along with scans of the aorta or pulmonary arteries.

When a cardiac CT scan is necessary?

A cardiac CT scan may be helpful if your cardiologist thinks you may not have coronary artery disease, but cannot explain what is causing your symptoms. Therefore, it is often used to rule out coronary heart disease rather than check for it. It is also helpful if you have a heart attack but your doctor doesn’t know why.

If your doctor thinks you have coronary artery disease, they are more likely to do a traditional angiogram.

Another reason you may need a coronary CT angiogram is if your doctor suspects that you have an abnormality in the structure of your heart.

Purpose of cardiac CT scan

A cardiac CT scan is a non-invasive procedure that is ideal for monitoring a patient with low-risk heart problems or symptoms of coronary artery disease. Doctors also use a cardiac CT scan to check for blockages and damage to the coronary arteries.

Doctors may request that patients undergo a cardiac CT scan before or after other coronary procedures.

Risk factors

A cardiac CT scan is a relatively low-risk procedure because it is non-invasive, rather than injected through the manual cannula.

During a cardiac CT scan, patients are exposed to more radiation than a normal X-ray because multiple images of the heart are taken, although the dose is usually lower than that of a standard coronary angiogram. Even if low doses of radiation are used, any radiation may slightly increase the risk of cancer in the future. The risk is slightly higher in younger patients.

Some people are allergic to the opposite and it is much higher if you have multiple other serious allergies. Allergic reactions to X-ray dye are usually mild and can be treated with medications.

There is a very small risk that patients will experience a severe reaction to the contrast medium and will experience:

  • Low blood pressure
  • Anaphylactic shock
  • Cardiac arrest

How cardiac CT scan is performed?

The cardiac CT scan is performed in the radiology department of the hospital or in a clinic that specializes in diagnostic procedures.

You will be given a beta-blocker before the scan. These drugs slow down your heart so that clearer pictures can be taken. Small, sticky discs called electrodes are placed on your chest to record the scan. The radiology technologist inserted an intravenous (IV) line into a vein so they could inject radioactive dye into your hand. You may feel a short or hot boil or a temporary metallic taste in your mouth when you inject the dye.

Before your cardiac CT scan, it is important to follow these instructions:

  • Fast for at least 4 hours
  • Sips of water may be taken
  • No smoking for at least 2 hours
  • No vigorous exercise for at least 4 hours
  • Avoid tea and coffee for at least 12 hours

Day of your cardiac CT scan,

  • Six hours before the test: do not eat anything that contains caffeine.
  • You can have breakfast and/or lunch. Drink water before your appointment.
  • Do not take metformin if you are taking it.
  • Take your other common medications unless prescribed by your doctor. Bring all your medications in the original bottles.

Before scanning, your heart must beat at a certain rate to ensure a correct diagnostic result. You may need to be given medication at your appointment if your heart rate is not at the required level. It comes in a tablet form called a beta-blocker. The radiographer performs pre-scan examinations, which determine it.

After cardiac CT scan

  • The ECG monitor and cannula are removed and you are asked to change your clothes again
  • If you have a beta-blocker, you will be asked to stay in the section for about 20 minutes for observation
  • You can go back to eating/drinking normally
  • You are advised to drink plenty of water within 48 hours after the scan to remove the color injection from your body


The cardiac CT scanner has a large opening that passes through a flat platform or table. Some call this opening the “donut hole.” The patient was lying on the table while scanning. When the machine is turned on, a donut-shaped X-ray tube from the machine rotates rapidly and the patient moves through it. X-rays pass through the patient at different angles and hit special detectors. Images taken during the scan produce cross-sectional or three-dimensional views of the heart and blood vessels in less time.

Specialists who handle cardiac CT scan

  • Department of Cardiology and Cardio surgeons

Overview of lumbar puncture (spinal tap) | Neurology

What is a lumbar puncture (spinal tap)?

