Types and Symptoms of Brachial Plexus Injury | Neurology

What is brachial plexus injury?

A brachial plexus injury is a collection of nerves that arise from the spinal cord in the neck and travel from the arm. These nerves control muscles in the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and arm, as well as feeling in the hand. Some brachial plexus injuries are small and fully heal in several weeks. Other injuries are serious enough and can cause permanent deformity of the hand.

The brachial plexus can be injured in many ways: under pressure, strain, or over long distances. Cancer or radiation treatment can cut or damage nerves. Sometimes brachial plexus injuries occur in babies during delivery.

Alternate name

  • Brachial plexus lesion

Types of brachial plexus injury

Types of brachial plexus injury include:

Avulsion: The origin of the nerve is completely separated from the spinal cord (the most serious type).

Rupture: The nerve is torn, but not at the spinal insertion.

Neuroma: Scar tissue around the injured area increases, putting pressure on the injured nerve and preventing the nerve from sending signals to the muscle.

Neurapraxia: The nerve was stretched and damaged, but not torn.

Brachial plexitis: It is a rare syndrome and no cause can be identified. This is also known as Parsonage-Turner syndrome.

Risk factors

Factors that may increase your risk include: 

  • Shoulder dystocia (the baby’s shoulder holding restricted on the mother’s pelvis)
  • Maternal diabetes
  • Large gestational size
  • Difficult delivery needing external assistance
  • Prolonged labor
  • Breech presentation at birth
  • Above half of brachial plexus injuries have no identified risk factors

Causes of brachial plexus injury

Damage to the upper nerves that make up the brachial plexus causes your neck to move further and further away from the injured shoulder when your shoulder is forced down. Lower nerves are more likely to be injured when your hand is forcibly placed on your head.

Common causes of brachial plexus injury include:

Brachial plexus injury is mild and can occur:

  • Brachial plexitis (swelling of the brachial plexus for strange cause)
  • A cyst (the benign sac that contains fluid, air, or other materials)
  • Damage to the brachial plexus during birth
  • Infection in the shoulder, arm, or hand
  • Inflammation in the shoulder, arm, or hand
  • Nerve injury
  • Shoulder injury

Serious causes of brachial plexus injury include:

In severe cases of brachial plexus injury, the nerve can be severed from the spinal cord (a condition called avulsion) or severely compressed. The causes of brachial plexus injury cannot be resolved abruptly:

  • Autoimmune inflammatory disorder
  • Surgery
  • Traumatic injury
  • Tumor

Symptoms of brachial plexus injury

Depending on the severity and location of the injury, the symptoms of brachial plexus injury vary from person to person. Brachial plexus injuries affect just one arm.

Minor symptoms include:

People often undergo minor brachial plexus injuries while performing contact sports – soccer, hockey, or wrestling.

At times any of these symptoms can be difficult:

  • Loss of sensation
  • Muscle weakness
  • Numbness or tingling
  • Redness, warmth, or swelling
  • Reduction in limb flexibility
  • Shoulder, arm, hand, or finger pain
  • Soreness
  • Tingling or different unusual feelings in the shoulder, arm, or hand

Symptoms of moderate to severe injuries

A more severe injury can lead to significant weakness and, in more severe cases, complete paralysis of one or more muscles in the hand. If all the nerves in the brachial plexus are severely damaged, the entire arm from the shoulder to the fingers can also be paralyzed. These more serious injuries can include severe pain or even a full sensation from the injury.

Diagnosis of brachial plexus injury

A brachial plexus injury is diagnosed with a complete history and physical examination. It is necessary to see a doctor who practices in examining, diagnosing, and treating an injury within the first few weeks of an accident or incident.

After an exam, your doctor may order tests to discover the location and severity of your injury.

The brachial plexus may have one or more of the following tests to help determine the severity of the injury:

  • Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scans
  • Myelography
  • Angiogram

Treatment for brachial plexus injury

Each injury is unique and the two are not identical. It is very difficult to estimate the abrupt recovery rate, and it is important to follow experts such as the University of Michigan Interdisciplinary Treatment Team to make appropriate recommendations when necessary. The likelihood of a sudden recovery depends on the extent and severity of the injury.

