Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment of Aneurysm | Cardiology

What is an aneurysm?

An aneurysm is an expansion of an artery caused by weakness in the arterial wall. Often there are no symptoms, but a broken aneurism can lead to fatal complications. It refers to a weakening of the wall of an artery that creates a bulge or strain in the artery. It demonstrates no symptoms and is not dangerous. However, in their most severe stage, some can rupture and cause life-threatening internal bleeding.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) warns that aortic aneurism contributes to more than 25,000 deaths in the United States (US) each year. About 30,000 brain aneurysms rupture in the United States each year. It is estimated that 40 percent of these cases cause death within 24 hours.


Symptoms of an aneurysm vary with each type and location. It is important to know that it occurs in the body or brain usually has no signs or symptoms until they rupture. This occurs near the surface of the body can show signs of swelling and pain. A large dough can also develop. Symptoms of broken aneurysms anywhere in the body can include:

  • Bleeding
  • Increase in cardiac frequency
  • Pain
  • Feeling dizzy or lightheaded


It is classified according to its location in the body. The arteries of the brain and the heart are the two most common sites for severe.

The package can take two main forms:

  • Spindle aneurism bulge on all sides of a blood vessel
  • Saccular aneurism bulge only on one side
  • The risk of breakage depends on the size of the package

Aortic aneurism: The aorta is the big artery that begins in the left ventricle of the heart and passes done the chest and abdominal cavities. The normal diameter of the aorta is between 2 and 3 centimeters (cm), but it can protrude more than 5 cm. This happens in the part of the aorta that runs through the abdomen. Without surgery, the annual survival rate for an AAA larger than 6 cm is 20 percent.

Less commonly, a thoracic aortic aneurism (TAA) can affect the part of the aorta that goes through the chest. TAA has a 56 percent survival rate without treatment and 85 percent after surgery. It is a rare condition, with only 25 percent of aortic aneurysms occurring in the chest.

Brain aneurysm: It is supply blood to the brain are known as intracranial aneurysms. Because of their appearance, they are also known as “berry”. A ruptured aneurysm of the brain can be fatal within 24 hours.

40% of brain aneurysms are fatal, and about 66 out of 100 of those who survive will experience a resulting neurological impairment or disability. Ruptured brain aneurysms are the most common cause of a type of stroke known as a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

Peripheral aneurysm: It can also happen in a peripheral artery.

  • Popliteal: occurs behind the knee. It is the most common peripheral aneurysm.
  • Splenic artery: This type of aneurysm happens near the spleen.
  • Mesenteric artery: moves the artery that carries blood to the intestines.
  • Femoral artery: The femoral artery is set in the groin.
  • Carotid artery: Occurs in the neck.
  • Visceral: This is a bulging of the arteries that supply blood to the intestine or kidneys.


Any condition that causes the walls of the arteries to weaken can lead to one. The most common culprits are atherosclerosis and high blood pressure. Deep wounds and infections can also chief. Or you can be born with a weakness in one of your artery walls.


The diagnostic tools used to find arterial damage often be contingent on the location of the problem. Your doctor may refer you to a specialist, such as a cardiothoracic or vascular surgeon.

CT scans and ultrasound methods are common tools used to diagnose or find irregularities in blood vessels. CT scans use x-rays to examine the inside of your body. This allows your doctor to see the condition of the blood vessels, as well as any blockages, bumps, and weak spots that may be within the blood vessels.


Treatment of asymptomatic aneurysms consists of repairing the blood vessels. Trimming and rolling are two treatment options.

Clipping: A neurosurgeon can operate on the brain by opening the skull, identifying the damaged blood vessel, and placing a clip on it. This prevents blood from entering the aneurysm and causing further growth or loss of blood.

Coiling: An interventional neurologist, neurosurgeon, or interventional radiologist may permit a tube through the arteries, such as with an angiogram, classify the disease, and fill it with coils of platinum wire or latex. This prevents more blood from entering the disease and solves the problem.