A lumbar puncture (spinal tap) is acted in the lower back, in the lumbar locale. During a lumbar puncture, a needle is inserted between the two lumbar bones (vertebrae) to remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid. This is the liquid that encompasses the cerebrum and spinal rope to shield them from injury.

A lumbar puncture can help analyze genuine contaminations, for example, meningitis. Other central nervous system disorders, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and multiple sclerosis, or cancers of the brain or spinal cord. A lumbar puncture is now and again used to infuse sedation or chemotherapy drugs into the cerebrospinal liquid.

Why is a spinal tap performed?

A spinal tap may be performed to rule out an infection such as meningitis or encephalitis as a cause of epileptic seizures.

Besides used to treat epilepsy, the cerebrospinal fluid test can help diagnose disorders of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, the central nervous system that may include the brain, spinal cord, or their covering (the meninges). Examples include meningitis, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or idiopathic headache.

CSF contains glucose (sugar), proteins, and different substances found in the blood. The fluid test will show the number and types of white blood cells, glucose level, types and levels of proteins, and the presence of bacteria, fungi, or abnormal cells.

A spinal tap may also be performed:

  • Measurement of pressure around the brain and spinal cord
  • Relieve pressure in the head
  • Spinal anaesthesia
  • Inject the dye for an X-ray diagnostic test
  • Injection medications (such as baclofen)

NOTE: A cerebrospinal fluid test may not be necessary if a spinal tap is done to inject the drug.

What are the benefits of a lumbar puncture?

A lumbar puncture can help your PCP precisely analyze or preclude certain ailments, including some dangerous ailments. The sooner they diagnose the diagnosis, the faster you can get appropriate treatment. Some conditions, such as bacterial meningitis, can be fatal if you don’t get them treated quickly enough.

A lumbar puncture can likewise enable your PCP to give you a few sorts of prescriptions.

What are the risks of a lumbar puncture?

A lumbar puncture is generally safe, but there may be some risks. According to our clinic, up to a quarter of people who have a lumbar puncture develop a headache afterwards. Lying down for a few hours after the procedure may reduce your risk of headaches.

Other potential risks include pain or pain in the lower back and bleeding near the puncture site. You may feel some pain and numbness going down your legs. In rare cases, people have brainstem herniation, which is the movement of brain tissue from its normal position in your skull. This is uncommon.

Before having a lumbar puncture

Your primary care physician or medical caretaker ought to clarify what will occur and why you need a lumbar puncture.

A few days or weeks before the test:

  • You may have a CT scan or an MRI scan – to make sure you need a lumbar puncture and that it is safe to have one.
  • Tell the hospital if you are taking blood-thinning medications (anticoagulants) – such as warfarin

On the day:

  • You can eat, drink and accept prescription as would be expected
  • You will be drawn closer to sign a consent structure
  • You will usually need to undress and wear a hospital gown before the procedure – you may also want to use the toilet

How is the LP procedure performed?

Usually, patients lie on their side for the procedure. Often times, the procedure is performed while the patient is seated and leaning slightly forward.

After nearby sedation is infused into the lumbar district, a long needle is embedded between the bones of the spine (vertebrae) into the spinal waterway. (The needle is most usually positioned between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.)

Your cerebrospinal fluid pressure may then be measured and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removed for testing.

What happens after a lumbar puncture?

This helps reduce the occurrence of headaches. It will allow you to roll from side to side as long as your head is not raised. If you need to urinate, you may need to do so in a bedspread or urinal during the time you need to stay flat.

You will be asked to drink additional fluids to replace the fluids after the operation. This replaces the cerebrospinal fluid that was withdrawn during a spinal tap and reduces the chance of a headache. After you recover, you may be taken to your hospital room or discharged home. If you go home, your healthcare provider will usually advise you to rest for the rest of the day

Once you are at home, notify your service provider of any abnormalities, such as:

  • Numbness and tingling in the legs
  • Blood or pain at the injection site
  • Inability to urinate
  • Headache

In the event that the migraine endures for in excess of a couple of hours after the technique, or when the position changes, contact the Neuroradiology group with the telephone number on your release directions.