Non-surgical treatment

As mentioned above, some damage to the brachial plexus during childbirth is very rare, and in most cases, the injury is mild. Mild stretching or moderate amount, usually the kind of injury that doesn’t require much treatment. Most babies born with this condition recover naturally as nerves heal over a period of three to six months.

Babies with mild to moderate nerve damage with marked paralysis can benefit from physical therapy as the nerves heal. Physical therapy includes movement movements, muscle building and strengthening exercises, gentle massage, and joint mobilization.

Aquatic therapy can also help some children, such as neuromuscular electrical stimulation, which uses a mild electrical current to stimulate muscle movement.


The degree of functional impairment and the likelihood of recovery depends on the mechanism, type, severity of the injury, and the time elapsed since the injury. The most important decision your surgeons make is deciding when and when to perform surgery. The exact time and type of surgery are different for each patient. Therefore, it is important to assess in advance how the patient will view all of their treatment options.


For acute brachial plexus injuries, immediate surgical treatment is required to regain function. Without it, you may have a permanent disability and will not be able to use your arm or arm.

If you have a brachial plexus injury due to a lack of sensation, you should be especially careful when handling hot objects, razors, knives, or other objects that may damage it. This injury stops you from undergoing any other injury to the affected area, so you may not notice that you are suffering.


Brachial plexus injury depends on the severity of the nerve damage. For most babies, weakness is mild and heals within three to six months after birth. In these cases, the child should not experience any symptoms after the nerves have healed. For more serious injuries, including those in which the nerves are torn, more treatment is needed, including surgery to repair the damaged nerves.

When to contact the doctor

Brachial plexus injuries can cause constant instability or disability. Even if yours seems small, you may need medical attention. Consult your doctor if you have:

  • Recurrent burners and stingers
  • Weakness in your hand or arm
  • Neck pain
  • Symptoms in both arms

Departments to consult for this condition

  • Department of Neurology

Treatments of Dyspraxia (Developmental Coordination Disorder) | Neurology

What is dyspraxia?

Dyspraxia is a brain-based movement disorder. It influences fine and gross motor skills, motor planning, and coordination. It is not related to intelligence, but it can sometimes affect cognitive skills.

Dyspraxia is sometimes used interchangeably with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). While some clinicians may consider these terms separate, since there is no formal definition, others consider them to be the same. Children born with dyspraxia may be late in reaching developmental milestones. They also have a problem with balance and coordination.

In adolescence and adulthood, symptoms of dyspraxia can lead to learning difficulties and low self-esteem. It is a lifelong condition. There is currently no cure, but there are treatments that can help you manage this disorder effectively.

Symptoms of dyspraxia

Symptoms tend to vary with the individual’s age. Later, we’ll look at each age group in more detail. Some of the general symptoms of this disease include:

  • Poor posture
  • Fatigue
  • Differences in speech
  • Perception problems
  • Poor balance
  • Clumsiness
  • Poor hand-eye coordination

Causes of dyspraxia

Making coordinated movements is a complex process that involves many different nerves and parts of the brain. Any problem with this process may lead to difficulties with movement and coordination.

It is not usually clear why coordination does not develop like other abilities in children with dyspraxia. However, a number of risk factors have been identified that can increase a child’s likelihood of developing dyspraxia.

These include:

  • Premature labour, before the 37th week of pregnancy
  • Being born with a low birth weight
  • Having a family background of dyspraxia, in spite of the fact that it isn’t clear precisely which qualities might be associated with the condition
  • The mother drinks alcohol or does drugs during pregnancy

How is dyspraxia diagnosed?

In the event that you are worried that your kid has dyspraxia, counsel your primary care physician for exhortation, and referral to other specialists.

Your child may be referred to, for example:

  • Speech pathologists for oral and verbal dyspraxia
  • Occupational therapists for oral and motor dyspraxia
  • Physiotherapists for motor dyspraxia

Every doctor will utilize an assortment of appraisal instruments. Your doctor will likely coordinate the evaluation and diagnosis process.

Risk factors

Dyspraxia is more normal in guys than in females. It also tends to run in families.

