General Topics

Symptoms of Heart Problems in Children | Cardiology

What Is The Pediatric Heart Condition (heart problems in children)?

Pediatric heart disease usually falls into two categories: congenital heart problems, disease, or defects present at birth, and acquired heart disease that develops as a child gets older.

What is a congenital heart defect?

Congenital heart defects (CHD) occur in about 1 in 100 newborn babies as a result of the heart or blood vessels around the heart not developing properly. These heart problems, which can be mild or severe, interfere with the heart’s ability to function as it should. In India, babies are screened for severe birth defects such as heart problems within 24 hours of birth. However, some congenital heart defects, such as atrial septal defects (holes in the heart’s walls), can remain undiagnosed until adolescence or later.

A pediatric cardiologist says, “Detecting heart disease in children has been a top priority for the medical community since the invention of the stethoscope. In the current era, we have become more sophisticated in our methods of screening for heart problems, including prenatal detection of congenital heart defects and heart rhythm abnormalities.” Although you may hear that some doctors use congenital heart disease to refer to congenital heart disease, congenital heart defect is a more accurate term. Both phrases indicate the same thing.

What is acquired heart disease?

Acquired heart disease is the type we often associate with adults, but children and teens can also be affected by it. The most common acquired heart diseases in children are rheumatic heart disease and Kawasaki disease.

What is rheumatic heart disease?

Rheumatic heart disease is the most serious complication of rheumatic fever, which is a disease caused by the bacteria responsible for sore throats. Your child’s immune system can produce antibodies to fight a streptococcus infection, but in some cases these antibodies can damage the heart valves, leading to rheumatic heart disease. Non-cardiac symptoms include joint pain and swelling. A rash on the torso or arms. Skin bumps on the wrist, elbows, or knees; And rapid limb movements. Fortunately, due to the availability of drugs to combat streptococcus, rheumatic heart disease is somewhat rare in India.

What is Kawasaki disease?

Kawasaki disease is a rare disease that primarily affects children and can cause inflammation of the blood vessels in their hands, feet, mouth, lips, and throat. It also results in a fever and swollen lymph nodes. Researchers aren’t yet sure why. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), the disease is a leading cause of heart problems in up to 1 in 4 children. Most of them are under the age of five.

Treatment depends on the extent of the disease, but often includes prompt treatment with intravenous gamma globulin or aspirin (Bufferin). Corticosteroids can sometimes reduce future complications. Children with this disease often need lifelong follow-up appointments to monitor their heart health.

Symptoms of heart problems in children

 A youngster with heart problems could possibly have clear side effects. Symptoms sometimes develop slowly, over time, such as when the child becomes gradually tired. This gradual onset can delay the diagnosis. Other times, there may be a clear and noticeable change that indicates a problem with the heart, such as an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia). Symptoms of heart problems in children can vary according to the child’s age.

One in 100 babies has heart problems, which may also be called a heart defect or congenital heart disease (present from birth). Heart defects can usually be treated with medication, surgery, or other medical procedures. Most tests for heart problems are simple, quick, and painless. Most children with heart problems lead to normal, full lives with very few or no restrictions.

Signs and symptoms

Many children with heart problems appear to be healthy and have no symptoms, and their parents are unaware that they have a heart problem. If babies do develop symptoms, they often appear in the first few weeks after they are born. Common symptoms include: This is a list of the most common symptoms that may indicate a heart problem in children.

In most cases, babies with these symptoms do not have heart problems. For example, some babies naturally sweat more, and many children sweat while they sleep. The cause of palpitations maybe caffeine. Dizziness may indicate that your child is not drinking enough fluids.

However, if your child has any of these symptoms, it is important to tell the pediatrician or primary care doctor. He or she will listen to your child’s heart and perform a full medical evaluation, then decide if a referral to a pediatric cardiologist is appropriate.


  • Breathe with feeds
  • Turning blue inside the mouth (gums/tongue)
  • Sweating with feedings
  • Unconsciousness


  • Physically unable to keep up with other children
  • Breathe with activity faster than other children
  • Sweating with activity sooner than other children
  • Turning blue around the gum/tongue
  • Passing out

Older children/teens

  • Physically unable to keep up with other children
  • Breathe with activity faster than other children
  • Sweating with exercise sooner than other children
  • Turning blue around the gum/tongue
  • Chest pain with exercise
  • Passing out
  • Heart palpitations: Skipping or beating of the heart abnormally
  • Dizziness with exercise

These symptoms are caused by an insufficient supply of oxygen to the body, which occurs because the blood does not contain the usual amount of oxygen, or the heart is not pumping as well as it should.

Disease General Topics

Treatments for Functional Neurological Disorder | Neurology

What is a functional neurological disorder?

Functional neurological disorder (FND) is a medicinal condition in which there is a problem with the operative of the nervous system and how the brain and body send and/or receive signals, rather than a structural disease process such as multiple sclerosis or a stroke. The functional neurological disorder can encompass a wide variety of neurological symptoms, such as limb weakness or seizures.

A functional neurological disorder is a condition at the interface between the specialties of neurology and psychiatry. Conventional tests, such as brain MRIs and EEGs, are usually normal in patients with functional neurological disorders. This has historically led to both doctors and researchers neglecting the disease.

However, it has now been established that functional neurological disorder is a common cause of disability and distress, which can overlap with other problems such as chronic pain and fatigue. Encouraging studies support the possible reversibility of functional neurological disorder with specifically designed treatments. New scientific findings are influencing the way patients are diagnosed and treated, which is creating a general shift in attitudes towards people with functional neurological disorders.

Older ideas that functional neurological disorder is “totally psychological” and that diagnosis is made only when someone has normal tests have changed since the mid-2000s. New understanding, including modern neuroscientific studies, has shown that FND it is not a diagnosis of exclusion. It has specific clinical features of its own and is a disorder of nervous system functioning in which many perspectives are needed. These vary greatly from person to person. In some people, psychological factors are important, in others they are not.

Signs and symptoms of functional neurological disorder

Patients with a functional neurological disorder can experience a wide range and combination of physical, sensory, and/or cognitive symptoms. The most common include:

Motor dysfunction

  • Functional weakness/paralysis of the limbs
  • Functional movement disorders; including tremors, spasms (dystonia), jerky movements (myoclonus), and trouble walking (gait disorder)
  • Functional speech symptoms; including whispering (dysphonia), slurred speech, or stuttering

Sensory dysfunction

  • Functional sensory disturbance includes altered sensation; eg numbness, tingling, or pain in the face, torso, or extremities. This often occurs on one side of the body
  • functional visual symptoms; including vision loss or double vision

Episodes of altered consciousness

  • Dissociative (non-epileptic) seizures, fainting spells, and fainting spells: These symptoms may overlap and may look like epileptic seizures or blackouts (syncope)

Symptoms often fluctuate and can vary from day to day or be present all the time. Some patients with a functional neurological disorder may experience a substantial or even complete remission followed by sudden relapses of symptoms.

Patients with the functional neurological disorder often experience other physical and psychological symptoms, but they may not be present. These include chronic pain, fatigue, trouble sleeping, memory symptoms, bowel and bladder symptoms, anxiety, and depression.

Causes functional neurological disorder

The exact cause of the functional neurological disorder is unknown, although ongoing research is beginning to provide suggestions on how and why it develops. Many different predisposing factors can make patients more susceptible to FND, such as having another neurological condition, experiencing chronic pain, fatigue, or stress. However, some people with functional neurological disorders do not have any of these risk factors.

By the time FND begins, studies have shown that there can be triggers such as a physical injury, infectious disease, panic attack, or migraine that can give someone the first experience of symptoms. These symptoms usually go away on their own.

However, in FND the symptoms “get stuck” in a “pattern” in the nervous system. This “pattern” is reflected in altered brain function. The result is a genuine and disabling problem, which the patient cannot control. The goal of treatment is to “retrain the brain,” for example, by unlearning abnormal and dysfunctional movement patterns that have developed and re-learning normal movement.

One way to think about FND is to think of it as a “software” problem on a computer. The “hardware” is not damaged, but there is a problem with the “software”, so the computer does not work, it does not work properly. Conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is usually normal in FND unless the person has another neurological condition.

Functional brain scans (fMRI) are beginning to provide early evidence of how the brain fails in FND. Functional magnetic resonance imaging shows changes in FND patients who look different from healthy patients without these symptoms, as well as from healthy people who “pretend” to have these symptoms.

Functional imaging is still a research tool and is not sufficiently developed to be used in the diagnosis of FND. The scans support what patients and researchers already know: These are genuine disorders in which there is a change in how the brain works, which is beyond the control of the person with FND.

Diagnosis of functional neurological disorder

The diagnosis of a functional neurologic disorder depends on the positive features of the history and examination.

Positive features of functional softness on examination include the Hoover sign, when there is the weakness of hip extension that regularizes with contralateral hip flexion, and the abductor thigh sign, thigh abduction weakness which is normalized with the abduction of the contralateral thigh. Signs of functional tremors include entrainment and distraction.

The trembling patient should be asked to copy the rhythmic movements with one hand or one foot. If the tremor on the other hand follows the same rhythm, stops, or if the patient has trouble copying a simple movement, this may indicate a functional tremor.

Functional dystonia usually presents with an inverted ankle stance or with a clenched fist. Positive features of dissociative or nonepileptic seizures include prolonged immobile unresponsiveness, long-lasting episodes (> 2 minutes), and dissociative symptoms before the seizure. These signs can be usefully discussed with patients when making the diagnosis.