You may be required to restrict your activity for 24 hours after the procedure. Your healthcare provider may give you other specific instructions about what to do after the lumbar puncture.

Spinal tap results

The CSF samples are sent to a laboratory for analysis. Lab technicians check a number of things when examining spinal fluid, including:

  • General look: The cerebrospinal fluid is usually clear and colourless. If it is cloudy, yellow, or pink, this may indicate abnormal bleeding. Green spinal fluid may indicate an infection or the presence of bilirubin.
  • Protein (total protein and presence of certain proteins): High levels of total protein – more than 45 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL) – may indicate the presence of an infection or other inflammatory conditions. The specific laboratory qualities may fluctuate from the clinical office to the clinical office.
  • White blood cells: The cerebrospinal fluid usually contains up to 5 white blood cells (mononuclear leukocytes) per microliter. Increasing numbers may indicate infection. Specific laboratory qualities may differ from the clinical office to the clinical office.
  • Sugar (glucose): A low level of glucose in your cerebrospinal fluid may indicate an infection or other condition.
  • The presence of microscopic organisms, infections, parasites, or different microorganisms can show disease.
  • Cancer cells: Abnormal cells in the cerebrospinal fluid – such as a tumor or immature blood cells – can indicate certain types of cancer.

Lab results are combined with information obtained during the test, such as cerebrospinal fluid pressure, to help determine a possible diagnosis. A healthcare professional generally gives you results in a few days, but it may take longer. Ask when you expect to receive your test results.


Overview of Electrocardiogram (ECG) Test | Cardiology

What is an electrocardiogram (ECG)?

An electrocardiogram is commonly called an ECG or EKG and it is a simple test used to check the rhythm and electrical activity of your heart. Sensors attached to the skin are used to detect the electrical signals your heart produces each time it beats. A machine records these signals, and the doctor sees if they are abnormal.

The ECG can be ordered by a cardiologist or any doctor who thinks you have a heart problem, including your GP. This test can be done by a hospital, clinic, or healthcare professional who is specially trained in surgery by your GP.

Despite the similar name, the ECG is not the same as the echocardiogram, which is a scan of the heart.

Natural electrical impulses coordinate the contractions of different parts of the heart, causing blood to flow. An ECG records these impulses to show the strength and timing of the electrical impulses as the heartbeats, the rhythm of the heartbeat (constant or irregular), and the passage through different parts of the heart. Changes in the ECG indicate heart conditions.

Purpose of electrocardiogram

Your doctor may recommend an EKG to assess the health of your heart. This is a common part of checkups, especially for those over 40.

An EKG by itself does not diagnose all types of heart conditions or predict future heart problems. Provides important information about your heart health-related to your age, physical exam, medical history, and other tests.

  • Identify abnormal heart rhythms that cause blood to clot.
  • Identifying heart problems includes a recent or ongoing heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia), coronary artery occlusion, damaged areas of the heart muscle (from a previous heart attack), inflammation of the broken heart, and shock around the heart.
  • Identify non-cardiac conditions such as electrolyte imbalance and lung and lung diseases.
  • Heart attack, the progression of heart disease, or recovery from the effect of certain medications or pacemakers.
  • Eliminate hidden heart disease in patients undergoing surgery.

When are ECGs needed?

In some cases, having this test is very important. If you have symptoms of high blood pressure or heart disease, chest pain, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, or large heartbeat, you may need an electrocardiogram. You may need screenings or tests for professional purposes or if you have a personal or family history of heart disease, diabetes, or other accidents and want to start exercising.

How is the electrocardiogram test done?

You will be asked to remove all clothing and jewelry from your waist (including women’s bras) to place electrodes on specific areas of the chest wall, arms, and legs. The electrodes are held in place by rubber bands, suction cups, or adhesive pads.

