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Structures and Diseases of Central Nervous System | Neurology

What is the central nervous system (CNS)?

The central nervous system (CNS) is a division of the nervous system whose function is to analyze and integrate various Intra and extra-personal information, as well as to generate a coordinated response to these stimuli. Simply put, the CNS is the supreme command center of the body.

The central nervous system consists of two organs that are continuous with each other; the brain and spinal cord. They are enveloped and protected by three layers of meninges, and enclosed within two bony structures, the skull, and spinal column, respectively. The brain is made up of the cerebrum, subcortical structures, the brainstem, and the cerebellum.

The spinal cord continues downward from the brainstem and extends through the vertebral canal. By analyzing the information and preparing the appropriate body responses, parts of the brain and spinal cord communicate with each other through many neural pathways. Once the final output is ready, they transmit it to the rest of the body through the nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which come directly from them.

More specifically, the brain emits 12 cranial nerves supplying the head, neck, and thoracic and abdominal viscera, while the spinal cord emits 31 pairs of spinal nerves. The spinal nerves complement the innervation of the viscera, as well as the rest of the body that is not supplied by the cranial nerves (upper and lower extremities).

Structure of the central nervous system

The CNS has three main components: the brain, spinal cord, and neurons (or nerve cells).

Brain: The brain controls many of the body’s functions, including sensation, thinking, movement, consciousness, and memory. The superficial of the brain is known as the cerebral cortex. The surface of the bark appears irregular thanks to the grooves and folds of the tissue. Each groove is known as a groove, while each stroke is known as a turn.

Most of the brain is known as the cerebrum and is responsible for things like memory, speech, voluntary behaviors, and thinking. The brain is divided into two hemispheres, a right hemisphere, and a left hemisphere. The right hemisphere of the brain controls movements on the left side of the body, while the left hemisphere controls movements on the right side of the body.

Although some functions tend to lateralize, researchers have found that there are no “left brain” or “right-brain” thinkers, as the old myth implies. Both sides of the brain work together to produce various functions. Each hemisphere of the brain is then divided into four interconnected lobes:

  • The frontal lobes are related to higher cognition, voluntary movements, and language
  • The occipital lobes are associated with visual developments
  • The parietal lobes are associated with the processing of sensory information
  • The temporal lobes are associated with hearing and interpreting sounds, as well as the formation of memories

Spinal cord: The spinal cord connects to the brain through the brain stem and then down the spinal canal, located inside the vertebra. The spinal cord carries info from various parts of the body to and from the brain. In the case of some reflex movements, responses are controlled by spinal pathways without involving the brain.

Neurons: Neurons are the construction blocks of the central nervous system. Billions of these nerve cells can be found through the body and communicate with each other to crop physical responses and actions. Neurons are the body’s information superhighway. It is estimated that 86 billion neurons can be found in the brain alone.

Protective structures: Since the central nervous system is so important, it is protected by a number of structures. First, the entire CNS is encased in bone. The brain is threatened by the skull, while the spinal cord is protected by the vertebra of the spinal column. The brain and spinal cord are covered with a protective tissue known as the meninges.

The entire central nervous system is also immersed in a substance known as cerebrospinal fluid, which forms a chemical environment that allows nerve fibers to transmit information effectively, as well as offering another layer of protection against possible damage.

All about the central nervous system

White and gray matter

The central nervous system can be unevenly divided into white and gray matter. As a very general rule, the brain consists of an outer cortex of gray matter and an inner area that houses tracts of white matter.

Both types of tissue encompass glial cells, which defend and support neurons. White matter consists mainly of axons (nerve projections) and oligodendrocytes – a type of glial cell – while gray matter consists predominantly of neurons.

Central glial cells

Also called neuroglia, glial cells are often called provision cells for neurons. In the brain, they outnumber nerve cells from 10 to 1. Without glial cells, developing nerves are often lost and struggle to form functional synapses. Glial cells are found in both the CNS and the PNS, but each system has different types. The following are brief descriptions of the glial cell types of the CNS:

  • Astrocytes: These cells have frequent projections and anchor neurons to their blood supply. They also control the local environment by eliminating excess ions and recycling neurotransmitters.
  • Oligodendrocytes: Responsible for the creation of the myelin sheath – this thin layer lines nerve cells, allowing them to send signals quickly and efficiently.
  • Ependymal cells: Which line the brain’s spinal cord and ventricles (fluid-filled spaces), create and secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and keep it circulating using their whip-like cilia.
  • Radial glia: Acts as a scaffold for new nerve cells during the creation of the embryo’s nervous system.