Patients with functional movement disorders and limb faintness may experience the onset of symptoms triggered by an episode of acute pain, bodily injury, or physical trauma. They may also experience symptoms when faced with a psychological stressor, but this is not the case for most patients. Patients with functional neurological disorders are more likely to have a history of another disease, such as irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pelvic pain, or fibromyalgia, but this cannot be used to make a diagnosis.

FND does not show up on blood tests or structural brain images, such as MRI or CT. However, this is also the case for many other neurological conditions, so negative investigations should not be used alone to make the diagnosis. However, FND can occur along with other neurological diseases, and tests can show nonspecific abnormalities that confuse clinicians and patients.

Treatment for a functional neurological disorder

There is no best treatment for a conversion disorder. A physician is likely to provide support and reassurance and tailor treatment goals to the specific situation.

Most doctors will explain the limits of what the physical exam and tests could show about symptoms. They try to avoid confronting the individual with the idea that the symptoms are “false”, because the symptoms are often distressing and are not under the control of the person. It is helpful to avoid overly intrusive and uncomfortable medical tests, while still monitoring symptoms.

Symptoms occasionally go away on their own after the stress has been reduced, the conflict has been resolved, or the family or public has responded with concern and support.

If symptoms do not recover relatively quickly, more vigorous rehabilitation may be required. Physical or occupational therapy can be helpful.

Psychotherapy can deliver relief, although there is no evidence that one type of therapy is more effective than another. Many therapists will focus on encouragement and motivational interviewing, with the goal of improving functioning.

If the source of the conflict or stress can be determined, it can be helpful to know what triggered the symptoms. For instance, the person may be in conflict about leaving home, starting a new job, or having a first child.

In psychotherapy, the person can learn to cope with conflict or withdraw from the source of distress. In either case, the physical symptoms can go away. Performance remains a higher priority than knowledge.

As with psychotherapy, there is no single drug that is best for this disorder. Medication can be helpful in treating an underlying problem with anxiety or depression.

General Topics

Common Heart Conditions in Children | Cardiology

What Are Heart Conditions In Children?

Heart disease is a very broad term for many things that can go wrong with the heart—in both adults and children. Narrow the focus to children, and the term still encompasses many different types of heart conditions in children that range from a condition that has no symptoms and is never diagnosed, to a problem that is severe and potentially life-threatening that is apparent at birth.

If you are looking for information about a specific disease i.e., heart conditions in children, and would like to know more about its symptoms, how the disease develops over time, and how heart conditions in children are treated, the list below is a good place to start. Some of the most common heart conditions in children are listed as either congenital (present from birth) or acquired (developed after birth).

Congenital heart conditions

  • Anomalous Coronary Arteries/Fistulas
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
  • L-Transposition of the Great Arteries
  • Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return
  • Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD)
  • Tricuspid Atresia
  • Truncus Arteriosus
  • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
  • Coarctation of the Aorta/Interrupted Aortic Arch
  • D-Transposition of the Great Arteries
  • Pulmonary Atresia
  • Pulmonary Stenosis
  • Aortic Stenosis/Bicuspid Aortic Valve
  • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
  • Ebstein’s Anomaly
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Vascular Ring/Sling

Acquired heart disease

  • Dilated Cardiomyopathy
  • Rheumatic Fever
  • Kawasaki Disease
  • Myocarditis
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
  • Pericarditis
  • Endocarditis

Signs of heart conditions in children

Signs of heart conditions in children vary depending on the condition, the child’s age, and whether or not the heart condition or disease was acquired before the baby was born or during infancy.

Heart conditions in children

Signs of potential heart conditions in children can include:

  • Difficulty gaining weight
  • Bluish color to the lips, tongue, or nail bed
  • Difficulty feeding
  • Rapid or rapid breathing, or difficulty breathing, even at rest
  • Fatigue easily while eating
  • Sweating during breastfeeding
  • Call your doctor right away if you notice that your child is showing any of these signs or symptoms

Heart conditions in young children

In young children, look for:

  • Loss of consciousness during physical exercise or activity
  • Heart palpitations: A heartbeat that seems funny or moody for the child
  • Shortness of breath during play or activity
  • Chest pain

What causes heart conditions in children?

Sometimes there is a defect in the walls of the heart (such as a hole in the heart) or a problem with the valves (for example, they may be too narrow or completely blocked). This means either that blue and red blood is mixed together, or the heart may not be pumping well. When these problems occur, the body may not get the normal amount of oxygen.

Usually, a heart defect appears while the baby is still growing in the womb. It is not caused by anything the mother did during pregnancy, and doctors often cannot know the cause of the defect. Sometimes, heart problems are caused by genetic factors (there is a family history of heart defects). Sometimes, childhood illnesses damage the heart. Children can develop heart problems after contracting a viral (virus) infection. However, this is extremely rare.

Treatment of heart conditions in children

Once your child’s problem is diagnosed, the next step is to correct it. For some children, immediate intervention will not be necessary. For others, pharmacologic, interventional catheterization, or surgery may be the recommended course of treatment.


  • ACE (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme) Inhibitors: ACE inhibitors relax arteries throughout the body, lower blood pressure and reduce the workload on the heart. It is useful in treating heart failure and high blood pressure. Medicines commonly used in this class are captopril, enalapril, and lisinopril.
  • Antiarrhythmics: A group of medicines used to treat heart rhythm disorders.
  • Beta-Blockers: A class of drugs used to treat various disorders related to the circulatory system. These medications slow the effect of adrenaline, slow the heart rate, reduce pressure in blood vessels, and reduce the strength of heart contractions. They are useful for treating heart failure, high blood pressure, and some heart rhythm disorders. It is also used to control migraines and fainting spells. This large group includes propranolol, atenolol, and metoprolol.
  • Digoxin: Digoxin (a type of digitalis) is one of the oldest heart medications, it makes the contraction of the heart muscle stronger and more efficient, slows the heart rate, and helps remove excess fluid from the body tissues. It’s sometimes used to treat heart failure and some heart rhythm disorders. Lanoxin is a popular drug in this class.
  • Diuretics: In children, diuretics are the medications most commonly used to manage mild to moderate degrees of congestive heart failure. These medications help the body get rid of water and salt. This group includes furosemide (“Lasix”), bumetanide, and spironolactone.

Interventional catheterization

For the many children with heart problems, surgery was the only treatment option. Today, minimally invasive procedures, such as interventional catheters, are often considered the first treatment option and are performed routinely in place of surgery. Interventional catheterization can provide a permanent solution for some conditions or a short-term solution for heart conditions in children who will need surgery later.

Diagnostic vs. Interventional catheterization

What is the difference? In terms of what your child will experience, and how you will prepare for the procedure, there is very little, if any, difference between diagnostic and interventional catheters. In both procedures, thin, flexible catheters are inserted into a vein or artery in the groin area and directed to the heart.

Catheters and balloon stents may be used to open narrowed valves or arteries. There are also special files and devices that are inserted through the catheter, used to block unwanted blood vessels and holes in the wall between the chambers of the heart.

Advanced imaging for earlier diagnosis

Our PCPs and emergency clinics utilize the most recent imaging gear and innovation to rapidly and precisely analyze an assortment of cardiovascular sicknesses, so patients can get therapy as fast as could reasonably be expected.

In the event that your youngster gives indications or manifestations of procured coronary illness, our pediatric cardiologist will probably suggest either an echocardiogram or attractive reverberation imaging of the heart (MRI). An echocardiogram is a non-invasive cardiology procedure that uses sound waves to evaluate the heart’s structure and function. An echocardiogram is used to diagnose and monitor the progression of this heart disease. However, in some cases, the cardiologist may want a more specialized image of your heart called a cardiac MRI. Cardiac MRI can produce 3D images of heart organs and tissues that enable specialists to more accurately evaluate heart function, the extent of the infection, or inflammation of the heart in disorders such as myocarditis.


After your child is treated for a heart defect, he or she will have regular check-ups with the cardiologist and/or pediatrician. For problems not related to their heart, they can still see your GP. If you are concerned about your child, talk to your child’s doctor, pediatrician, or cardiologist.

General Topics

Heart Disease in children & Infants | Cardiology

What is heart disease in children?

Heart disease is very difficult when touched by adults, but it is especially tragic in children. The effect of heart diseases in children is more. These include congenital heart defects, viral infections that affect the heart, and heart disease acquired in childhood due to a genetic disease or syndrome. The good news is that with the advancement of medicine and technology, many children with heart disease are living full and active lives.

Types of heart diseases in children

Here is the most common heart disease in children which are following:

1. Congenital heart disease

If your child has a congenital heart defect, it means that your baby was born with a problem with the structure of his heart. Some congenital heart defects in children are simple and do not require treatment. Other congenital heart defects in children are more complex and require multiple surgeries over many years.

Knowing about your child’s congenital heart defect can help you understand the situation and what to expect in the months and years to come.

Signs & symptoms

In some cases, symptoms of congenital heart disease do not appear until after birth. Newborns with heart defects may experience:

  • Blue lips, skin, fingers, and toes
  • Shortness of breath or trouble breathing
  • Difficulties in eating
  • Low birth weight
  • Chest pain
  • Growth retardation

In other cases, symptoms of a congenital heart defect do not appear until many years after birth. As symptoms develop, they can include:

  • Abnormal heart rhythms
  • Dizziness
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Epilepsy
  • Inflammation
  • Fatigue

2. Atherosclerosis

The formation of fat and cholesterol in the arteries causes the arteries to harden and narrow, increasing the risk of heart disease, stroke, and cardiac arrest. Children can be diagnosed with atherosclerosis just like adults.