Both options have the risk of destroying the blood vessels and causing more bleeding, damaging nearby brain tissue, and causing spasms in the surrounding blood vessels; depriving brain tissue of the blood supply and causing a stroke.

Before, during, and after surgery, care is taken to protect the brain and its blood vessels from further damage. Vital signs are checked frequently, and heart monitors are used to detecting abnormal heart rhythms. Medications can be used to control high blood pressure and prevent blood vessel spasms, seizures, agitation, and pain.


It is not always possible to prevent, as some are congenital, which means they are present from birth.

However, some lifestyle choices can affect risk:

Smoking: Smoking is a risk factor for both aortic and ruptured aneurysms anywhere in the body. Quitting smoking can reduce the risk.

Blood pressure: Controlling blood pressure can also minimize the risk. Healthy blood pressure can be achieved through dietary measures, regular exercise, and medications.

Obesity: Obesity can put extra pressure on your heart, so taking these steps is important to reduce stress on your artery walls.

Diet: A healthy diet can also lower cholesterol and lower the risk of atherosclerosis. Spindle aneurysms are often associated with atherosclerosis.

Anyone diagnosed with an aneurysm and who has been prescribed a conservative treatment plan can work with a doctor to address any risk factors.


Overview of Peripheral Vascular Disease | Cardiology

What is peripheral vascular disease?

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a circulatory disorder that causes blood vessels outside the heart and brain to narrow, block, or contract. It can occur in your arteries or veins. The peripheral vascular disease generally causes pain and fatigue, often in the legs and especially when exercising. The pain usually improves with rest.

Signs/symptoms of peripheral vascular disease

People with the peripheral vascular disease do not have any symptoms. Possible symptoms include:

  • Hair loss on the feet and legs.
  • The thigh or calf muscles may feel pain when walking or climbing stairs, some individuals complain of painful hips.
  • Leg weakness.
  • A foot or the lower leg may feel cold.
  • Numbness in the legs.
  • Brittle toenails.
  • Toenails grow slowly.
  • Sores or ulcers on the legs and feet that take a long time to heal (or never heal).
  • The skin on the legs becomes shiny or turns pale or bluish.
  • Difficulty in finding a pulse in the leg or foot.
  • Erectile dysfunction (impotence in men, problems achieving or sustaining an erection).

Causes of peripheral vascular disease

Peripheral artery disease is often caused by atherosclerosis. In atherosclerosis, fatty deposits (plaques) form on the walls of the arteries and reduce blood flow. Although discussions of atherosclerosis generally focus on the heart, the disease affects arteries throughout the body.

When it occurs in the arteries that supply blood to the organs, it can cause peripheral artery disease. Less commonly, peripheral artery disease can be caused by inflammation of the blood vessels, injury to organs, abnormal anatomy of tendons or muscles, or exposure to radiation.

Risk Factors of peripheral vascular disease

You’re at higher risk for peripheral vascular disease if you:

  • Are over age 50
  • Are overweight
  • Have abnormal cholesterol
  • Have a history of cerebrovascular disease or stroke
  • Have heart disease
  • Have diabetes
  • Have a family history of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or peripheral vascular disease
  • Have high blood pressure
  • Have kidney disease on hemodialysis

Lifestyle choices that can increase your risk of developing the peripheral vascular disease include:

  • Not engaging in physical exercise
  • Poor eating habits
  • Smoking
  • Drug use

Diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease

The differential diagnosis of the peripheral vascular disease includes musculoskeletal and neurological factors. Spinal stenosis also causes compression of each equine, resulting in pain that radiates to both legs. The pain occurs when walking (i.e., pseudocopulation) or standing for a long time and does not subside quickly with rest.

Additional conditions to consider include acute embolism, deep or superficial vein thrombosis, restless leg syndrome, systemic vasculitis, nocturnal leg cramps, muscle or tendon strains, peripheral neuropathy, and arthritis. Some tests your doctor relies on to diagnose peripheral artery disease are:

Physical exam: Your doctor may find signs of peripheral vascular disease on physical examination, a weak or absent pulse below the narrow area of ​​your artery, sounds (fruit) in your arteries that can be heard with a stethoscope, evidence of poor wound healing in an area where your blood flow is restricted and the blood pressure in your affected organ is low.