Sometimes it is necessary to shave the skin where the electrode recording patches are placed to easily detect the electrical signal and reduce discomfort when removing the patches. For a standard 12-bottle ECG, the electrodes are placed in 4 positions on the 4 extremities and 6 on the chest wall. Sometimes additional leads are added for a 15-lead ECG.

You will be prompted to remain normal when the machine is turned on, and typically a sample (usually 3-4 seconds) from each electrode site is recorded. The ECG is usually constantly monitoring and may ask you to hold your breath for a short time during the procedure (to stop chest wall movement that interferes with the signal). The machine captures the electrical activity of the wires and then produces a graph with an up and down row that looks a bit like a geographic map but indicates the activity of your heart.

Types of electrocardiogram (ECG)

The types of an electrocardiogram are:

  • Standard (resting) ECG: The ECG measures the electrical activity of your heart while you lie down or rest in a semi-reclined position. This is the most common type of ECG.
  • Stress test (exercise ECG or tape test): This usually involves taking an ECG on a treadmill while you exercise. Show how exercise affects your heart. Helps diagnose and diagnose coronary artery disease and other types of heart disease. Medications are sometimes given instead of mimicking the effect of exercise on the heart.
  • Holter monitor (24-hour ECG or ambulatory ECG): This includes the use of an electronic ECG recorder 24 hours a day. It records the electrical activity of your heart for 24 hours. It can help diagnose arrhythmias (irregular or abnormal heartbeats).
  • Cardiac event recorders record an ECG for an extended period, a year or more. Portable cardiac event recorders record the electrical activity of the heart when you have symptoms. Adjustable loop recorders are mounted under the skin on your chest. They constantly record the electrical activity of your heart.

Risk factors for electrocardiogram (ECG)

Electrocardiograms (EKGs) are safe, non-invasive, painless, and accident-free tests. The electrodes (adhesive patches) that connect the sensors to your chest do not send electrical shocks.

People who undergo stress tests have a higher risk of having a heart attack, but this is related to exercise, not the EKG.

You may develop a mild rash or irritation of the skin where the electrodes are placed. If paste or gel is used to place the electrodes, you may have an allergic reaction. This irritation usually disappears without the need for treatment, once the patches are removed.

Procedure for electrocardiogram (ECG)

It is not necessary to limit food or drink before performing the ECG test. Always tell your doctor what medications you are taking before receiving the electrocardiogram and if you have any allergies to the adhesive tapes used to attach the electrodes.

When an ECG test is to be performed, the upper garment will need to be removed so that the electrodes adhere to the chest and extremities. (For women, wearing a special blouse with pants or a skirt can easily penetrate the chest.) If necessary, the selected sites can be shaved.

Electrodes (sensors) are attached to the chest, arms, and legs with suction cups or sticky gel. These electrodes detect the currents generated by the heart; they are measured and recorded by an electrocardiograph.

There are three main types of the electrocardiogram:

  • Resting ECG: You lie down for this type of ECG. No movements are allowed during the test, as electrical impulses generated by other muscles can interfere with those generated by your heart. This type of ECG usually takes 5 to 10 minutes.
  • Ambulatory ECG: If you have an ambulatory ECG or Holter, you must wear a portable recording device for at least 24 hours. Usually, you can turn it on when the monitor is connected. These types of ECG symptoms may not appear intermittently (stop-start) and on the resting ECG and are used to ensure that your heart is working properly in people recovering from a heart attack. Record your symptoms in a journal and note when they occur so that your own experience can be compared to an ECG.
  • Cardiac stress test: This test is used to record your ECG when you are riding an exercise bike or running on a treadmill. This type of ECG takes 15 to 30 minutes to complete.

Results of electrocardiogram

For most people, an electrocardiogram is just a series of lines. However, each line corresponds to an electrical signal sent from the heart. Doctors can read and understand these lines, which indicate the general condition of the heart.

