Overview of Non-Invasive Cardiology | Cardiology

What is non-invasive cardiology?

Non-invasive cardiology focuses on the detection and treatment of heart disease,  using external tests, rather than instruments inserted into the body such as needles, fluids, or other instruments, to evaluate and diagnose heart disorders. Patients with a history of heart disease, suspected valve disease, or unexplained chest pain may be referred by their physician for a noninvasive evaluation.

Non-invasive cardiology tests

Nuclear cardiology: Non-invasive study of cardiovascular disorders using various types of images that can use radioactive elements.

Echocardiography: The use of ultrasound waves to create images of the heart and surrounding structures in order to identify how well the heart pumps blood, infections, and structural abnormalities.

Cardiac electrophysiology: Study and test the electrical currents that generate the heartbeat.

Stress tests: Stress tests generally involve exercise controlled by your cardiologist. These exercises give your cardiologist information about how your heart works under physical stress.

Heart monitors: Heart monitors may also be called a Holter monitor or cardiac occasion recorder. Heart monitors are essentially tape recorders for the electrical activity of your heart over a set period of time.

CT scans: CT scans produce images that your cardiologist can examine for heart disease and atherosclerosis. Once your specialist has identified risk factors or existing conditions, he or she may recommend medications and lifestyle changes to improve your heart health.

Chest x-ray: An X-ray test can help physicians diagnose and monitor conditions such as heart failure, pneumonia, lung cancer, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and fibrosis. Doctors also use chest X-rays to see how treatments are working and to check for complications after a patient has undergone specific surgeries or procedures.

Electrocardiogram (EKG / ECG): The electrocardiogram test records the electrical activity of your heart to conclude if you have had a heart attack or if one is developing one. It also detects changes in the heart rhythm, which helps doctors identify complexities.

Computer imaging: Computer images can take the form of a CT scan or an MRI. The computer generates a three-dimensional image that can help show blockages in your heart caused by a heart condition or calcium deposits that you may have in your arteries. It can also notice pulmonary embolism or other heart ailments or cardiovascular diseases.

  • Exercise stress test
  • Tape test
  • Cardiac exercise stress test
  • General exercise test

These tests are carried out to check aspects such as:

  • Breathing
  • Blood pressure
  • Heart rate
  • Resistance

The test can diagnose various heart problems, including coronary artery disease or the possible cause of chest pain. It could also simply determine your safe level of exercise, especially if you’ve already had heart surgery.

Nuclear scan of the heart

A nuclear scan of the heart is a test similar to a standard stress test but is done with photos of the heart in action. Patients will receive an injection of dye to make problems more visible before the test begins. The images can help find blockages, measure blood flow, or identify heart muscle damage caused by a heart attack.

Results-based treatment

If your cardiologist signs that something is wrong, you will receive a set of dietary and nutritional recommendations and lifestyle changes to join. People with heart disease can be healthy with the right tests and management plan. These plans can also include medication, meditation, and other relaxation methods in addition to diet and lifestyle changes, as mentioned above. If the situation is not curable with the means indicated above, the non-invasive cardiologist refers the patient to a specialist who can treat him.

An invasive cardiologist, meanwhile, will offer surgery and other treatments in addition to medication and lifestyle, as mentioned above these changes could cure the ailment facing the patient.

Responsibilities of Non-Invasive Cardiology

Non-invasive cardiology must complete an internal medicine residency program after they have completed their medical degrees. However, after residency, they are required to spend two years completing a fellowship in cardiology. The standard procedure for cardiologists is to serve as a non-invasive cardiologist and focus on performing pre-diagnostic tests and treating patients.

Those training to become invasive cardiologists can do similar work with cases, but can also perform medical tests to find arterial blockages. However, non-interventional invasive cardiologists do not complete the same procedures as interventional cardiologists.

  • Assessment of cardiovascular and cardiac health problems of patients
  • Refer patients to other specialists
  • Interpret the results of ECG and other electronic tests.
  • perform cardiac catheterizations

Cardiac Rehabilitation Specialist – Overview | Cardiology

Who is a cardiac rehabilitation specialist?