Arteries are muscular tubes that carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to tissues throughout the body. When the tubes are narrow, they cannot carry blood throughout the body and less blood reaches the tissues.

Signs & Symptoms

Symptoms of your coronary arteries:

Pain or pressure in the upper body, including the chest, arms, neck, or jaw. This is called angina.

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Symptoms of the arteries that supply blood to your brain:
  • Numbness or weakness in your arms or legs
  • It is very difficult to speak or understand the speakers.
  • Relax facial muscles
  • Paralysis
  • Intense headache
  • Difficulty seeing with one or both eyes.
  • Symptoms related to the arteries in your arms, legs, and pelvis:
  • Leg pain when walking
  • Numbness
  • Symptoms of the arteries that supply blood to the kidneys:
  • Hypertension
  • Renal insufficiency

3. Arrhythmias

Arrhythmia means any change in the normal rhythm of the heartbeat. If your child has an arrhythmia, her heart may be beating too fast or too slow, or she may have extra or extra beats. Arrhythmia can occur from a physical condition such as heart failure in response to external factors such as fever, infection, and certain medications. Crying and playing also briefly change a child’s heart rate.

Signs & Symptoms

Children with arrhythmia may not have any symptoms. For those who do, these are the most common symptoms:

  • You feel weak
  • Feeling tired
  • Feel your heartbeat (palpitations)
  • Low blood pressure
  • She feels dizzy
  • Epilepsy (syncope)
  • Not eating or eating well

The symptoms of an arrhythmia may be similar to other heart conditions or problems. Make sure your child sees their healthcare provider for a diagnosis

4. Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease is a disease in which the blood vessels become inflamed, most often in young children. It is one of the leading causes of heart disease in children. But it can be treated if doctors find it early. Most children recover without problems.

Signs & Symptoms

Kawasaki disease begins with a fever over 102 degrees and lasts for at least five days. Other signs and symptoms may include:

  • The rash can appear anywhere on the body but is most severe in the diaper area
  • Red, bloody eyes without pus, discharge, or scabs
  • Swelling and tenderness of the gland (lymph node) on one side of the neck
  • Swelling of the hands and feet with redness of the palms and soles of the feet
  • Very red, swollen, and chapped lips; Strawberry-like tongue with rough red spots
  • Significant irritability and confusion
  • Peel fingers and toes (2 to 3 weeks after onset of fever)

5. Heart murmurs

The heart murmur is the extra or abnormal sounds caused by the turbulent blood flowing through the heart. Murmurs range from 1 to 6, depending on how loud they are. One is a very low murmur. Six means a very loud murmur.

Signs & Symptoms

If you have a benign heart murmur, commonly known as an innocent heart murmur, you have no other signs or symptoms. The abnormal heart murmur doesn’t cause any other obvious signs or symptoms, just put aside the unusual sound your doctor hears when listening to your heart with a stethoscope. If you have these signs or symptoms, they may indicate a heart problem:

  • Skin that appears blue, especially on the fingers and lips
  • Sudden swelling or weight gain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Chronic cough
  • Enlarged liver
  • Dilated jugular veins
  • Lack of appetite and lack of normal growth (in babies)
  • Heavy sweating with little or no effort
  • Chest pain
  • Dizziness
  • Epilepsy

6. Pericarditis

Pericarditis is an inflammation or infection of the pericardium, a thin sac around the heart. There is a small amount of fluid between the inner and outer layers of the pericardium.

When the pericardium is inflamed, the amount of fluid between its two layers increases, compressing the heart and interfering with the heart’s ability to function properly.

Signs & Symptoms

The following are common symptoms of pericarditis. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms can include chest pain:

  • Sensation especially behind the breastbone and sometimes the clavicle (clavicle), below the neck and left shoulder
  • Sharp, stabbing pain in the middle or left side of the chest increases when the child breathes deeply
  • Low fever
  • Irritated
  • Fatigue
  • Lack of appetite
  • Arrhythmia

Children may not be able to describe themselves as having “chest pain” or explain how they feel. Sometimes children may express specific symptoms such as irritability, loss of appetite, or fatigue.

7. Rheumatic heart disease

Arrhythmia means any change in the normal rhythm of the heartbeat. If your child has arrhythmia, her heart may be beating too fast or too slow, or she may have extra or extra beats. Arrhythmia can occur from a physical condition such as heart failure in response to external factors such as fever, infection, and certain medications. Crying and playing can also briefly change a child’s heart rate.

Signs & Symptoms

Rheumatic fever can be due to:

  • Carditis: inflammation of the heart muscle and heart tissue. Carditis causes a rapid heart rate, fatigue, shortness of breath, and exercise intolerance. It is the most serious of symptoms and can have long-term health effects. About 50 percent of people with rheumatic fever develop carditis
  • Arthritis: Swelling, redness, and pain in the joints, especially in the knees, ankles, elbows, and wrists. It is a common symptom and occurs in about 70 percent of people with rheumatic fever
  • Itchy rash without a splash
  • Subcutaneous nodules – small, tight lumps under the skin
  • Fever
  • Chorea: Involuntary movement of limbs
General Topics

Common Signs of Heart Disease in Men | Cardiology

What is heart disease?

Heart disease is one of the foremost health risks facing men today. Rendering to the American Heart Association (AHA), more than one in three adult men has heart disease. Heart disease is an umbrella term that includes:

  • Heart failure
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Arrhythmias
  • Angina
  • Other heart-related infections, irregularities, and birth defects

Although it may seem that something so serious should have cautionary signs, it’s possible to develop heart disease without knowing it as you go about your daily life. Know the early signs of heart disease – as well as risk factors – so you can get treatment early and prevent more thoughtful health problems.

Signs and Symptoms of heart disease in men

In some cases, a heart attack or other serious heart-related event can be one of the first signs of heart disease a man notices. However, there are often some early signs and symptoms to look for that can help prevent a heart attack, stroke, or other complications of heart disease.

Men generally experience a mixture of the following symptoms when they have a heart attack:

  • Chest pain
  • Pain in the arm, neck, jaw, or back
  • Tightness or a feeling of pressure or fullness in the chest
  • Unexplained excessive sweating
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Daze
  • Nausea

Chest pain

This is the most shared symptom of a heart attack in both men and women. Most of the time, it starts out slowly with mild pain or discomfort. Sudden onset of severe symptoms is sometimes called a “Hollywood heart attack,” because of the typical way heart attacks are described in movies and on television. A heart attack can happen this way, but it is not as common.

Chest discomfort or pressure

The pain can be plain, but it doesn’t have to be. It can be a feeling of “fullness”, tightness or pressure. It can even be mistaken for heartburn. Discomfort often occurs in the left or center of your chest. The sensation may last more than several minutes or it may come and go.

Pain in other parts of your body

Pain or discomfort sometimes appears in other areas because they are not getting enough blood. It is usually an area of ​​the body that is above the waist, including the upper stomach, shoulders, one arm (probably the left) or both, the back, neck or jaw, and even the teeth.

Other symptoms

Shortness of breath, called dyspnea, can occur with or without chest pain and may even be your only symptom. It can happen when you are active or not and is probably due to congestion (fluid build-up) in the lungs. You can also find yourself coughing or panting.

Feeling tired for no reason is another common sign. You may also feel anxious. Nausea and vomiting are less mutual in men than in women. Some people say they feel lightheaded or dizzy. Another possible sign is breaking out in a cold sweat.

Constriction in the chest: This is one of the most common signs of heart problems. If you’ve experienced chest pain, tightness, or pressure, see your doctor right away. The feeling of discomfort comes and goes and can last from a few minutes to a few hours.

Physical exhaustion: Unexplained fatigue and severe exhaustion are important signs of heart disease. Many men cannot even climb stairs or walk short distances before an impending heart attack. See if you can’t do the usual tasks, especially if you were able to do them without problems before. Some heart problems may be brewing and should not be ignored.

Erectile dysfunction: One of the main reasons for erectile dysfunction is insufficient amounts of blood reaching the penis. Plaque buildup reduces blood flow and damages blood vessels. This is true for the heart and the other extremities. If someone is dealing with persistent erectile dysfunction, they should have an exam for heart problems.

Snoring: Sleep apnea occurs when there are interruptions in breathing while one is sleeping. Some symptoms of this are gasping in the middle of sleep, feeling exhausted despite the usual bedtime, and snoring. Pauses in breathing can lead to increased blood pressure, stress on the heart, and an increased risk of heart disease.

Perspiration: Sweating without any strenuous activity? This could indicate a heart attack. Call an ambulance, as it would be dangerous to drive to the hospital.

Stomach problems: Nausea, heartburn, indigestion, or stomach pain can indicate heart problems. Some people even vomit. These symptoms can also be due to a stomach virus, but if the symptoms increase with physical exertion and decrease with rest, then they are due to a heart problem.

Pain in the arm or jaw: One of the most telling signs of heart disease is pain that radiates from the chest to the arm, specifically the left arm and jaw.

Daze: Do you suddenly feel dizzy and have chest pain or shortness of breath? Run to the hospital. Lightheadedness occurs due to a sudden drop in blood pressure.

Risk factors of heart disease

Many men are at high risk of emerging heart disease. The AHA stated in 2013 that only a quarter of men met federal guidelines for physical activity 2011. They also estimated that 72.9 percent of U.S. men age 20 and older are overheavy or obese. And around 20 percent of men smoke, which can cause the blood vessels to narrow. Tightened blood vessels are a precursor to certain types of heart disease.

Other risk factors include:

  • A diet high in saturated fat
  • Alcohol abuse or excessive drinking
  • High cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Trusted Source, nearly half of all Americans – both men and women – have three or more risk factors for heart disease.