Ankle-brachial index (ITB): This is a simple test used to diagnose peripheral vascular disease. Compare the blood pressure in your ankle with the blood pressure in your hand. To obtain a blood pressure reading, your doctor will use a simple blood pressure cuff and a special ultrasound device to assess blood pressure and flow. You can walk on a treadmill and take readings before and immediately after exercise to capture the severity of your narrow arteries during your walk.

Ultrasound: Specialized ultrasound imaging techniques, such as doppler ultrasound, can help your doctor evaluate blood flow through blood vessels and identify blocked or narrow arteries.

Angiography: Using a dye (contrast material) inserted into your blood vessels, this test allows you to watch your doctor while watching the flow of blood through your arteries. Your doctor can detect the flow of contrast material using imaging techniques such as X-ray imaging or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA).

Catheter angiography: Catheter angiography is a more serious procedure that involves guiding the catheter through the artery in the groin to the affected area and injecting color that way. Despite the aggression, this type of angiography allows simultaneous diagnosis and treatment. After finding the narrow area of ​​the blood vessel, your doctor may inflate it by inserting and inflating a small balloon or by administering medications that improve blood flow.

Blood test: You can use a blood sample to measure your cholesterol and triglycerides and check for diabetes.

Treatments of peripheral vascular disease

Goals of treatment for peripheral arterial disease:

  • Relief of pain from intermittent claudication.
  • Improve exercise endurance by increasing walking distance before the start of the liner.
  • Avoid the development of a complex artery that can lead to foot ulcers, gangrene, and amputation.
  • Avoid heart attacks and strokes.

Treatment for peripheral arterial disease includes lifestyle measures, supervised exercises, medications, angioplasty, and surgery.

Changes in lifestyle: Quitting smoking removes a major risk factor for disease progression and reduces the incidence of pain at rest and dissection. Quitting smoking is also important to prevent heart attacks and strokes.

Supervised exercise: Proper exercise allows the muscles to use oxygen more efficiently and accelerates the development of collateral circulation. Clinical trials have shown that regularly controlled exercise reduces symptoms of intermittent claudication and allows people to walk longer before the onset of claudication. Ideally, your healthcare provider should prescribe an exercise program tailored to your specific needs.

Rehabilitation programs can help under the supervision of health professionals, such as nurses or physical therapists. Exercise at least three times a week, with each session lasting no more than 30 to 45 minutes for the best results. Exercise generally involves walking on a treadmill with a monitor until the lining develops; The walking time increases gradually with each session. Patients are also monitored for the development of chest pain or heart rhythm disturbances during exercise.

Complications of peripheral vascular disease

Complications of peripheral vascular disease are often caused by reduced or no blood flow. Such problems can include:

  • Amputation (loss of a limb)
  • Poor wound healing
  • Limited consciousness due to pain or discomfort
  • Severe pain in the affected limbs
  • Stroke (3 times more common in people with the peripheral vascular disease)

Prevention of peripheral vascular disease

The best way to prevent peripheral vascular disease is to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle:

  • Stop smoking: Tobacco smoke is a major risk factor for peripheral vascular disease and your risk of heart attack and stroke. It can help slow the progression of peripheral vascular disease and other heart-related diseases.
  • Work to control your blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose levels. Working with a coordinated health care team and making the lifestyle changes needed to better manage diabetes can reduce organ-related problems.
  • Get regular exercise: The most effective treatment for peripheral vascular disease symptoms is regular physical activity. Your doctor may recommend a program of exercise training to monitor for you, also known as cardiac rehabilitation. You need to start slowly, but regular walking rules, leg exercises, and treadmill exercise programs can reduce symptoms.
  • Intermittent exercise for cladding: Taking into account the fact that plaque formation causes poor circulation in the arteries of the leg – can lead to gait pain. This program has alternative functionality and increases the amount of time you can walk before the pain starts. It is a good idea to take this exercise program to the rehab center on the treadmill. If going to a rehabilitation center is not possible, your healthcare professional may recommend a structured community or home-based program that best suits your situation. You may want to speak with your doctor to find out which exercise program is right for you.
  • Follow a diet low in fat and cholesterol and eat more fruits and vegetables. If you are overweight or behind, plan a weight loss plan with your doctor. Many peripheral vascular disease patients have elevated cholesterol levels. A diet low in saturated and trans fat can help lower blood cholesterol levels, but cholesterol-lowering medications may be needed to maintain proper cholesterol levels.