Cranial nerves

The cranial nerves are 12 pairs of nerves that arise directly from the brain and pass-through holes in the skull instead of traveling along the spinal cord. These nerves gather and send information between the brain and parts of the body, mostly the neck and head. Of these 12 pairs, the olfactory and optic nerves arise from the forebrain and are measured as part of the central nervous system:

  • Olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I): Transmit information about odors from the upper section of the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulbs at the base of the brain.
  • Optic nerves (cranial nerve II): Carry visual information from the retina to the primary visual nuclei of the brain. Each optic nerve consists of about 1.7 million nerve fibers.

Central nervous system disorders

Nervous system disorders can involve the following:

  • Vascular disorders, such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, and extradural hematoma and hemorrhage
  • Contagions, such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and epidural abscess
  • Structural illnesses, such as brain or spinal cord injury, Bell’s palsy, cervical spondylosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, brain or spinal cord tumors, peripheral neuropathy, and Guillain-Barré syndrome
  • Useful disorders, such as headache, epilepsy, dizziness, and neuralgia
  • Deterioration, such as Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s chorea, and Alzheimer’s disease

Central nervous system diseases

The following are the main causes of disorders affecting the CNS:

  • Trauma: Depending on the site of injury, symptoms can range widely from paralysis to mood disorders.
  • Infections: Some microorganisms and viruses can invade the CNS; these contain fungi, such as cryptococcal meningitis; protozoa, counting malaria; bacteria, as is the case with leprosy, or viruses.
  • Degeneration: In some cases, the spinal cord or brain can debase. An example is Parkinson’s disease, which involves the gradual degeneration of dopamine-producing cells in the basal ganglia.
  • Structural defects: The most common instances are birth defects; including anencephaly, where parts of the skull, brain, and scalp are missing at birth.
  • Tumors: Both cancerous and non-cancerous tumors can move parts of the central nervous system. Both types can cause damage and produce a variety of symptoms depending on where they develop.
  • Autoimmune disorders: In some cases, a person’s immune system can base an attack on healthy cells. For example, acute dispersed encephalomyelitis is considered by an immune response against the brain and spinal cord, which attacks myelin (the insulation of nerves) and thus destroys the white matter.
  • Stroke: A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to the brain; the resulting lack of oxygen causes tissue to die in the affected area.
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General Topics

How Women Experience Neurological Diseases | Neurology

What are neurological diseases in women?

Women have specific health problems, often related to childbirth, and in some cases, the preference for girls is not new. However, it is good to look at the work of recognizing gender differences and deal with them in detail.

Neurological diseases in women

Here are the most common neurological diseases in women which are following:

1. Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is a brain disorder and also it is one of the neurological diseases in women that can cause tremors, stiffness, and difficulty walking, maintaining balance, and coordination.

The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease usually start gradually and get worse over time. As the disease progresses, people may find it difficult to walk and speak, this is the main problem in neurological disease. They may also have mood and behavior changes, trouble sleeping, depression, memory difficulties, and fatigue.

Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease

In general, women with Parkinson’s disease have the same motor and non-motor characteristics as men with Parkinson’s disease. More women than men experience tremors and painful muscle contractions in the morning.

  • Shaking of the hands, arms, legs, or face
  • The appearance of limbs and trunk
  • Slow movement
  • The gradual loss of sudden movements (bradykinesia)
  • Weak equilibrium
  • Coordination error
  • Depression
  • Sleep disturbance
  • Memory or thinking impairment
  • Problems urinating or constipation

Although the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are very individual, some studies have found minor differences in how symptoms appear in women and men.

2. Migraine

Women experience migraines differently than men. Women report episodic pain (often longer) and chronic pain more often than men. Changes in estrogen levels cause more severe and frequent migraine attacks. Research has linked hormones to migraines, but not all migraines are hormonal.