Seek medical courtesy if you have any of these symptoms. If you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or a family history of heart problems, you are at risk.

Complications of heart disease

Complications of heart disease include:

Heart failure: One of the most common complications of heart disease, heart failure occurs when your heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the needs of your body. Heart failure can be the result of many forms of heart disease, including heart defects, cardiovascular disease, valvular heart disease, heart infections, or cardiomyopathy.

Myocardial infarction: A blood clot that blocks blood flow through a blood vessel that feeds the heart causes a heart attack, possibly damaging or destroying a part of the heart muscle. Atherosclerosis can cause a heart attack.

Race: Risk factors that lead to cardiovascular disease can also lead to ischemic stroke, which occurs when the arteries to the brain become narrowed or blocked, so that very little blood reaches the brain. A stroke is a medical emergency – brain tissue begins to die within minutes of having a stroke.

Aneurysm: A serious complication that can happen anywhere in your body, an aneurysm is a bulge in the wall of your artery. If an aneurysm bursts, you may face life-threatening interior bleeding.

Peripheral artery disease: Atherosclerosis can also lead to peripheral arterial disease. When you develop peripheral artery disease, your extremities, usually your legs, don’t get enough blood flow. This causes symptoms, especially pain in the legs when walking (claudication).

Sudden cardiac arrest is the sudden and unexpected loss of heart function, breathing, and consciousness, often caused by an arrhythmia. Sudden cardiac arrest is a medical emergency. If not treated directly, it is fatal, resulting in sudden cardiac death.

Prevention of heart disease

Certain types of heart disease, such as heart defects, cannot be prevented. However, you can help prevent many other types of heart disease by making the same lifestyle changes that can improve your heart disease, such as:

  • Give up smoking
  • Control other health circumstances, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes
  • Exercise at least 30 minutes a day utmost days of the week
  • Eat a diet low in salt and soaked fat
  • keep a healthy weight
  • Reduce and manage stress
  • Practice good hygiene
General Topics

Types and Risk factors of Heart disease in men | Cardiology

Heart disease in men

Men develop heart risks 10 years earlier, on average than women. They also have an early warning sign that few can slip: erectile dysfunction (ED). “Sexual problems often predict heart problems.” On the bright side, any risk factor, including erectile dysfunction, that catches your attention can steer you toward better preventive care.

Cardiac risk factor

Erectile dysfunction

“Many persons think of erectile dysfunction as the incapability to get an erection, but an early sign of the condition is not being able to uphold an erection long enough to have filling sex,” says a Johns Hopkins expert. Erection problems are not a normal part of aging as many people think; rather, they almost always indicate a physical problem.

A key reason why erectile dysfunction is considered a barometer of cardiovascular health, in general, is that the penis, like the heart, is a vascular organ. Because your arteries are so much smaller than your heart’s, arterial damage appears first there, often years before symptoms of heart disease. Men in their 40s who have creation problems (but no other risk factors for cardiovascular disease) have an 80 percent risk of developing heart problems in 10 years.

Treatment tends to be successful when started as soon as you begin to notice erection problems for more than a couple of months. An ER exam by a doctor will address risk factors for heart disease, such as prediabetes, high blood pressure, or being overweight, hopefully long before they result in a heart attack or stroke.

Low testosterone

Having a low testosterone level is often considered just a decrease in sex drive, but is increasingly being seen to be linked to heart disease and type 2 diabetes, says the expert. He notes that a growing body of research designates that “low T” can be considered a cardiovascular and metabolic risk factor.\

“These ideas are still being thoughtful, but we know, for example, that people with stomach obesity [so-called ‘abdominal fat’] or metabolic syndrome tend to have low testosterone levels,” says the expert. Metabolic syndrome (which includes high blood sugar, unhealthy cholesterol levels, and too much weight in the midsection) and diabetes are the main risk factors for heart disease.

Low testosterone is just one part of a general picture of heart risk, says the expert. But it can be motivating, and even life-saving, to know that changes in your sexual function are closely related to the rest of your body. It’s worth getting checked out when something doesn’t seem right. “Men are often not related with this problem or measured for risk of stroke or heart attack until it occurs,” he says. “But sexual problems are a message they hear.”


Stress, anger, and anxiety raise blood pressure levels and stress hormones and can limit blood flow to the heart. Some damages may be immediate. In the two hours after an angry outburst, for example, your risk of a heart attack is nearly five times higher and your risk of a stroke three times higher, research has shown.

What’s more, the effects of chronic stress can build up over time and damage your arteries. Men who have angry or hostile personalities, in particular, are at a higher risk of developing heart disease. Sexual problems related to heart disease can cause additional anxiety or stress in relationships. Stress can also affect your sleep, which in turn affects your heart health.

“Physical, expressive and psychological factors are all interrelated when it comes to heart health” When somebody has chronic stress, depression, or anxiety, they should have a basic assessment of all risk factors for heart disease.”

Main risk factors that cannot be changed

You may be born with sure risk factors that cannot be changed. The more of these risk factors you have, the greater your chance of emerging coronary heart disease. Since there is nothing you can do about these risk factors, it is even more important that you monitor the risk factors that can be changed.

Increasing age

Most of the people who die from coronary heart disease are 65 or older. While heart attacks can affect people of both sexes in old age, women are at higher risk of dying (within a few weeks).

Male gender

Men have a higher risk of heart attack than women, and men have it earlier.

Even after females reach menopausal age when the female death rate from heart disease increases, women’s risk of heart attack is inferior to men’s.

Heredity (including race)

Children of parents with heart disease are more probable to develop heart disease.

African Americans have more severe high blood pressure than Caucasians and an increased risk of heart disease. This is due in part to higher rates of obesity and diabetes.

Most people with a robust family history of heart disease have one or more risk factors. Just as you can’t control your age, gender, and race, you can’t control your family history. Therefore, it is even more important to treat and control any other modifiable risk factors you have.

Main risk factors that you can modify, treat or control

Tobacco smoke

The risk of smokers developing coronary heart disease is much higher than that of nonsmokers.

Smoking is a powerful independent risk factor for sudden cardiac death in patients with coronary artery disease. Smoking also interrelates with other risk factors to greatly increase the risk of coronary heart disease. Experience in hand-me-down smoke increases the risk of heart disease even for nonsmokers.

High blood cholesterol

As blood cholesterol upsurges, so do the risk of coronary heart disease. When other risk factors are also current (such as high blood pressure and tobacco smoke), this risk increases even more. A person’s cholesterol level is also pretentious by age, sex, heredity, and diet. Here’s the lowdown on:

Total cholesterol

Your total cholesterol score is intended using the following equation: HDL + LDL + 20 percent of your triglyceride level.

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol = “bad” cholesterol

A low level of LDL cholesterol is considered good for your heart health. However, your LDL number should not be the primary factor in supervisory treatment to prevent heart attacks and strokes, according to the latest guidelines from the American Heart Association. Additionally, patients taking statins no longer need to lower LDL cholesterol levels to a specific target number. Lifestyle factors, such as a diet high in soaked and trans fats, can raise LDL cholesterol.

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol = “good” cholesterol

With HDL (good) cholesterol, higher levels are usually better. Low HDL cholesterol places you at higher risk for heart disease. People with high blood triglyceride levels generally also have lower HDL cholesterol. Genetic factors, type 2 diabetes, smoking, being overweight, and being sedentary can lower HDL cholesterol.


Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body. Normal triglyceride levels vary by age and gender. A high triglyceride level joint with low HDL cholesterol or high LDL cholesterol is associated with atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of fat deposits within the walls of the veins that increases the risk of heart attack and stroke.


High blood pressure increases the workload of the heart, which causes the heart muscle to thicken and become stiffer. This tightening of the heart muscle is not normal and causes the heart to function abnormally. It also upsurges your risk of stroke, heart attack, kidney failure, and heart failure with gestures.

When high blood pressure is current along with obesity, smoking, high blood cholesterol levels, or diabetes, the risk of heart attack or stroke increases even more.

Physical inactivity

A sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Regular moderate to vigorous physical activity helps reduce the risk of cardiac disease. Physical action can help control blood cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity. It can also help lower blood pressure in some persons.

Obesity and overweight

People who have excess body fat, particularly if a large amount is around the waist, are more likely to develop heart disease and stroke, even if those same people have no other risk factors.


Symptoms of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis | Neurology

What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a group of rare neurological diseases that mainly involve the nerve cells (neurons) responsible for regulatory voluntary muscle movement. Voluntary muscles produce actions like chewing, walking, and talking. The disease is progressive, which means that symptoms get worse over time. Now, there is no cure for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and no effective treatment to stop or reverse the progression of the disease.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis goes to a larger group of disorders known as motor neuron diseases, which are caused by the gradual deterioration (degeneration) and death of motor neurons. Motor neurons are nerve cells that extend from the brain to the spinal cord and muscles throughout the body. These motor neurons initiate and provide vital communication links between the brain and voluntary muscles.

Messages from motor neurons in the brain (called upper motor neurons) are transmitted to motor neurons in the spinal cord and motor nuclei in the brain (called lower motor neurons) and from the spinal cord and motor nuclei in the brain to a muscle or muscles in particular.

In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, both the upper motor neurons and the lower motor neurons decadent or die and stop sending to the muscles. Unable to function, muscles gradually weaken, begin to contract (called fasciculations), and wear out (atrophy). Finally, the brain loses its ability to initiate and control voluntary movements.

Symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

The signs and symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis vary greatly from person to person, depending on the neurons affected. Signs and symptoms can include:

  • Difficulty walking or doing normal daily activities
  • Stumble and fall
  • Weakness in the leg, feet, or ankles
  • Weakness or clumsiness in the hands
  • Difficulty speaking or difficulty swallowing
  • Muscle cramps and spasms in the arms, shoulders, and tongue
  • Crying, laughing, or yawning inappropriately
  • Cognitive and behavioral changes

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis often begins in the hands, feet, or extremities and then spreads to other parts of the body. As the disease progresses and nerve cells are destroyed, the muscles weaken. This eventually affects chewing, swallowing, speaking, and breathing.

There is usually no pain in the early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and pain is rare in the later stages. ALS does not usually affect bladder control or the senses.

Causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Researchers still don’t know precisely what causes motor neurons to die with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Genetic changes, or mutations, are behind 5% to 10% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases. Additional than 12 different genetic changes have been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

One change is in a gene that makes a protein called SOD1. This protein can be toxic to motor neurons. Other genetic changes in ALS can also damage motor neurons.

The setting could also play a role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Scientists are learning whether people who come into contact with certain chemicals or germs are more probable to get the disease.

Scientists are also watching at these other possible causes:

Glutamate: This chemical sends signals to and from the brain and nerves. It is a type of neurotransmitter. With amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, glutamate builds up in the spaces around nerve cells and can damage them. The medications riluzole (Rilutek) work by lowering glutamate levels and may help slow the development of the disease.

Immune system problems: Your immune system protects your body from foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses. In your brain, microglia are the main type of immune cell. They destroy germs and damaged cells. With amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, microglia may also destroy healthy motor neurons.

Mitochondria problems: Mitochondria are the parts of your cells where energy is produced. A problem with them could lead to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or make an existing case worse.

Oxidative stress: Your cells use oxygen to produce energy. Some of the oxygen your body uses for energy can be converted into toxic substances called free radicals, which can damage cells. The drug edaravone (Radicava) is an antioxidant that can help control these free radicals.

Risk factors of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Established risk factors for ALS include:

Heritage: Between five and 10 percent of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis inherited it (familial ALS). In most people with familial ALS, their children have a 50 to 50 chance of developing the disease.

Years: The risk of ALS increases with age and is most common between the ages of 40 and mid-60.

Sex: Before age 65, slightly more men than women develop ALS. This sex difference disappears after age 70.

Genetics: Some studies that looked at the entire human genome found many similarities in the genetic variations of people with familial ALS and some people with non-inherited ALS. These genetic variations can make people more susceptible to ALS.

Environmental factors, such as the following, can trigger ALS:

Of smoking: Smoking is the only probable environmental risk factor for ALS. The risk appears to be higher for women, especially after menopause.

Exposure to environmental toxins: Some evidence suggests that exposure to lead or other substances in the workplace or at home could be related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Many studies have been done, but no single agent or chemical has been consistently associated with ALS.

Military service: Studies indicate that people who have served in the military are at increased risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It is not clear which of the military service could trigger the development of ALS. It can include exposure to certain metals or chemicals, traumatic injuries, viral infections, and heavy exertion.

Diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Diagnosing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is problematic because there is no single medical test for it. Also, since many neurological diseases cause similar symptoms, these other conditions must first be ruled out by clinical examinations and medical tests. A complete diagnostic study includes most, if not all, of the following tests and procedures:

Electrodiagnostic tests counting electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV), which assess complicated areas such as the bulbar region (head, neck, and brain for speaking and swallowing) as well as the cervical region (arms, diaphragm ), thoracic region (breathing muscles) and lumbar region (legs)

Blood and urine studies, including high-resolution serum protein electrophoresis, thyroid, and parathyroid hormone levels, and 24-hour urine collection for heavy metals, to rule out any immune or inflammatory disease.

  • Lumbar puncture
  • X-rays and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • CT scan of the cervical spine
  • Muscle and/or nerve biopsy
  • Thorough neurological examination

Individual physicians will determine which of the above tests to perform, usually based on physical examination and the results of prior medical tests that have been performed on the patient.

Treatment and prevention

There is no cure for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, so treatment aims to relieve symptoms, prevent unnecessary complications, and slow the progression of the disease. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis can cause a diversity of physical, mental, and social changes, so a team of specialists will often help patients manage their symptoms and care, improve their quality of life, and prolong survival.

Riluzole (Rilutek) was approved for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1995, and it appears to slow the progression of the disease. It can work by reducing the body’s levels of glutamate, an excitotoxin that has been linked to neuronal damage. In May 2017, Radicava (Edaravone) was accepted to treat ALS. It can slow the decline in physical function by one-third.

Various research projects are looking for ways to use new and existing medications to treat different aspects of ALS. Physicians can also recommend medications to treat the different symptoms.

Therapy: Physical therapy can help people with ALS manage pain and address mobility problems. A physical therapist can provide help and information with low-impact exercises to improve cardiovascular fitness and general well-being mobility aids, such as walkers and wheelchair devices to make life easier, such as ramps.

Occupational therapy can help a patient maintain their independence longer by help patients select adaptive equipment and assistive skills to help them maintain their daily routines train them to compensate for hand and arm weaknesses. Respiratory therapy may be needed over time, as the respiratory muscles weaken.

Breathing devices can help the patient breathe better at night. Some patients may require mechanical ventilation. One end of a tube connects to a respirator, while the other end is inserted into the trachea through a surgically created hole in the neck or tracheostomy.

Speech therapy is helpful when ALS begins to make speech difficult. Speech therapists can help by teaching adaptation techniques. Other communication methods include computer and written communication equipment.

Nutritional support is important, as difficulty swallowing can make it difficult to get enough nutrients. Nutritionists can advise on preparing nutritious meals that are easier to swallow. Suction devices and feeding tubes can help.

Complications of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

By way of the disease progresses, ALS causes complications, such as:

Respiratory problems: Over time, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis paralyzes the muscles you used to breathe. You may need a device to help you breathe at night, similar to what a person with sleep apnea might use. For example, you may be given continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) to help you breathe at night.

Some people with advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis choose to undergo a tracheostomy, a surgically created hole in the front of the neck that leads into the windpipe (windpipe), for full-time use of a ventilator that inflates and deflates their lungs.

The most mutual cause of death for persons with ALS is respiratory failure. On average, death occurs three to five years after symptoms begin. However, some people with ALS live 10 years or more.

Trouble speaking: Most people with ALS develop trouble speaking. Usually, this starts out as an occasional slight drag of words but becomes more severe. Over time, speech becomes difficult for others to understand, and people with ALS often rely on other communication technologies to communicate.

Eating problems: People with ALS can progress malnutrition and dehydration from injury to the muscles that control swallowing. They are also at increased risk of getting food, liquid, or saliva into the lungs, which can cause pneumonia. A feeding tube can reduce these risks and ensure adequate hydration and nutrition.

Dementia: Some people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have problems with memory and decision-making, and some are eventually diagnosed with a form of dementia called frontotemporal dementia.


Overview of Peripheral Vascular Disease | Cardiology

What is peripheral vascular disease?

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a circulatory disorder that causes blood vessels outside the heart and brain to narrow, block, or contract. It can occur in your arteries or veins. The peripheral vascular disease generally causes pain and fatigue, often in the legs and especially when exercising. The pain usually improves with rest.

Signs/symptoms of peripheral vascular disease

People with the peripheral vascular disease do not have any symptoms. Possible symptoms include:

  • Hair loss on the feet and legs.
  • The thigh or calf muscles may feel pain when walking or climbing stairs, some individuals complain of painful hips.
  • Leg weakness.
  • A foot or the lower leg may feel cold.
  • Numbness in the legs.
  • Brittle toenails.
  • Toenails grow slowly.
  • Sores or ulcers on the legs and feet that take a long time to heal (or never heal).
  • The skin on the legs becomes shiny or turns pale or bluish.
  • Difficulty in finding a pulse in the leg or foot.
  • Erectile dysfunction (impotence in men, problems achieving or sustaining an erection).

Causes of peripheral vascular disease

Peripheral artery disease is often caused by atherosclerosis. In atherosclerosis, fatty deposits (plaques) form on the walls of the arteries and reduce blood flow. Although discussions of atherosclerosis generally focus on the heart, the disease affects arteries throughout the body.

When it occurs in the arteries that supply blood to the organs, it can cause peripheral artery disease. Less commonly, peripheral artery disease can be caused by inflammation of the blood vessels, injury to organs, abnormal anatomy of tendons or muscles, or exposure to radiation.

Risk Factors of peripheral vascular disease

You’re at higher risk for peripheral vascular disease if you:

  • Are over age 50
  • Are overweight
  • Have abnormal cholesterol
  • Have a history of cerebrovascular disease or stroke
  • Have heart disease
  • Have diabetes
  • Have a family history of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or peripheral vascular disease
  • Have high blood pressure
  • Have kidney disease on hemodialysis

Lifestyle choices that can increase your risk of developing the peripheral vascular disease include:

  • Not engaging in physical exercise
  • Poor eating habits
  • Smoking
  • Drug use

Diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease

The differential diagnosis of the peripheral vascular disease includes musculoskeletal and neurological factors. Spinal stenosis also causes compression of each equine, resulting in pain that radiates to both legs. The pain occurs when walking (i.e., pseudocopulation) or standing for a long time and does not subside quickly with rest.

Additional conditions to consider include acute embolism, deep or superficial vein thrombosis, restless leg syndrome, systemic vasculitis, nocturnal leg cramps, muscle or tendon strains, peripheral neuropathy, and arthritis. Some tests your doctor relies on to diagnose peripheral artery disease are:

Physical exam: Your doctor may find signs of peripheral vascular disease on physical examination, a weak or absent pulse below the narrow area of ​​your artery, sounds (fruit) in your arteries that can be heard with a stethoscope, evidence of poor wound healing in an area where your blood flow is restricted and the blood pressure in your affected organ is low.