Symptoms, Causes and Risks of Heart attack | Cardiology

What is a heart attack?

Heart attack means the death of a part of the heart muscle due to loss of blood supply. Blood is usually cut off when a blood clot blocks the artery that supplies the heart muscle. When part of the heart muscle dies, a person experiences chest pain and electrical instability of the heart muscle tissue.

Other names

  • Myocardial infarction (MI)
  • Acute myocardial infarction (AMI)
  • Acute coronary syndrome
  • Coronary thrombosis
  • Coronary occlusion

Signs, symptoms, and Complications

If you experience these heart attack warning signs do not wait to get help. Some heart attacks are sudden and severe. Take care of your body and call a physician if you experience it.

Chest discomfort: Most heart attacks have discomfort in the middle of the chest for more than a few minutes, or it may go away and come back. It can feel like uncomfortable stress, squeezing, fullness, or pain.

Discomfort in other parts of the body: Symptoms include pain or discomfort in one or both arms, back, neck, jaw, or abdomen.

Shortness of breath: It occurs with or without chest discomfort.

Other signs: There are other signs such as cold sweats, nausea, or a mild headache.

Damage to the heart during a heart attack often leads to complications, which can lead to further complications. Arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythms), heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and valve problems are the most common complications.

Causes of heart attack

When one or more of your coronary arteries become blocked it leads to a heart attack. Over time, fatty deposits, including cholesterol, form substances called plaques, which can narrow the arteries (atherosclerosis). This condition, called coronary artery disease, causes many heart attacks.

  • During a heart attack, a plaque breaks down and leaks cholesterol and other substances into the bloodstream. Blood clots at the site of the break. If the clot is large, it can block blood flow through the coronary artery, depriving the heart of oxygen and nutrients (ischemia).
  • You may have a partial or complete blockage of the coronary artery.
  • Complete inhibition means you have an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
  • Partial occlusion means you have a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).
  • Diagnosis and treatment can vary depending on what type you have.
  • Another cause of heart attack is a narrowing of the coronary artery, which blocks blood flow to the heart muscle. Using tobacco and illicit drugs such as cocaine can lead to fatal seizures.
  • COVID-19 infection can also damage your heart and lead to a heart attack.

Risk factors of heart attack

The risk factors of a heart attack include:

Smoking: Chemicals in tobacco smoke can damage blood cells. They can also damage the function of your heart and the structure and function of your blood vessels. This damage increases your risk of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the formation of a waxy substance called plaque in the arteries. Over time, the plaque hardens and narrows the arteries.

It restricts the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body. Ischemic heart disease occurs when plaque forms in the arteries that supply blood to the heart, called the coronary arteries. Over time, heart disease can lead to chest pain, heart attack, heart failure, arrhythmia, or death. Smoking increases the risk of heart disease when combined with unhealthy blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and other risk factors such as being overweight or the esophagus.

High blood pressure: Blood pressure is measured by estimating the pressure of the blood flowing through your arteries against the walls of those arteries. During a heart attack, blood flow to some part of the heart muscle is restricted or cut off because the blood clot blocks the artery. Without the necessary blood supply, the affected part of your heart will not receive the oxygen it needs to function properly.