The operating physician or healthcare professional places the electrodes on a person’s skin, usually around the chest, and at 10 different points on the extremities.

Each beat sends an electrical impulse. These electrodes select this pulse and record the activity as a waveform on a graph.

All of these take place in the eyelid, so an EKG is very important. An ECG can capture all these little details and record them for the doctor to analyze.

Specialists who handle electrocardiogram

  • Cardiac surgeons specialize in the surgical treatment of the heart and its vascular conditions. They are also known as cardiothoracic surgeons.
  • Pediatric cardiologists and cardiologists are interns or pediatricians who specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases or situations of the heart and its blood vessels.
  • Emergency medicine specialists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of sudden illness or injury and difficulties of chronic illness.
  • Interventional cardiologists are cardiologists who specialize in diagnosing and treating conditions and diseases of the heart and its blood vessels. They use catheter-based non-surgical procedures and imaging techniques.
  • Primary care providers include interns, family practitioners (family medicine physicians), pediatricians, geriatricians, physician assistants (PA), and nurse practitioners (NP). Primary care providers provide comprehensive health services and treat a wide variety of ailments and conditions.
  • Thoracic surgeons train in the surgical treatment of diseases of the chest, including the blood vessels, heart, lungs, and esophagus. They are also known as cardiothoracic surgeons.

Overview of Electroencephalogram (EEG) | Neurology

What is an electroencephalogram (EEG)?

An electroencephalogram (EEG), is a test that estimates the electrical activity of the brain. It can be done to diagnose or observe diseases that affect the brain, such as epilepsy and sleep disorders. Your doctor will inform you if you need an EEG. The loads are stretched and appear on the computer screen as a graph or a recording on paper. Then your healthcare provider will explain the reading to you.

During an electroencephalogram (EEG), your healthcare provider will usually estimate the activity of 100 pages or computer screens. He or she pays special attention to the primary waveform but also examines responses to stimuli such as brief bursts of energy and flashing lights.

Purpose of electroencephalogram

The electroencephalogram (EEG) is used to identify problems associated with certain brain disorders in the electrical activity of the brain. Measurements given by EEG are used to confirm or rule out various conditions:

  • Seizure disorders (such as epilepsy)
  • Head injury
  • Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
  • Brain tumor
  • Encephalopathy (a disease that causes brain dysfunction)
  • Memory problems
  • Sleep disorders
  • Stroke
  • Dementia

When someone is in a coma, an EEG can be done to determine the level of brain activity. This test can also be used to monitor activity during brain surgery.

Where is electroencephalogram (EEG) tests done?

The EEG is usually performed in the hospital at the outpatient clinic. People with epilepsy have told us that it would be helpful for them to go on a date with someone. Some people are very tired of this process and are less likely to have seizures during the test. It may help to plan how you will get home after your appointment.

You may be asked to bring some simple portable recording equipment with you. You will be shown how to operate it.

Risk factors

An electroencephalogram has been done for many years and is considered a safe procedure. The test does not cause any discomfort. Electrodes record activity. They do not produce any sensation. Also, there is no risk of electric shock.

Certain factors or conditions can interfere with the reading of the EEG test. Besides these:

  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) created by fasting
  • Body or eye movement through the tests (but this will rarely, if ever, significantly prevent the interpretation of the test)
  • Lights, especially bright or flashing ones
  • Certain drugs, such as sedatives
  • Drinks such as coffee, cola, and tea (these beverages may occasionally alter EEG results, which does not significantly interfere with test interpretation)
  • Oily hair or the behavior of hair spray


Preparing for electroencephalogram

The patient is told when the electroencephalogram is scheduled.

  • If the patient is taking restrictive medications routinely to prevent seizures, antidepressants, or stimulants, they may be asked to stop taking these medications 1 to 2 days before the test.
  • The patient is told not to ingest caffeine before the test.
  • The patient should not use hair products (hairspray or gel) on the day of the test.
  • It is prudent to take the patient to the EEG site, especially if he or she wants to refrain from taking overdose medications.
  • If the patient has a sleep EEG, they may be asked to stay awake the night before the test.