It may include risk factors for developmental coordination disorders:

  • Premature birth
  • Low birth weight
  • Drug or alcohol abuse from the mother during pregnancy
  • A family history of developmental coordination disorders

It is not unusual for a child with dyspraxia to have other conditions with overlapping symptoms. Some of these:

  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), This causes hyperactive behaviours, difficulty concentrating, and difficulty sitting for long periods
  • Autism spectrum disorder, A neurodevelopmental problem that meddles with social connection and correspondence
  • Youth apraxia of discourse, Which makes it hard to talk plainly
  • Dyscalculia, A disorder that makes it difficult to understand numerology and understand concepts of value and quantity
  • Dyspraxia, Which affects reading and reading comprehension

Although some of the symptoms are similar, these other conditions do not involve the same problems with fine and gross motor skills for dyspraxia. Other conditions such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, and stroke can cause physical symptoms similar to indigestion. This is why it is so important to visit a doctor to get a correct diagnosis.

Dyspraxia treatments

The treatment for dyspraxia depends on the child’s symptoms. It aims to support or help your child build skills in the areas he is struggling in.

It may include occupational therapy, motor-perceptual training, and speech therapy. Your child may also be eligible for help at school, and your child’s therapist can teach you ways to help your child at home. There are even fun applications that can support your kid.

Occupational Therapy

Your child will learn to improve coordination for doing daily tasks. They may hold a pencil or walk around objects. An occupational therapist may use special devices to support your child as he learns to improve coordination.

Perceptual motor training

This training can be occupational or physical therapy. Through exercises, your child will build their skills in:

  • Movement and coordination
  • Visual perception
  • Listening and following directions
  • Language

Speech therapy

A speech-language pathologist can help your child with speech and other speech problems. They will have explicit activities that will fabricate your youngster’s abilities. Numerous youngsters with developmental coordination disorder create typical discourse with assistance.

School-based therapy

Numerous schools offer speech therapy, occupational therapy, or both. Your child will need to be evaluated for these special services so that the school therapist can create a plan to help your child.

Your kid may profit by being in a little gathering to work on composing, social abilities, or physical instruction. Your child’s teacher can help, too. They can break homework into smaller tasks or allow your child to use a computer to type in their work.


The outlook for people with developmental coordination disorder depends on the severity of the disorder, its cause, and the availability of early intervention. People with developmental coordination disorder may be able to learn the skills needed to circumvent difficulties and lead normal, productive lives.


Since the cause of developmental coordination disorder is unknown, it is difficult to prevent it. It may be possible to reduce your baby’s chance of developing dyspraxia by not using tobacco, illegal drugs, or alcohol during pregnancy.


Know the Symptoms of Vascular Disease | Cardiology

What is vascular disease?

Vascular disease is an abnormal condition of the blood vessels. Blood vessels are the tubes through which blood is pumped throughout the body. The arteries carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to nourish all parts of the body, including the brain, kidneys, intestines, arms, legs, and heart. Veins carry blood back to the heart. In addition to this vast network of blood vessels, problems with the so-called vascular system can lead to serious disability and death.

The vascular disease usually occurs in areas of unstable blood flow, when the direction of blood flow in the arteries changes abruptly. This figure illustrates the sites in the arterial system where this change in the direction of blood flow occurs.

Vascular diseases are vascular conditions that can put you at risk for a heart attack, stroke, or amputation. People over the age of 45 or family members with cardiovascular disease are at increased risk of developing vascular disease. Diabetes, smoking, high cholesterol, esophagus, and a sedentary lifestyle can all lead to vascular problems.

Types of vascular disease

The two main types of vascular disease are:

Functional VD: This means that there is no physical damage to the structure of your blood vessels. Instead, your vessels dilate and narrow in response to other factors such as brain signals and changes in temperature. Narrow blood flow decreases.

Organic VD: It involves changes in the structure of blood vessels, such as inflammation, plaque, and tissue damage.

Causes of vascular disease

People with conditions like diabetes, high blood pressure, or kidney failure are more likely to have vascular problems. Working with vibrating devices, having a cold temperature and smoking can exacerbate vascular problems.