Symptoms of migraine

The main symptom of hormonal headaches is a headache or migraine. However, many women experience other symptoms that can help doctors diagnose hormonal headaches.

Structural or hormonal migraines are similar to normal migraines and may or may not be preceded. Migraine is a pain that begins on one side of the head. It is sensitive to light and to nausea or vomiting.

Other symptoms of hormonal headaches:

  • Lack of appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Acne
  • Joint pain
  • Decreased urination
  • Lack of coordination
  • Constipation
  • Cravings for alcohol, salt, or chocolate

3. Alzheimer’s Disease

The life expectancy of a woman who develops Alzheimer’s at age 65 is 5 out of 1. Since breast cancer is a real concern for women, women in their 60s are twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s over the course of the year. of their life. Development of breast cancer.

There are many biological and social reasons why more women than men have Alzheimer’s or another dementia. The current difference is that women live longer than men on average, and aging is a major risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Researchers now wonder if women of any age are at increased risk for Alzheimer’s because of biological or genetic variations or differences in life experiences.

Symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

Specific symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease:

  • Difficulty remembering newly learned information
  • Severe memory loss
  • Confusion and confusion about events, time, and place
  • Changes in mood and behavior
  • Unfounded suspicions about family, friends, and guardians
  • Problems like talking, swallowing, and walking

6. Epilepsy

Epilepsy is also a neurological disease in women & men, can be said that epilepsy does not discriminate. It gives men and women the same rate. Men are slightly more likely to develop it than women. But this does not always mean that it affects men and women in the same way. Women definitely have specific problems that they need to understand and be prepared for.

Currently, about one million women and girls live with epilepsy and other epileptic disorders. If you are one of them, you know there are things to worry about in men and boys with epilepsy. For example, you may notice that you have more seizures during your fighting cycle and want to know why. You may wonder if it is safe to get pregnant. You may wonder if it is safe to take antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy.

You’re not alone. Approximately 200,000 new cases of seizures and epilepsy occur each year. The specific problems that affect women and girls are so important that the Epilepsy Foundation has created a special initiative on women and epilepsy.

7. Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered an autoimmune disease (neurological diseases in women) that affect the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system. The disease affects more women than men.

According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, women are three times more likely than men to get MS. The disease also causes unique symptoms in women. But women and men mostly share the same characteristics of MS. 

Symptoms of multiple sclerosis

MS symptoms that primarily affect women appear to be related to hormone levels. Some researchers believe that low testosterone levels may play a role. Others attribute fluctuations in female hormones to one cause.

More research is needed to determine the true causes of these characteristic differences. The main symptoms that affect women more than men are men’s problems, pregnancy-related symptoms, and menopausal problems.

Menstrual problems: Research has shown that some women experience an increase in MS symptoms during their period. This may be due to a decrease in estrogen levels during that time. Symptoms exacerbated for study participants included weakness, imbalance, depression, and fatigue.

Pregnancy-related symptoms: Some good news for women with MS: Research has shown that MS has no effect on fertility. This means that MS will not prevent you from getting pregnant and giving birth to a healthy baby.

The even better news is that, for many women, MS symptoms stabilize or improve during pregnancy, especially in the second and third trimesters. However, it is common for them to return the next delivery.

Menopause: In some women, some research has found that MS symptoms get worse after menopause. Like the symptoms of menopause, it can be caused by a decrease in estrogen levels caused by menopause. Studies show that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can help reduce symptoms in menopausal women.

However, HRT increases the risk of breast cancer, heart disease, and stroke. If you have questions about whether HRT can help you manage your MS symptoms after menopause, speak with your doctor.

8. Stroke

High blood pressure, also known as hypertension and is the most common neurological diseases in women, is a major risk factor for stroke in women. More than 2 in 5 women have blood pressure greater than 130/80 mmHg or are taking medications to control their blood pressure. The risk of stroke increases with age and women live longer than men.