During electroencephalogram

During an electroencephalogram, 20 electrodes are placed on your scalp while you lie on the exam table or in bed. Open your eyes first, then close them and relax. You may be asked to inhale deeply and quickly or to stare at a flashing light; both activities cause changes in brain wave patterns. If you are prone to epilepsy, you will rarely experience one during the test. If you are being evaluated for a sleep disorder, you may have a continuous EEG done at night while you sleep. This recording, which assesses other bodily functions such as breathing and pulse during sleep, is called polysomnography.

After electroencephalogram

Once the test is complete, the electrodes are removed and you are allowed to stand up. The results must be analyzed at a later stage by a neurologist (a doctor who specializes in brain disorders).

Generally, if there are no abnormalities in the electrical activity of the brain, the pattern of “peaks and valleys” traced by the electroencephalogram should be fairly regular. If excited, the pattern will show considerable variation and any deviation from the regular pattern may indicate abnormalities.


Once the electroencephalogram results have been analyzed, they are sent to your doctor, who will accompany you. The EEG looks like a series of wavy lines. The lines will look different depending on whether you are awake or asleep during the test, but each state will have a general pattern of brain activity. If the regular brain wave pattern is disturbed, it could be a type of epilepsy or another brain disorder.

Having an abnormal EEG does not mean you have epilepsy. The test records what is happening in your brain at that moment. Your doctor will do other tests to confirm the diagnosis.


Complications of electroencephalogram (EEG) include:

  • You move too much.
  • You take certain medicines. This involves medicines used to treat seizures (antiepileptic medicines), sedatives, tranquilizers, and barbiturates.
  • You took coffee, soda, or tea, or you ate extra foods that have caffeine before the test.
  • You are careless from severe drug poisoning or very low body temperature (hypothermia).
  • Your hair is dirty, oily, or treated with hair spray or other hair products. This can create a problem with how the electrodes are placed.

Know the Procedure of Angiography | Neurology

What is angiography?

Angiography is an X-ray procedure in which dye is added into the chambers of your heart or into the arteries that lead to your heart (coronary arteries). Then, doctors can measure blood flow and blood pressure in the chambers of the heart and see if the coronary arteries are blocked.

When imaging is taken, an iodine-based contrast medium usually enters the system. The medium highlights the movement of blood through the vessels.

Purpose of angiography

X-ray angiography is performed to specifically diagnose and diagnose vascular diseases of the body, including the brain and heart. Traditionally, angiography has been used to diagnose pathology in these vessels, such as blockage caused by plaque buildup.

However, in current decades, radiologists, cardiologists, and vascular surgeons have practiced X-ray angiography to guide minimally invasive surgery of the blood vessels and arteries of the heart. In recent years, diagnostic vascular imaging has often been performed using MRI, CT, and/or ultrasound and has become specialized for the treatment of X-ray angiography.

Types of angiography

There are several types of angiography used to diagnose a variety of problems:

  • Computed tomography angiography (CTA) uses X-rays, software, and hardware to produce horizontal or axial images or fragments of blood vessels for diagnosis.
  • Coronary angiography is a diagnostic image that uses color and special X-rays to show the inside of the coronary (heart) arteries. These images are used to identify chest pain and arterial narrowing that can lead to future heart attacks.
  • Digital subtraction angiography (DSA): Presents a picture of the blood vessels in the brain to know a problem with blood flow. In this procedure, a catheter (small, thin tube) is injected into an artery in the leg and sent to the blood vessels in the brain. Contrast dye is injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are obtained from the blood vessels.
  • Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and contrast dye to reflect blood vessels. Doctors often use MRA to examine the heart and other soft tissues and assess blood flow.
  • Pulmonary angiography: An X-ray image of blood vessels used to diagnose various conditions, such as aneurysm, stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels), or obstruction. The dye (contrast) is injected through a thin, flexible tube that is placed into the artery. This dye makes the blood vessels visible on X-rays.
  • Renal angiography: It is an X-ray image of the renal artery, which is generally used to evaluate the occlusion of the renal artery in patients with drug-resistant hypertension.
  • Radionuclide angiography (RNA) is a type of nuclear medicine procedure. A small amount of a radioactive substance called a radionuclide (radiopharmaceutical or radioactive tracer) is used to help in the examination of the studied tissue. Specifically, relaxation assesses the chambers of the heart on the movement of RNA.