Causes of vascular disease are:

  • Traumatic occurs after an injury
  • Compression occurs when pipes flatten
  • Occasionally, it happens when the pipes are blocked
  • Tumors (growth) or deformities (clumsy, tangled pipes), which may or may not be present at birth
  • Abnormal control of the vessels, they are narrow due to abnormal control of the vessels

Risk factors for vascular disease

The exact reason for atherosclerosis is not defining, but several risk factors accelerate the formation of fatty deposits in the arteries:

  • Being male
  • Family history of vascular disease, angina, heart attacks, or stroke
  • High blood pressure
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Being overweight
  • High cholesterol levels
  • An unhealthy diet
  • Lack of exercise
  • Stress

Symptoms of vascular disease

Experts say that half of the people with PAD are unaware of their condition. This is because most people have no symptoms. Possible characteristics:

  • Hair loss on the feet and legs
  • Intermittent claudication – The thigh or calf muscles experience pain when walking or climbing stairs; Some people complain of painful fruits.
  • Leg weakness
  • The lower leg may feel cold
  • Numbness in the legs
  • Brittle toenails
  • Toenails grow steadily
  • Sores or ulcers on the legs and feet that take more time to heal (or never heal)
  • The skin on the legs becomes shiny or turns pale or bluish
  • A problem in getting a pulse in the leg or foot
  • Erectile dysfunction (impotence in men, problems achieving or sustaining an erection)

Diagnosis of vascular disease

If a person suspects they have PVD, they should see a doctor. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the course of the disease and prevent serious complications.

A doctor can diagnose PVD by:

  • Life taking a complete medical and family history, including details of lifestyle, diet, and medication use
  • Perform a physical examination, which checks the temperature of the skin, the appearance, and the presence of papules on the legs and feet

Diagnostic tests used to diagnose PVD:

  • Angiography: Angiography involves injecting a dye into an artery to identify a blocked or blocked artery.
  • Ankle-brachial index (ABI): This non-invasive test measures blood pressure at the ankle. The doctor then compares this reading to the blood pressure readings on the hands. A doctor takes measurements after rest and physical activity. Low blood pressure in the legs indicates obstruction.
  • Blood tests: Although blood tests alone cannot diagnose PVD, they can help the doctor detect the presence of conditions that increase a person’s risk of developing PVD, such as diabetes and high c0holesterol.
  • Computed tomography angiography (CTA): The CTA imaging exam shows the doctor a picture of the blood vessels, including narrow or blocked areas.
  • Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA): Similar to CTA, magnetic resonance angiography highlights vascular obstruction.
  • Ultrasound: Using sound waves, ultrasound allows the doctor to see the blood flow through the arteries and veins.

Treatment for vascular disease

Recognized leaders in the treatment of vascular disorders. From repairing an aortic aneurysm to varicose veins, your Loyola team will implement the treatment plan that is right for you and may include lifestyle changes, medical maintenance, or surgery:

  • Angioplasty
  • Aortic aneurysm repair
  • Atherectomy
  • Bypass surgery
  • Carotid artery reconstruction
  • Deep venous thrombosis treatment
  • Endovascular stenting
  • Mesenteric intervention
  • Peripheral bypass
  • Peripheral stenting
  • Renal artery interventions ​

You have access to the most advanced treatment options for vascular diseases. Through a personalized and collaborative approach to patient care, our professionals can provide you with the most advanced care. After your treatment, your doctor will continue to monitor your progress to make sure your treatment is successful and your quality of life improves.

Treatment of the vascular disease depends on the specific type of vascular disease and the age, health, and medical history of the patient and may include:

  • Reduce risk factors that contribute to vascular disease by quitting smoking, exercising, improving eating habits, and controlling high blood pressure.
  • Using medications to lower cholesterol, lower blood pressure, control heart rate, and prevent blood clots.
  • Surgeries such as coronary angioplasty surgically remove an atherosclerotic plaque within the wall of the carotid artery to keep the artery open and prevent re-narrowing of carotid endarterectomy.


Steps that help to prevent vascular diseases are:

  • Make healthy lifestyle changes, such as eating a heart-healthy diet and getting more exercise.
  • Do not smoke. If you already smoke, talk to your healthcare provider to help you find the best way to quit.
  • Control your blood pressure and cholesterol
  • If you have diabetes, check your blood sugar
  • Try not to sit for too long or stand. If you need to sit all day, get up, and turn about every hour. If you are traveling on a long trip, you can also wear compression stockings and stretch your legs regularly.


Complications from undiagnosed and untreated vascular disease can be serious and even fatal. Restricted blood flow from vascular disease is a warning sign of other types of vascular disease.