Ankle-brachial index (ITB): This is a simple test used to diagnose peripheral vascular disease. Compare the blood pressure in your ankle with the blood pressure in your hand. To obtain a blood pressure reading, your doctor will use a simple blood pressure cuff and a special ultrasound device to assess blood pressure and flow. You can walk on a treadmill and take readings before and immediately after exercise to capture the severity of your narrow arteries during your walk.

Ultrasound: Specialized ultrasound imaging techniques, such as doppler ultrasound, can help your doctor evaluate blood flow through blood vessels and identify blocked or narrow arteries.

Angiography: Using a dye (contrast material) inserted into your blood vessels, this test allows you to watch your doctor while watching the flow of blood through your arteries. Your doctor can detect the flow of contrast material using imaging techniques such as X-ray imaging or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA).

Catheter angiography: Catheter angiography is a more serious procedure that involves guiding the catheter through the artery in the groin to the affected area and injecting color that way. Despite the aggression, this type of angiography allows simultaneous diagnosis and treatment. After finding the narrow area of ​​the blood vessel, your doctor may inflate it by inserting and inflating a small balloon or by administering medications that improve blood flow.

Blood test: You can use a blood sample to measure your cholesterol and triglycerides and check for diabetes.

Treatments of peripheral vascular disease

Goals of treatment for peripheral arterial disease:

  • Relief of pain from intermittent claudication.
  • Improve exercise endurance by increasing walking distance before the start of the liner.
  • Avoid the development of a complex artery that can lead to foot ulcers, gangrene, and amputation.
  • Avoid heart attacks and strokes.

Treatment for peripheral arterial disease includes lifestyle measures, supervised exercises, medications, angioplasty, and surgery.

Changes in lifestyle: Quitting smoking removes a major risk factor for disease progression and reduces the incidence of pain at rest and dissection. Quitting smoking is also important to prevent heart attacks and strokes.

Supervised exercise: Proper exercise allows the muscles to use oxygen more efficiently and accelerates the development of collateral circulation. Clinical trials have shown that regularly controlled exercise reduces symptoms of intermittent claudication and allows people to walk longer before the onset of claudication. Ideally, your healthcare provider should prescribe an exercise program tailored to your specific needs.

Rehabilitation programs can help under the supervision of health professionals, such as nurses or physical therapists. Exercise at least three times a week, with each session lasting no more than 30 to 45 minutes for the best results. Exercise generally involves walking on a treadmill with a monitor until the lining develops; The walking time increases gradually with each session. Patients are also monitored for the development of chest pain or heart rhythm disturbances during exercise.

Complications of peripheral vascular disease

Complications of peripheral vascular disease are often caused by reduced or no blood flow. Such problems can include:

  • Amputation (loss of a limb)
  • Poor wound healing
  • Limited consciousness due to pain or discomfort
  • Severe pain in the affected limbs
  • Stroke (3 times more common in people with the peripheral vascular disease)

Prevention of peripheral vascular disease

The best way to prevent peripheral vascular disease is to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle:

  • Stop smoking: Tobacco smoke is a major risk factor for peripheral vascular disease and your risk of heart attack and stroke. It can help slow the progression of peripheral vascular disease and other heart-related diseases.
  • Work to control your blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose levels. Working with a coordinated health care team and making the lifestyle changes needed to better manage diabetes can reduce organ-related problems.
  • Get regular exercise: The most effective treatment for peripheral vascular disease symptoms is regular physical activity. Your doctor may recommend a program of exercise training to monitor for you, also known as cardiac rehabilitation. You need to start slowly, but regular walking rules, leg exercises, and treadmill exercise programs can reduce symptoms.
  • Intermittent exercise for cladding: Taking into account the fact that plaque formation causes poor circulation in the arteries of the leg – can lead to gait pain. This program has alternative functionality and increases the amount of time you can walk before the pain starts. It is a good idea to take this exercise program to the rehab center on the treadmill. If going to a rehabilitation center is not possible, your healthcare professional may recommend a structured community or home-based program that best suits your situation. You may want to speak with your doctor to find out which exercise program is right for you.
  • Follow a diet low in fat and cholesterol and eat more fruits and vegetables. If you are overweight or behind, plan a weight loss plan with your doctor. Many peripheral vascular disease patients have elevated cholesterol levels. A diet low in saturated and trans fat can help lower blood cholesterol levels, but cholesterol-lowering medications may be needed to maintain proper cholesterol levels.



Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments of Stroke | Neurology

What is a Stroke?

A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is cut off or reduced, preventing the brain tissue from receiving oxygen and nutrients. Brain cells die in minutes. It is a medical emergency and prompt treatment is very important. Proactive action reduces brain damage and other problems.

Other names

  • Brain attack
  • Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
  • Hemorrhagic stroke (includes intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage)
  • Ischemic stroke (includes thrombotic stroke and embolic stroke)

Signs/symptoms of stroke

  • Unexpected numbness or weakness in the face, arms, or legs, especially on one side of the body.
  • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or trouble understanding speech.
  • Sudden trouble seeing with one or both eyes.
  • Sudden trouble walking, loss of balance, dizziness, or lack of coordination.
  • Sudden, severe headache for no apparent reason.

Types of strokes

The treatment for stroke depends on its type. The three main types of stroke are:

  • Ischemic attack: It is one of the three types of strokes. It is also known as cerebral ischemia and cerebral ischemia. This type of attack is caused by a blockage in the artery that supplies blood to the brain. The blockage reduces blood flow and oxygen to the brain, leading to damage or death of brain cells. If circulation is not restored quickly, brain damage can be permanent.
  • Hemorrhagic attack: Hemorrhagic attack when blood from an artery begins to bleed into the brain. This occurs when weak blood vessels break and bleed into the surrounding brain. The pressure of the filtered blood damages the brain cells, and as a result, the damaged area becomes unable to function properly.
  • Transient ischemic attack (a warning or “mini-stroke”): Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is an attack that lasts only a few minutes. This occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is briefly blocked. Symptoms of TIA are similar to other stroke symptoms, but they don’t last long. They happen suddenly.

Causes of stroke

It can treat certain conditions for which you can have a stroke. Other things that put you at risk will not change:

Hypertension: Your doctor calls this blood pressure. If your blood pressure is usually 140/90 or higher, your doctor will discuss treatments with you.

Tobacco: Smoking or chewing can increase your chances of having a stroke. Nicotine makes your blood pressure go up. Cigarette smoke increases fat in the main cervical artery. It also makes your blood thicker and more likely to clot. Secondhand smoke can affect you too.

Heart disease: This condition includes defective heart valves, as well as atrial fibrillation or irregular heartbeat, which account for about a quarter of all strokes in most adults. You can also have arteries clogged by fatty deposits.

Diabetes: People who suffer from it tend to have high blood pressure and are overweight. Diabetes can damage your blood vessels, making you more likely to have an attack. If you have a stroke when your blood sugar levels are high, your brain injury is high.

Risk factors of stroke

Main risk factors:

  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Cardiovascular diseases- Coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart valve disease, and carotid artery disease.
  • High levels of LDL cholesterol
  • Smoking
  • Brain aneurysms or arteriovenous deformities (AVM). AVMs are malformed arteries and veins that open to the brain.
  • Inflammatory infections or conditions such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.
  • A stroke can occur at any age, but the risk is higher in children and adults younger than 1 year. In adults, the risk increases with age.
  • At a younger age, it is more common in women than in men. But women live longer, so the risk of stroke is higher during their lifetime. birth control pills or use hormone replacement therapy can cause a stroke. Women are also at higher risk during pregnancy and during the postpartum weeks. High blood pressure during pregnancy, due to pre-eclampsia, increases the risk of stroke later in life.
  • Race and ethnicity: It is more common in African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, and Hispanic adults than in white adults.
  • Family history and genetics: If your parents or other family members have had a stroke, you are at special risk of having a stroke at a young age. Certain genes can affect your risk of stroke, including those that determine your blood type. People with blood type AB (which is not normal) are at higher risk.

Other risk factors that can be controlled, including:

  • Anxiety, depression, and high levels of stress. Working long hours and not having much contact with friends, family, or others outside the home also increases the risk of this disease.
  • Living or working in areas with air pollution.
  • Other medical conditions such as bleeding disorders, sleep apnea, kidney disease, migraine, and sickle cell anemia.
  • Other medicines that cause blood thinning or bleeding.
  • Other unhealthy lifestyle habits such as eating unhealthy foods, not engaging in regular physical activity, drinking alcohol, sleeping too much (more than 9 hours), and using illicit drugs such as cocaine.
  • Excess weight and delays or extra weight load around the waist and abdomen.

Diagnosis of stroke

The first step in evaluating the patient is to determine whether the patient is experiencing an ischemic or hemorrhagic attack so that appropriate treatment can begin. Head CT or MRI is usually the first test done.

Physical exam: Your doctor will perform various tests, such as listening to your heart and checking your blood pressure. They will also do a neurological exam to see how a possible stroke affects your nervous system.

Blood test: You may have several blood tests, including tests to see if your blood clots quickly, if your blood sugar is too high or too low, and if you have an infection.