A cardiac rehabilitation therapist also called a cardiac rehabilitation specialist, develops nutrition, exercise and education programs to promote wellness and fortify patients who have undergone heart surgery or who have chronic heart disease.

Cardiac rehabilitation has been shown to help patients live longer after developing heart disease. Our cardiac rehabilitation specialist teams develop customized programs that combine exercise and education to help patients safely recover from heart disease, heart surgery, or a cardiac event such as a heart attack.

Our cardiac rehabilitation specialist remains in close contact with the patients’ cardiologists and referring physicians. We inform the patients’ physicians of any concerns regarding their heart rate, heart function or blood pressure or if there is a reason to adjust their medications.

Members of the patient’s cardiac rehabilitation specialist may include:

  • Cardiologists
  • Exercise physiologists
  • Counsellors
  • Physical therapists
  • Dietitians

Responsibilities of a cardiac rehabilitation specialist

A cardiac rehabilitation specialist might be required to play out any or the entirety of the accompanying obligations:

  • Help the patient understand their condition

One of the most important things and responsibilities that a cardiac rehabilitation specialist takes on is helping the patient understand their condition and how their medical system will be structured. This includes helping them understand the changes they may need to make in their normal routine and what to expect moving forward.

  • Explain the course of treatment

The other main responsibility of the cardiac rehabilitation specialist revolves around explaining the course of treatment plans and helping them understand when a patient may be able to resume their normal activities.

Since patients may experience fatigue while suffering from heart and lung disease, the patient may be keen to know when they can return to normal life and not feel tired. The main responsibility is to educate them about what a recovery schedule looks like and how quickly they can expect to recover.

  • Provide counselling, coaching, and support based on patient concerns

As noted earlier, patients may have concerns related to their recent diagnosis and understanding of their medical condition. Cardiac rehabilitation specialists may be concerned about what their future will look like, how difficult the future will be and any concerns they might have about their treatment plan. A patient who understands his future care plan and remains positive about his future prospects, will stick to it closely and increase the chances of improving his overall well-being.

  • Identify risk factors

The other responsibility of the cardiac rehabilitation specialist is to determine any risk factors that may contribute to the patient’s disease. This includes things like high blood pressure, smoking, poor diet or obesity. There are other risk factors to be aware of that can contribute to a patient’s heart and lung risks and diseases.

If you can identify them, you can work on a treatment plan about reducing these risks and educating the patient about why they need to be avoided.

  • Educate the patient about their risk factors

Another responsibility of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation specialists is to educate the patient about his or her risk factors and how these risk factors might slow down his recovery or worsen it over time if changes are not made. Educating the patient about their risk factors also revolves around educating them about how these risk factors affect their commitment to the lifestyle changes needed to improve their health.

  • Identify potential interventions that may reduce health risks

When a patient has to drastically change his lifestyle to improve his well-being and lead a healthy life, these interventions are known as interventions. As a specialist in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, the other primary responsibility is to determine which and all interventions can be used to help reduce their risks and relapse into an unhealthy lifestyle.

  • Educating the patient about key lifestyle changes

The other primary responsibility of the cardiopulmonary rehabilitation specialists is to educate the patient about some of the major lifestyle changes they will need to make to improve their wellness. This may include educating them about the foods they need to refrain from and the foods they should eat. Recommending how often they should do exercises based on their current routine and the benefits of participating in such activities. 

Why is this cardiac rehabilitation program important?

Cardiac rehabilitation specialist can save many lives. It can help prevent future heart problems, heart events, and related deaths. According to studies, people who go to cardiac rehabilitation have up to 30% fewer fatal heart conditions, and a 25% lower risk of death compared to people who receive standard treatment alone. Cardiac rehabilitation specialist can also reduce their chances of having a second heart attack or heart surgery.

People enrolled in this program usually have greater success when it comes to controlling other cardiovascular risk factors (for example, high blood pressure or cholesterol). This is because cardiac rehabilitation programs are comprehensive, fully patient-centred and providing them with the tools and information needed to make long-term health changes.

Other benefits include:

  • Less chest pain and in some cases, less medication to treat it
  • Preventing future hospitalization
  • Weight loss
  • Better nutrition and knowledge of how to make heart-healthy choices
  • Reducing stress and increasing emotional well-being

Who should take part in cardiac rehab?