Complications of vascular disease are:

  • Tissue death, which can change to limb amputation
  • Impotence
  • Pale skin
  • Pain at rest and with movement
  • Severe pain that reduces mobility
  • Wounds that don’t heal
  • Life-threatening infections of the bones and bloodstream

In the most serious problems, the arteries carry blood to the heart and brain. When they are closed, it can lead to a heart attack, stroke, or death.


When diagnosed early, vascular disease is often easily treated with lifestyle changes and medications.

A person’s development can be monitored by measuring the distance a person can walk without a liner. If the treatments are effective, people will gradually be able to walk longer distances without pain.

Early intervention can stop the condition from progressing and help prevent problems. Anyone experiencing any symptoms of vascular disease should see a doctor.

The sudden development of pale, cold, and painful limbs with loss of legumes is a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment.

Department to consult for this condition

  • Department of Cardiology

Overview of Heart Valve Disease | Cardiology

What is heart valve disease?

Heart valve disease is a disease or damage to one or more of your heart valves, affecting the way blood flows through your heart. It puts additional stress on your heart, causing chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Heart valve disease can range from mild to severe and can sometimes be fatal and requires emergency treatment.

Heart valves have flaps that open and close with each beat, allowing blood to flow through the upper and lower chambers of the heart and to the rest of your body. The upper chambers of the heart are atria and the lower chambers of the heart are ventricles.

The heart has four valves: Mitral, tricuspid, aorta, and pulmonary. These valves make sure your blood flows in the same direction it travels through your heart. When one or more of these valves stop working properly or efficiently, it can cause damage to the heart. This is called heart valve disease.

Types of heart valve disease

The following types of heart valve diseases are:

Mitral valve disease: Mitral valve prolapse is a very common condition that affects 1% to 2% of the population. During MVP contraction of the heart, the mitral valve leaflets return to the left atrium. MVP can also cause the valve tissue to become abnormal and stretch, causing the valve to leak. However, this condition rarely causes symptoms and generally does not require treatment.

Tricuspid valve disease: The tricuspid valve is located in the middle of the heart’s right upper chamber, called the right atrium, and the right ventricle is called the right ventricle. If this valve does not develop properly before you are born, there may not be an opening that allows the blood to return from your body to pump oxygen to your lungs and lungs.

Aortic valve disease: It is a condition that occurs when your aorta (the main artery of your body) and left ventricle (the lower left chamber of your heart) malfunction. The aortic valve defines how blood flows from your left ventricle to your aorta.

There are two different types of aortic valve disease: Aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation. In the case of aortic stenosis, the opening of the aortic valve is narrow, resulting in limited blood flow to the aorta. During aortic regurgitation, some of the blood returns to the left ventricle because the aortic valve is not closed enough.

Pulmonary valve disease: It is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. This condition is characterized by a pulmonary valve that does not open wide enough, causing the right ventricle to pump strongly and dilate.

Forms of heart valve disease are:

  • Stenosis (or narrowing of the valve): The opening of the valve (s) becomes narrow, restricting blood flow from the ventricles or atria. The heart sends blood with greater force to move blood through narrow or narrow (stenotic) valves.
  • Regurgitation (or leakage of the valve): The valve (s) do not close completely, causing blood to flow back through the valve. The heart has to pump more blood in the next beat, which works harder.

Causes of heart valve disease

Causes of heart valve disease are:

  • Congenital defect: This disease can be congenital and affect the anatomy of the heart.
  • Family history: Heart valve disease is sometimes more common in some families.
  • Infection or inflammation: This causes scar tissue to form in the heart and makes it difficult for the valves to open and close properly.
  • Age: The muscles of our heart valves weaken or become damaged as we age, which is why the elderly are usually diagnosed.

Risk factors for heart valve disease

Risk factors for heart valve disease are:

  • Age: People are living longer than ever, but there is an increased risk of heart valve disease as life expectancy increases.
  • Other heart conditions: If you have a history of other heart problems, you are at risk for heart valve disease.
  • Endocarditis: Endocarditis is the endocardium, the lining of the heart valves, and chambers of the heart.
  • Rheumatic fever: Rheumatic fever is caused by the same bacteria that cause strep throat. It usually only occurs in people who have not received treatment for their strep throat. Rheumatic fever can cause permanent damage to the heart muscle and valves, as your body tries to fight infections, such as narrowed valves or leaky valves.
  • High blood pressure: The power of your blood when high blood pressure pushes into your arteries.
  • Smoking: It is a major risk factor for all types of heart disease. If you smoke, the chemicals in tobacco can change the way your heart and blood vessels work.