Computed tomography (CT): A CT scan is done to view a detailed image of your brain. The CT scan shows bleeding, ischemic attack, tumor, or other conditions in the brain. Doctors can inject a dye into the bloodstream (CT angiography) to see the blood vessels in the neck and brain in more detail.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): An MRI is done to create a detailed view of your brain. MRI can detect brain tissue damaged by ischemic attack and brain hemorrhage. Your doctor may inject a dye into a blood vessel (magnetic resonance angiography or magnetic resonance venography) to view the arteries and veins and enhance blood flow.

Carotid ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create detailed images of the inside of the carotid arteries in your neck. This test increases fatty deposits (plaques) in the carotid arteries and increases blood flow.

Cerebral angiogram: In this abnormally used test, your doctor will make a small incision, usually in the groin, inserting a thin, flexible tube (catheter) through your main arteries and into your carotid or vertebral artery. Your doctor will then inject a dye into your blood vessels and make them visible under X-ray images. This procedure provides a detailed view of your brain and the arteries in your neck.

Echocardiogram: An echocardiogram can detect the source of clots in your heart, which can travel from your heart to your brain and cause your stroke.

Treatments for stroke

Treatment is based on the type of stroke.

Ischemic stroke: Treatment for this disease focuses on the restoration of blood to the brain.

  • You can get a freeze-thaw medicine called tissue plasminogen activator (TPA). This medicine improves recovery from a stroke. Doctors try to give this medicine within 3 hours of the start of symptoms. Some people can get help if they can get this medicine within 40 hours of the first symptoms.
  • You can also get aspirin or another antiplatelet medicine.
  • In some cases, a procedure may be done to restore blood flow. The doctor uses a thin, flexible tube (catheter) and a small cage to remove the blood clot. This procedure is called a thrombectomy.

Hemorrhagic stroke: Treatment focuses on controlling bleeding, reducing stress on the brain, and stabilizing important signals, especially blood pressure.

  • To stop the bleeding, you may receive a blood transfusion, such as medicine or plasma. These are administered intravenously.
  • Look closely for signs of increased stress on the brain. These signs include restlessness, confusion, trouble following orders, and headaches. Excessive coughing, vomiting, or other measures taken to avoid lifting or crossing stools or straining to change position.
  • If the bleeding is from a ruptured brain aneurysm, surgery may be done to repair the aneurysm.
  • In some cases, medications may be given to control blood pressure, meningitis, blood sugar levels, fever, and seizures.
  • If a large amount of bleeding occurs and symptoms quickly get worse, you may need surgery. Surgery can remove the blood that collects inside the brain and reduce the pressure inside the head.

Complications of stroke

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): If the blood is moving too slowly through your veins, it can cause a clot or a lump in the blood vessels. When blood clots in a vein, it can cause deep vein thrombosis. DVT is more likely to occur in the lower leg or thigh, but can also occur in other parts of the body. The DVT case can be fatal if the blood clots and goes to an important organ. Medications and early mobilization treatment after stroke can prevent DVT and help a person return to walking and other activities quickly.

Convulsions: It can injure the brain, resulting in scar tissue. This scar tissue interferes with the electrical activity of the brain. Interruption of electrical activity can cause seizures. Epilepsy is one of the most common complications of ischemic attack, affecting 22% of survivors.

Pneumonia: Pneumonia is a leading cause of illness and death. According to the Indiana University School of Medicine, pneumonia is the most common cause of hospitalization. In the case of a stroke, difficulty swallowing may cause aspiration, or food or fluids may enter the airways, leading to a chest infection or pneumonia.

Cerebral edema: Inflammation is part of the body’s natural response to injury. Edema refers to inflammation due to trapped fluid. If edema occurs in the brain, it can cause serious problems. Cerebral edema restricts blood supply to the brain, resulting in brain tissue death. Inflammation of the brain is one of the major complications of ischemic attack. Getting medical treatment as soon as the symptoms of a stroke are noticed reduces the chance of developing severe brain edema.

Bladder problems: There is a lot of bladder-related problems that can arise from a stroke. Often, stroke survivors have a strong urge or need to urinate frequently. When stroke survivors are unable to reach the bathroom or relieve themselves adequately because of the inability to remove clothing, this is called functional incontinence. Consequently, when a stroke survivor is unable to empty their bladder completely, this is called urinary retention. If this happens, the person will need a catheter to make sure the bladder is completely empty.

Clinical depression: Clinical depression often occurs after a major health crisis. One in four stroke survivors suffers from severe depression. Depression can cause sadness, irritability, difficulty concentrating, helplessness, apathy, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, and sometimes even suicidal thoughts. It is important to treat depression with the help of mental health providers.

Pressure sores: When the soft tissue is pressed too hard on a hard surface such as a chair or bed, the blood supply to that area decreases. This causes the skin tissue to be damaged or die. When this happens, a sore throat can occur. Prevention with pressure sores is crucial: proper positioning and appropriate equipment are needed to prevent them. Stroke survivors should discuss appropriate equipment such as air mattresses and wheelchair cushions with their physician or therapist.

Contracts: Loss of movements over time contracts due to the abnormal reduction of soft tissue structures that extend into one or more joints. These include skin, tendons, ligaments, muscles, and joint capsules. Loss of movement in any of these structures restricts joint movement, leading to pain, stiffness, and eventually a contraction. Low-load, long-term stretch is the preferred method for contracture resolution. Such a product, Cybo Stretch, uses a revolutionary stretch technique to maintain or improve movement, while at the same time reducing joint damage and pain.

Shoulder pain: 80% of patients suffer from shoulder pain. Subluxation or partial dislocation of the shoulder, spasticity of the shoulder, tendon, and rotating cuff tears are the causes of shoulder pain. Shoulder pain can be treated by proper positioning, including joint support with orthotics, as well as early occupational and/or physical therapy intervention. In some cases, if the pain becomes chronic, the doctor may prescribe oral corticosteroids.

Waterfalls and accidents: Common impairments such as imbalance, sensory impairment, weakness, visual problems, and coordination disorder naturally increase the risk of falls and accidents. Physical and occupational therapy can help reduce this risk and restore stability and lost function. Home modifications and assistive devices can be purchased to help prevent falls and accidents while performing routine daily activities.

Prevention of stroke

The best way to help prevent a stroke is to eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly, smoke, and drink heavily.

These lifestyle changes lower your risk for problems:

  • Atherosclerosis (atherosclerosis)
  • Hypertension
  • High cholesterol levels

If you already have a stroke, making these changes can lower your risk of having another stroke in the future.

Diet: Stroke with diabetes has specific health problems that must be addressed through your diet under the guidance of a doctor. In general, the dietary recommendations for stroke recovery are similar to those for diabetics. Stroke patients are often advised to focus on eating lean protein and nutrient-rich fruits and vegetables while limiting sugar, salt, and fat. Most liquid meal replacements contain large amounts of sugar, including many yogurts, puddings, and jellies, which are delicious and very bland foods. If you have a stroke and diabetes patient, watch out for these and choose sugar-free versions.

Exercise: Exercise is a valuable component that is not yet used for post-stroke care. The American Heart Association / American Stroke Association recommends that survivors recommend exercise because they experience physical degeneration and often lead a sedentary lifestyle after a stroke.

This reduces your ability to carry out activities of daily living and increases your risk of having another stroke. Heart fitness, walking ability, and upper arm strength, as well as depression, cognitive function, memory, and memory. quality of life after a stroke can be improved by physical activity.

Stop smoking: Smoking or chewing tobacco increases your chances of having a stroke. Nicotine makes your blood pressure go up. Cigarette smoke increases fat in the main cervical artery. It also makes your blood thicker and more likely to clot. Secondhand smoke can affect it too.

Alcohol: Alcoholic beverages are high in calories and have no nutritional value. Reducing the amount of alcohol you drink can help you achieve and maintain a healthy weight.

Cut down on alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption contributes to many risk factors for stroke. If you already have a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), drinking only safe alcohol can help lower your risk of having another stroke.

High blood pressure: It is a major risk factor for stroke, and drinking too much alcohol can increase your blood pressure. Atrial fibrillation, a type of irregular heartbeat, is triggered by excessive alcohol consumption.

Diabetes: Being diabetic and being overweight increases your risk of having a stroke. Both risk factors are associated with excessive alcohol consumption.


Treatment and Diagnosis of Pericardial disease | Cardiology

What is a pericardial disease (pericarditis)?

Pericardial disease or pericarditis is an inflammation of any layer of the pericardium. The pericardium is a clash of thin tissue around the heart and includes:

  • Visceral pericardium: The inner layer that covers the entire heart. Fluid layer between the visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium to avoid friction
  • Parietal pericardium: The outer layer made of fibrous tissue.

Signs and symptoms of pericardial disease

You may not have symptoms. This occurs most often in the case of a mild spill. You may have symptoms from the causes of pericardial disease. For example, you may have a fever if you have a pericardial infection.

When the stroke is more severe, you may have symptoms similar to:

  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Dilation of the neck veins.
  • Epilepsy
  • Breathe faster
  • Increase in cardiac frequency
  • Nausea
  • Pain in the upper right abdomen
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Swelling of the hands and feet

If the stroke is too severe, it can even lead to very low blood pressure. It causes symptoms of shock. In addition to:

  • Mild headache or dizziness
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Clammy skin
  • Weakness
  • Fast breathing
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Pale skin
  • Less urination
  • Shock is a medical emergency.

The symptoms of the pericardial disorder are similar to other health problems. See your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

Types of pericardial disease

Idiopathic pericarditis: The cause of acute pericarditis is very difficult to establish and idiopathic pericarditis remains the most common diagnosis. In most cases, a viral etiology is assumed.