Many people with a range of heart problems can benefit from a cardiac rehabilitation specialist. It is often recommended for people who have:

  • A recent heart attack
  • Stable pain in the chest also called angina
  • Heart failure
  • Cardiac procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), which includes an angioplasty or heart stent
  • Heart surgery, such as coronary artery bypass surgery or heart valve repair or replacement
  • Heart or heart-lung transplant

What is the cardiac rehab program?

Your cardiac rehabilitation program is designed to meet your needs. It is supervised by a cardiac rehabilitation specialist and a team of heart health providers. Your program may last from about a month and a half to over a year.

The goal of cardiac rehabilitation specialist is to help relieve symptoms and make your heart as healthy as possible. It may include your program:

  • Exercise program: This makes you fitter and helps your heart function better.
  • Classes to help you change your lifestyle and habits: For instance, classes and back to assist you with stopping smoking. Or you can take a nutrition class to learn how to eat better.
  • Stress management: You will learn how to manage stress to reduce your anxiety.
  • This will help you learn about your own condition and how to cope with it.
  • Occupational therapy: This is to help you prepare to return to work or to manage the normal activities of daily life.

After cardiac rehabilitation

After the cardiac rehabilitation program ends, you will generally need to continue the diet, exercise, and other healthy lifestyle habits that you have learned for the rest of your life to maintain the heart health benefits. The goal is that, at the end of the program, you are confident exercising on your own and enabling you to maintain a healthier lifestyle.


Cardiac rehabilitation is a long-term maintenance program and you’ll generally need to continue the habits and skills you learned in the program for the rest of your life. After about three months, you will likely have developed your own exercise routine at home or at your local gym.

You can also continue to exercise at a cardiac rehabilitation centre, fitness centre, or club. You can also exercise with friends or family. You can remain under medical supervision during this time, especially if you have special health concerns.

Education about nutrition, lifestyle, and a healthy weight may continue, in addition to counselling. To get the most benefits from cardiac rehabilitation, make sure your exercises and lifestyle practices become lifelong habits.

In the long term, you can:

  • Gain strength
  • Learn heart-healthy behaviours, such as regular exercise and a heart-healthy diet
  • Stop bad habits and such as smoking
  • Control your weight
  • Find ways to manage stress
  • Learn how to deal with heart disease
  • Reduce your risk of coronary artery disease and other heart diseases

Often one of the most important benefits of cardiac rehabilitation is to improve your overall quality of life. If you stick to your cardiac rehabilitation program, you may drop out of the program and feel better than before. You have a heart condition or have had heart surgery.


Types of Congenital Heart Specialists | Treatments | Cardiology

Before knowing about congenital heart specialists, first of all, everyone needs to know about congenital heart disease and also types.

What Is congenital heart disease?

Congenital heart disease is one or more problems with the heart’s construction that are present from birth. Congenital means that you were born with a defect. Congenital heart disease, also called a congenital heart defect, can change the way blood flows through your heart. Some congenital heart defects may not cause any problems. However, complex defects can cause grievous complications.

Advances in diagnosis and treatment have allowed children with congenital heart disease to survive into adulthood. Former the signs and symptoms of congenital heart disease don’t appear until you’re an adult. If you have congenital heart disease, you will likely need care throughout your life. Inquire your doctor to determine how often you need to be tested.


All cardiologists are not the same. While each doctor undergoes education and training related to the heart, they specialize in different types of heart problems. It is important that you be treated by a cardiologist trained in caring for the type of heart disease you have.

There are two major types of heart problems:

Congenital: Heart abnormalities present at birth.

  • Some examples are holes in the heart, deformed valves, or pump chambers
  • It is most often diagnosed in infancy
  • Usually, there is no specific cause or prevention

Acquired: Heart abnormalities that develop over time.

  • Examples include coronary artery disease, weak heart muscles, and valve leakage
  • It is often diagnosed later in life
  • It may be caused by smoking, infection, or diseases such as diabetes

If you have congenital heart disease (CHD), it is important that your health care team understands your unique heart. Patients with coronary artery disease can have hearts that look and function differently than a normal heart. Some hearts can be underdeveloped or on the other side of the chest or with vessels in abnormal places.