High blood cholesterol: When you have high cholesterol in your blood, it forms on the walls of your arteries, causing a process called atherosclerosis, a form of heart disease. The arteries are narrow and slow or block blood flow to the heart muscle. Blood carries oxygen to the heart and if not enough blood and oxygen get to the heart, you can experience chest pain. If the blood supply to part of the heart is completely cut off, the result is a heart attack.

There are two forms of cholesterol known to most people low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad” cholesterol) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL or “good” cholesterol). These are the ways that cholesterol travels through the blood. The main source of arterial occlusion plaque is LDL. HDL works to remove cholesterol from the blood.

Overweight and obesity: His arrhythmia appears to be associated with a fatal heart attack. Inflammation is a major factor in cardiovascular disease, researchers say, and esophagitis is now increasingly recognized as an inflammatory condition.

An unhealthy diet: When it comes to heart disease risk, what you eat is yourself. Poor diet contributes to cholesterol and triglycerides, high blood pressure, diabetes, and balance. Several important studies provide compelling evidence that diet also affects the risk of complete coronary heart disease and heart attack.

Lack of routine physical activity: Not getting enough physical activity can lead to heart disease even for people who do not have other risk factors. It also increases the risk of developing other heart disease risk factors, including esophagitis, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes.

High blood sugar due to insulin resistance or diabetes: The blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart and blood vessels can be damaged by high blood glucose from diabetes. If you have diabetes for a long time, you are more likely to get heart disease. People with heart disease are more prone to heart attack than with diabetes.

The most common causes of death in adults with diabetes are heart disease and stroke. Adults with diabetes are almost twice as likely to die of heart disease or stroke than those with diabetes. The good news is that the steps you take to manage your diabetes can also help reduce your risk of heart disease or stroke.

Risk factors such as arrears, high blood pressure, and high blood sugar can occur together. When they do, it is called metabolic syndrome. In general, a person with metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to have heart disease, and a person five times more likely to have diabetes than a person without metabolic syndrome.

Diagnosis of heart attack

Tests to diagnose a heart attack include:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): This first test done to diagnose a heart attack records electrical signals as they pass through your heart. Adhesive patches (electrodes) are attached to your chest and limbs. Signals are recorded as waves displayed on the monitor or printed on paper. Because the injured heart muscle does not normally conduct electrical impulses, an ECG shows that a heart attack has occurred or is in progress.
  • Blood tests: Some heart proteins will slowly leak into your bloodstream after a heart attack from a heart attack. Emergency room doctors take samples of your blood to check for these proteins or enzymes.

Treatments for heart attack

If your doctor suspects a heart attack, you can treat it immediately:

  • Aspirin to prevent blood clots
  • Nitroglycerin to relieve chest pain and improve blood flow
  • Oxygen therapy

Once your doctor has diagnosed a heart attack, they will prescribe medication. They may recommend surgery if necessary.

  • Give your medicine: The medicine drug is called thrombolytic. It helps to clot the blood that clogs the coronary artery.
  • Do a coronary angiography: X-ray of the blood vessels.
  • Do an angioplasty or stent: Angioplasty involves inserting a small balloon into an artery in your arm or leg. The balloon threads the artery to the heart. The balloon pushes the open black coronary arteries. A small metal rod called a stent can be placed in the clogged artery to keep the artery open.
  • Do coronary artery bypass surgery: If angioplasty and/or stenting is not appropriate, you may need this major surgery. Your doctor will remove a healthy vein from your leg or artery from your upper body. He or she will bypass around the blockage in your coronary artery. This allows blood to flow around the blockage.