Signs and symptoms of heart valve disease

The main symptom of heart valve disease is an abnormal beat called a heart murmur. Your doctor can listen to a heart murmur with a stethoscope.

However, most people have a heart murmur without heart valve disease or other heart problems. Others may have a heart murmur due to heart valve disease, but no other signs or symptoms.

Heart valve disease often worsens over time, so signs and symptoms may appear a few years after the heart murmur is first heard. Most people with heart valve disease have no symptoms until they reach middle age or are older.

These signs and symptoms include:

  • Increasing shortness of breath
  • Palpitations (skipped beats or a flip-flop feeling in the chest)
  • Edema (swelling of the ankles, feet, or abdomen)
  • Weakness or dizziness
  • Quick weight gain
  • Chest discomfort

Diagnosis of heart valve disease

If your heart sounds abnormally through a stethoscope, your doctor may think you have heart valve disease. This is normally the first step in diagnosing heart valve disease. A heart murmur (abnormal sounds in the heart due to turbulent blood flow through the valve) often signifies regurgitation or valve stenosis. To better define the type of valve disease and the extent of valve damage, doctors may use any of the following tests:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): A test that records the electrical activity of the heart shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmia) and can sometimes detect damage to the heart muscle.
  • Echocardiogram (echo): This noninvasive test uses sound waves to evaluate the heart’s chambers and valves. The echo sound waves create an image on the monitor when the ultrasound transducer passes over the heart. This is the best test to evaluate the function of the heart valve.
  • Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE): The test involves inserting a small ultrasound transducer into the esophagus. Sound waves create an image of the heart’s valves and chambers on a computer monitor without ribs or lungs.
  • Chest X-ray: This test uses invisible beams of electromagnetic energy to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs on film. An X-ray shows enlargement in any area of the heart.
  • Cardiac catheterization: The test involves inserting a small, hollow tube (catheter) through a large artery in the leg or arm that goes to the heart to provide images of the heart and blood vessels. This procedure can help determine the type and extent of certain valve disorders.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This test uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequency boxes, and a computer to create detailed images of organs and structures in the body.

Treatment for heart valve disease

The following is an overview of treatment options for heart valve disease:

  • Do not smoke: Follow preventive tips for a heart-healthy lifestyle. Avoid excessive alcohol consumption, high salt intake, and diet pills, all of which can raise blood pressure.
  • Your doctor may use a “watch and wait” approach for mild or asymptomatic cases.
  • To prevent bacterial endocarditis, a course of antibiotics is recommended before surgery or dental work for people with valvular heart disease.
  • Chronic antibiotic therapy is recommended to prevent a recurrence of streptococcal infection in people with rheumatic fever.
  • People with valvular heart disease may be prescribed antithrombotic (clot-prevention) medications such as aspirin or ticlopidine (see the disorder for more information) after experiencing unexplained ischemic attacks, also known as ITPs.
  • Stronger anticoagulants, such as warfarin, are indicated for those who continue to experience TIA despite atrial fibrillation (a common complication of mitral valve disease) or early treatment. Valve reconstruction establishment prolonged administration of anticoagulants after surgery may be necessary because prosthetic valves have an increased risk of blood clots.
  • Balloon dilation (a surgical technique that involves inserting a small balloon into a blood vessel, leading into a narrow space through the catheter, and then inflated) can be performed to dilate the stenotic valve.
  • Valve surgery may be required to repair or replace a damaged valve. Replacement valves can be made of artificial tissue (prosthetic valves). The type of valve that is selected for re-installation depends on the age, condition, and specific valve of the patient.


The success rate for heart valve surgery is high. The surgery will relieve your symptoms and prolong your life.

Mechanical heart valves often do not fail. However, blood clots can form on these valves. If a blood clot structures, you may have a stroke. Bleeding can occur but is very rare. Tissue valves last an average of 12 to 15 years, resting on the type of valve. Long-term use of medications is not usually necessary to thin the blood with tissue valves.

There is always the risk of infection. Talk to your doctor before any medical procedure.

Department to consult for this condition

  • Department of Cardiology