Risk factors

Risk factors for angiography include:

All medical procedures have certain risks. The risks of angiograms are minimal. Accidents include injury to the catheter insertion site, internal bleeding, hematoma or arterial damage, and a small risk of stroke. An allergic reaction to the contrast dye can cause a rash, swelling, trouble breathing, or heart problems. This test should not be given to pregnant or bleeding women.

Every effort is made to ensure that these losses are minimal. Our nurse practitioners and interventional neuroradiologists will discuss your specific risks with you before angiography.

Procedure of angiography

Preparation for angiography

  • You are usually hospitalized as a day patient for this procedure
  • Bring your referral letter or application form and all X-rays taken during the last 2 years
  • Leave the X-rays with the radiology staff because the doctor will need to see them. The radiology staff will inform you when they are ready to be picked up.
  • Wear comfortable, loose clothing
  • Leave all jewelry and valuables at home
  • You may be requested not to eat for 4 hours before the angiogram
  • You will be allowed to drink clear liquids such as black tea, coffee, clear soup, or water for four hours before your angiogram. Having fluids is very important for the kidneys.

Once the person checks in, a nurse takes them to a private room where they can put on a hospital gown.

The nurse then inserts an intravenous line into a small vein in the person’s hand or wrist. They also monitor a person’s vitals, including their weight, body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure.

During angiography

Before the angiography, a doctor will prescribe a mild sedative to help the person relax. It does not induce unconsciousness.

Then the doctor will disinfect and numb the area of the body where the catheter will be inserted. They made small incisions in the skin and inserted a catheter into the artery.

Once the catheter is inside the artery, the doctor will correctly guide them to the blood vessel they want to measure. They inject a contrast medium through a catheter and take X-ray images of the blood vessels. The person may feel a slight burning sensation when the doctor injects the contrast medium.

After angiography

You will be observed for 4 to 6 hours. During that time, the radiology nurse will discuss the instructions with you at home. A written form of these instructions will be provided to you. Follow these at home.

The radiologist will evaluate you before you are discharged. Then your doctor will discuss the test results with you.

If you have diabetes, do not take Glucophage (metformin hydrochloride) for 48 hours after the test to reduce the risk of kidney problems.

Side effects

After angiography, many people have:

  • Bruising
  • Soreness
  • A very small bump or group of blood near wherever the cut was made

These problems should get better in a few days or weeks, and you generally don’t need to worry.

You can take pain relievers like paracetamol for any discomfort if you need it.


Minor problems with the angiography procedure:

  • Excessive bleeding at the incision site
  • Infection at the incision site, which may need treatment with antibiotics
  • Mild to a moderate allergic reaction to contrast medium; This can usually be controlled through the use of allergy medications.

More serious complications can include:

  • Blood clots 
  • Kidney damage
  • Stroke
  • Blood vessel damage
  • A serious, life-threatening allergic effect (anaphylaxis) to the contrast dye

9 signs you should go see the doctor

  • Signs of infection such as fever or chills
  • Redness, swelling, growing pain, unnecessary bleeding, or any discharge from the site
  • Extreme sweating, nausea, or vomiting
  • Extreme pain
  • Extreme chest pain
  • Leg or arm feels cold, turns white or blue, or grows numb or tingly
  • Trouble breathing
  • Problems speaking or seeing
  • Weakness in the face