Cardiac screening

  • If screening tests reveal coronary artery disease, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk for heart attack or exacerbated heart disease. Your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, exercise, and smoking cessation. Medications may also be required. Medications can treat risk factors for coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, and low blood flow.
  • A negative cardiac CT for calcium scoring means that no calcification has been found in your coronary arteries, indicating that there is no coronary artery disease or not being seen by this technique. Under these conditions, you are less likely to have a heart attack in the next two to five years.
  • A positive cardiac CT for calcium scoring means you have CAD regardless of what symptoms you are experiencing. Calcification is expressed as the total calcium score. A score of 1 to 10 indicates minimal evidence of CAD, 11 to 100 indicates mild evidence, 101 to 400 indicates moderate evidence of disease, and a score of more than 500 indicates extensive evidence of disease.
  • Your calcium score can help assess the likelihood of myocardial infarction (heart attack) in the years to come and help your doctor decide whether you should take preventative medicine or take other measures such as diet and exercise to reduce your risk of a heart attack.
  • If there is coronary artery disease, lifestyle changes, medications, and if necessary, medical or surgical procedures in stages to reduce the person’s risk of heart attack and manage symptoms.
  • Angioplasty and stenting: In an angioplasty procedure, a balloon-tipped catheter is used to guide a long, thin plastic tube into the coronary artery and to propel the vessel into a narrow or obstructed area. The balloon is then inflated, inflated, and removed to open the vessel. During angioplasty, a small wire mesh tube called a stent can be placed permanently in the newly opened artery to help keep it open. There are two types of stents: bare stents (wire mesh) and drug-eluting stents.
  • Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG): CABG is a surgical instrument used to re-circulate blood around diseased vessels. During this surgery, a healthy artery or vein from other parts of the body connects or sticks to the coronary artery, bypassing the barrier, creating a new way for oxygen-rich blood to flow to the heart muscle.

Prevention of heart attack

  • Control your blood pressure: It is important to check your blood pressure regularly, once a year for most adults, and if you have high blood pressure. Take measures, including lifestyle changes to prevent or control high blood pressure.
  • Keep your cholesterol and triglyceride levels under control: High cholesterol clogs your arteries and increases the risk of coronary artery disease and heart attack. Lifestyle changes and medications (if needed) can lower your cholesterol. High levels of triglycerides increase the risk of coronary artery disease, especially in women.
  • Stay at a healthy weight: Obesity increases your risk of heart disease. They are associated with high blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as other heart disease risk factors, including high blood pressure and diabetes. Controlling your weight will reduce these risks.
  • Eat a healthy diet: Foods high in sodium, saturated fats, and added sugars should be consumed in limited quantities. Eat plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The dash diet is an example of an eating plan that can help you lower your blood pressure and cholesterol, which can reduce your risk of heart disease.
  • Get regular exercise: Exercise has many benefits such as strengthening your heart and improving your circulation. It can help you maintain a healthy weight and lower cholesterol and blood pressure. All of these can reduce your risk of heart disease.
  • Limit alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption can increase your blood pressure. It also adds extra calories, which can lead to weight gain. Both of these increase your risk of heart disease. Men should not have more than two alcoholic beverages per day and women should not have more than one.
  • Don’t smoke: Cigarette smoking raises your blood pressure and increases your risk of heart attack and stroke. If you do not smoke, do not start. If you smoke, quitting will reduce your heart disease. You can talk to your healthcare provider to help to find the best way to exit.
  • Manage stress: Stress is one of the causes of to increase in the risk of heart disease. It raises your blood pressure. Severe stress can “trigger” a heart attack. Also, some common ways to deal with stress, such as overeating, overeating, and smoking, are bad for your heart. Some of the ways that can help you manage your stress are exercise, listening to music, focusing on those who are calm or relaxed, and meditating.
  • Manage diabetes: Having diabetes doubles the risk of diabetic heart disease. This is because, over time, Blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart and blood vessels can be damaged by high blood sugar. So, it is important to get tested for diabetes, and if you have it, you need to keep it under control.
  • Make sure that you get enough sleep: If you do not get enough sleep, you will increase your risk of high blood pressure, esophagus, and diabetes. Those three things increase the risk of heart disease. 7 to 9 hours of sleep a night is required for adults. Make sure you have good sleep habits. If you have frequent sleep problems, consult your healthcare provider. One problem, sleep apnea, is that people often stop breathing during sleep. It can impair your ability to relax well and increase your risk of heart disease. If you think you may have it, ask your doctor about a sleep study. If you have sleep apnea, make sure you get treatment for it.