Viral pericarditis: Coxsackievirus B and Echovirus are the most common viruses and diagnosis requires a four-fold increase in antiviral titers. Patients often experience a prodrome of upper respiratory infection. The prognosis for viral pericarditis is generally good, with a self-limited course, and if uncomplicated, patients can be treated on a patient basis.

Pure pericarditis: Before the age of antibiotics, pneumonia was the leading cause of purulent pericarditis. Currently, there are extensions of thoracic surgery, chemotherapy, immunosuppression, and hemodialysis, as well as pneumonia and emphysema. The appearance is usually severe with high fever, chills, night sweats, and dyspnea, but the classic findings of chest pain or friction rub are very rare. Cardiac tamponade is common (42–77% of patients in the selected series) and mortality is high.

If the purulent pericardial disease is suspected, hospitalization, treatment with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, and emergency drainage are recommended. Pericardial fluid analysis findings include a high protein level (> 6 g / dL), a low glucose level (<35 mg / dL), and a very high white blood cell count (6,000 to 240,000 / mm3).

Tuberculous pericarditis: Tuberculous pericarditis occurs in 1% to 2% of pulmonary tuberculosis cases. It is the leading cause of pericardial disease in some developing countries. Human immunodeficiency or immunosuppressed virus (HIV): Patients are at risk. Special symptoms such as dyspnea, fever, chills, night sweats develop slowly and often there is no rubbing or chest pain. A patient with suspected or diagnosed pericardial tuberculosis should be hospitalized and antituberculous treatment started immediately.

Analysis of the pericardial fluid shows a high specific gravity, a very high protein level (often> 6 g / dl), and mainly lymphocytic cells. Pericardial biopsy with an acid-fast bacilli polymerase chain reaction test is recommended for all patients with tuberculous pericarditis. However, a simple pericardial biopsy does not rule out the diagnosis.

Uremic and dialysis-associated pericarditis: Uremic pericarditis occurs with moderate renal failure in 6% to 10% of patients before the start of hemodialysis; Blood urea nitrogen levels are usually above 60 mg / dL. Normal ST-segment elevation on ECG is usually absent. Although tamponade is very rare, heavy bleeding can occur, facilitated by impaired platelet function. Alternatively, a serous pericardial effusion related to fluid overload may occur. With both forms, the onset or severity of hemodialysis is indicated, which generally leads to improvement in 1 to 2 weeks5,6.

Pericarditis after myocardial infarction: Pericarditis after myocardial infarction is a common complication (25% to 40% of patients with myocardial infarction) and begins within 3 to 10 days after myocardial infarction. Its development is associated with the extent of necrosis, is more common earlier than malignant infarcts, and is associated with a 1-year mortality rate and an increased risk of circulatory heart failure.

The diagnosis of post-myocardial infarction pericarditis requires symptoms or new pericardial friction; Pericardial effusion alone is not specified. In addition to the general ST elevation seen with severe pericarditis, which is difficult to distinguish from true MI in this setting, ECG findings show normalization of positive T waves more than 2 days after MI or T waves previously transversal.

Post-cardiac injury syndrome: Dressler syndrome usually occurs 2 to 3 weeks after a heart attack or open-heart surgery. The sensitive autoimmune component is believed to be responsible for myocardial infarction during infarction. Fully expressed syndromes include pleurisy chest pain, fever, leukocytosis, and pericardial rubbing. Pleural effusions or pulmonary infiltrates may be observed.

Malignancy: Malignant pericarditis is caused mainly by metastatic disease. Bronchogenic metastatic pericarditis or breast carcinoma, common in Hodgkin’s disease and lymphoma 

Causes of pericardial disease

  • Pericardial disease is caused by inflammation of the pericarditis in response to illness or injury.
  • The pericardial disease also occurs when the flow of pericardial fluid is blocked or blood collects at the pericardium from a chest injury.
  • Sometimes the cause cannot be determined (idiopathic pericarditis).
  • Inflammation of the pericarditis after heart surgery or a heart attack.
  • Autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
  • Cancer (metastasis), especially lung cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, leukemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, or Hodgkin’s disease
  • Heart cancer.
  • Radiation therapy for cancer if the heart is in the radiation field.
  • Chemotherapy treatments for cancer include doxorubicin (Doxil) and cyclophosphamide.
  • Dysfunctional thyroid (hypothyroidism).
  • Viral, bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection.
  • Trauma or puncture wound near the heart after open-heart surgery.
  • Some prescription drugs, including hydrolyzing, a drug for high blood pressure; Isoniazid, a drug for tuberculosis; And phenytoin (Dilantin, Fenitech, et al.) and Antiepileptic drug.

Risk factors of pericardial disease

Pericarditis affects people of all ages, but men in their 20s and 50s are more likely to develop it.

The cause of pericarditis is unknown in many cases. However, some factors can trigger pericarditis:

  • Recovering from a heart attack
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Injury or injury from an accident
  • Some bacterial, viral, and fungal infections
  • Renal insufficiency
  • In rare cases, some medicines, such as phenytoin to treat seizures and procainamide to treat irregular heartbeat

Diagnosis of pericardial disease

The doctor will do a physical exam and listen to your heart with a stethoscope. If you have signs or symptoms of pericardial disease, a series of blood and imaging tests will be done to confirm the diagnosis, identify possible causes, and determine treatment. Sometimes a pericardial disease is found when testing is done for other reasons.

  • Echocardiogram: An echocardiogram uses sound waves to create real-time images of your heart. This test allows your doctor to see how much fluid has accumulated in the space between the two layers of the pericardium. The echocardiogram also shows how well your heart is pumping blood and diagnostic tamponade or shock in one of the heart’s chambers.
  • There are two types of echocardiograms: Transthoracic echocardiogram. This test uses a sound-emitting device (transducer) that is placed on your chest and your heart.
  • Transoesophageal echocardiogram: A small transducer is placed in a tube in your digestive system that goes from your throat to your stomach (esophagus). Because the esophagus is so close to the heart, placing the transducer there provides a more detailed image of the heart.
  • Electrocardiogram: An electrocardiogram, also known as an ECG or EKG, records electrical signals as they travel through your heart. Your cardiologist can look for samples that indicate tamponade.
  • Chest x-ray: If you have too much fluid in the pericardium, a chest X-ray will show an enlarged heart.
  • Other imaging technologies: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect pericardial effusion, although they are not commonly used to look for it.

Treatment for pericardial disease

Treatment for pericardial disease depends on the underlying condition causing it and whether the effusion produces severe symptoms, such as shortness of breath or shortness of breath. Medical history, the examination of the patient, diagnosis, examination of the pericardial fluid, and the physician will help determine the cause and treatment.

Depending on the cause, excess fluid may be high in protein (exudate) or water (translate). Both categories help doctors determine the best course of treatment for pericardial effusion.

Medical administration

The goal of medical treatment for the pericardial disease is to treat the underlying cause. Medical treatments for pericardial effusions:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be used to treat pericardial disease caused by inflammation. These medications include ibuprofen or aspirin.
  • Diuretics can be used to treat pericardial effusions caused by heart failure.
  • Antibiotics are used to treat pericardial disease caused by infection.
  • However, if the pericardial effusion is related to the presence of cancer, treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or intramuscular injection.

Procedures for the treatment of pericardial disease

Regardless of whether the pericardial disease is transudative (watery fluid) or exudative (made from a protein-rich fluid), the large pericardial disease is caused by respiratory symptoms or cardiac tamponade may be the main cause of the elimination of excess fluid, to avoid its return or to increase the liquid.

Large pericardial effusions can be drained through:

  • Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis: It is a safe and effective procedure to remove excess fluid from the pericardium. This is more common after fluoroscopy.
  • Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS): Also known as thoracoscopy, is the least invasive technique performed under general anesthesia. VATS allows visual evaluation of the pericardium and is used when the diagnosis of pericardial effusion has not yet been made despite previous less invasive tests. It is also used to drain excess fluid and prevent relapse. A pericardial disease that may not be treated with medical maintenance or drainage of excess fluid may require surgical treatment.
  • The pericardial window (subluxated pericardiotomy): It is a minimally invasive procedure in which an opening is made in the pericardium to drain fluid that has accumulated around the heart. The pericardial window can be completed with a small incision under the end of the breastbone or with a small incision between the ribs on the left side of the chest.
  • Percutaneous balloon pericardiotomy: It is a non-surgical procedure performed with an x-ray guide to view the pericardium and place the balloon dilator catheter. This approach is not common.

Complications of pericardial disease

  • Pericarditis can be one of two serious problems: cardiac tamponade and chronic gastric pericarditis.
  • Cardiac tamponade a medical emergency and, if left untreated, can quickly become fatal.
  • It develops when there is excess fluid between the heart muscle (myocardium) and the pericardium, putting obstructive pressure on the heart to prevent it from working properly.

Cardiac tamponade causes several symptoms, including:

  • Anxiety
  • Breathing problems and chest pain.
  • Dizziness and epilepsy
  • Swelling of the abdomen
  • Drowsiness
  • Weak pulse
  • Rare, even chronic, chronic constrictive pericarditis can be fatal if left untreated.

Pericarditis develops slowly when scar (fibrous) tissue forms on the pericardium, causing the sac to become thicker, harder, and firmer. Scar tissue shrinks over time, preventing the heart from fully expanding and filling with blood. Chronic constrictive pericarditis can lead to weakness and fatigue, shortness of breath, and swelling in the abdomen and extremities.

Prevention of pericardial disease

In general, acute pericarditis cannot be prevented. You can take steps to reduce the chance of another serious episode, complications, or chronic pericarditis. Getting prompt treatment during these stages, following your treatment plan, and getting ongoing medical care as advised by your doctor.