While it may seem strange to the untrained eye, it may be normal for someone trained in the treatment of CHD. Congenital cardiologists understand all the unique ways hearts can be formed and the surgeries used to treat them.

Types of Congenital heart specialists

Pediatric Congenital heart specialists

  • Pediatric congenital heart specialists treat infants and children with coronary heart disease
  • Diagnosis of coronary artery disease in infants
  • Defines treatment plans
  • Cares about the growth of the heart
  • Pediatric congenital heart specialists determine whether the initial intervention (catheter or surgery) is necessary

Adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) cardiologist

  • It treats adolescents and adults with coronary artery disease
  • It takes care of the aging heart
  • Cares about hearts when the body changes like during pregnancy or illness
  • He watches hearts to make sure his childhood surgeries are still working
  • Determines whether secondary intervention is required

If you have a heart condition, it is imperative that you see a cardiologist trained in treating your type of problem. Congenital heart patients have very unique hearts and undergo specialized surgeries. Congenital heart specialists understand congenital heart disease and what treatments are best.

ACHD cardiologists or congenital heart specialists have dedicated their careers to treating adults with coronary heart disease. You care enough about your car to find the right kind of specialist, shouldn’t you do the same for your heart?

What does congenital heart specialists do?

Congenital heart disease means there is a problem with the structure of your heart that is present from birth. Congenital heart disease is usually diagnosed in infancy or childhood and people diagnosed early to deal with it throughout their lives, requiring ongoing care and potentially additional surgeries.

Others do not know about their illness until adulthood and try to understand what that means for them. The University of Michigan Adult Congenital Heart Program has experience caring for both types of patients and our program also works closely with the Michigan Congenital Heart Center.

Reasons you might need adult congenital heart care by Congenital heart specialists

Congenital heart disease affects at least 1 in 100 live births. Its severity ranges on a wide range, from small holes between the heart chambers that close naturally, to abnormal, life-threatening structures, such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome, which require a series of complex surgeries. As an adult with congenital heart disease, you may need our program sponsorship for a number of reasons; For example, you can:

  • Be at risk of developing an arrhythmia (arrhythmia)
  • You had surgery as a child and it would require another surgery as an adult
  • You underwent a transplant as a child and are now too small for your adult body
  • The valve was replaced as a child which had worn off over time
  • You are pregnant or want to become pregnant, and you and your baby need to be monitored regularly

What Medications Give by the Congenital heart specialists?

Some mellow intrinsic heart imperfections can be treated with meds that help the heart work all the more proficiently. You may also need medicines to prevent blood clots or to control an irregular heartbeat.

Surgeries and other procedures

A few medical procedures and methodologies are accessible to treat grown-ups with inherent coronary illness.

  • Implantable heart devices: A device that helps control the heart rate (pacemaker) or that corrects a life-threatening irregular heartbeat (an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or cardioverter and defibrillator) may help improve some complications associated with heart defects Congenital.
  • Catheter-based treatments: Some congenital heart defects can be repaired using catheterization techniques. These treatments allow repair without open-heart surgery. Instead, the doctor inserts a thin tube (catheter) into a vein or artery in the leg and guides it to the heart with the help of X-ray images. Once the catheter is in place, the doctor passes small tools through the catheter to repair the defect.
  • Open-heart surgery: On the off chance that catheter methodology can’t fix your heart deformity, your primary care physician may suggest an open-heart medical procedure.
  • Heart transplant: If a serious heart defect cannot be repaired, a heart transplant may be an option.

Follow-up care is given by congenital heart specialists

If you are an adult with congenital heart disease, you are at risk of developing complications – even if you underwent surgery to repair a defect during childhood. Lifelong follow-up care is important. Ideally, congenital heart specialists or cardiologist trained in treating adults with congenital heart defects will care for you.

Follow-up care may include regular check-ups of the congenital heart specialists and occasional blood and imaging tests to detect complications. How often you will need to see your doctor depends on whether your congenital heart disease is mild or complex.