There are also specific risk factors for women with stroke:

  • You have high blood pressure at the time
  • Use certain types of birth control pills, especially if you also smoke. 1 in 8 women smoke
  • Depression has high rates.
Symptoms of stroke

Neurological diseases in women like stroke may report symptoms not related to strokes in men. These include:

  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Convulsions
  • Hiccup
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Pain
  • Seizures or loss of consciousness
  • General weakness
  • Since these symptoms are unique to women, it is difficult to link them to an immediate stroke. This delays treatment, which can prevent recovery.

If you are a woman and you do not know if your symptoms are a stroke, you should call your local emergency services. Once paramedics arrive on the scene, they can assess your symptoms and begin treatment if necessary.

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Disease

Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments of Stroke | Neurology

What is a Stroke?

A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is cut off or reduced, preventing the brain tissue from receiving oxygen and nutrients. Brain cells die in minutes. It is a medical emergency and prompt treatment is very important. Proactive action reduces brain damage and other problems.

Other names

  • Brain attack
  • Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
  • Hemorrhagic stroke (includes intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage)
  • Ischemic stroke (includes thrombotic stroke and embolic stroke)

Signs/symptoms of stroke

  • Unexpected numbness or weakness in the face, arms, or legs, especially on one side of the body.
  • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or trouble understanding speech.
  • Sudden trouble seeing with one or both eyes.
  • Sudden trouble walking, loss of balance, dizziness, or lack of coordination.
  • Sudden, severe headache for no apparent reason.

Types of strokes

The treatment for stroke depends on its type. The three main types of stroke are:

  • Ischemic attack: It is one of the three types of strokes. It is also known as cerebral ischemia and cerebral ischemia. This type of attack is caused by a blockage in the artery that supplies blood to the brain. The blockage reduces blood flow and oxygen to the brain, leading to damage or death of brain cells. If circulation is not restored quickly, brain damage can be permanent.
  • Hemorrhagic attack: Hemorrhagic attack when blood from an artery begins to bleed into the brain. This occurs when weak blood vessels break and bleed into the surrounding brain. The pressure of the filtered blood damages the brain cells, and as a result, the damaged area becomes unable to function properly.
  • Transient ischemic attack (a warning or “mini-stroke”): Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is an attack that lasts only a few minutes. This occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is briefly blocked. Symptoms of TIA are similar to other stroke symptoms, but they don’t last long. They happen suddenly.

Causes of stroke

It can treat certain conditions for which you can have a stroke. Other things that put you at risk will not change:

Hypertension: Your doctor calls this blood pressure. If your blood pressure is usually 140/90 or higher, your doctor will discuss treatments with you.

Tobacco: Smoking or chewing can increase your chances of having a stroke. Nicotine makes your blood pressure go up. Cigarette smoke increases fat in the main cervical artery. It also makes your blood thicker and more likely to clot. Secondhand smoke can affect you too.

Heart disease: This condition includes defective heart valves, as well as atrial fibrillation or irregular heartbeat, which account for about a quarter of all strokes in most adults. You can also have arteries clogged by fatty deposits.

Diabetes: People who suffer from it tend to have high blood pressure and are overweight. Diabetes can damage your blood vessels, making you more likely to have an attack. If you have a stroke when your blood sugar levels are high, your brain injury is high.

Risk factors of stroke

Main risk factors:

  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Cardiovascular diseases- Coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart valve disease, and carotid artery disease.
  • High levels of LDL cholesterol
  • Smoking
  • Brain aneurysms or arteriovenous deformities (AVM). AVMs are malformed arteries and veins that open to the brain.
  • Inflammatory infections or conditions such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.
  • A stroke can occur at any age, but the risk is higher in children and adults younger than 1 year. In adults, the risk increases with age.
  • At a younger age, it is more common in women than in men. But women live longer, so the risk of stroke is higher during their lifetime. birth control pills or use hormone replacement therapy can cause a stroke. Women are also at higher risk during pregnancy and during the postpartum weeks. High blood pressure during pregnancy, due to pre-eclampsia, increases the risk of stroke later in life.
  • Race and ethnicity: It is more common in African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, and Hispanic adults than in white adults.
  • Family history and genetics: If your parents or other family members have had a stroke, you are at special risk of having a stroke at a young age. Certain genes can affect your risk of stroke, including those that determine your blood type. People with blood type AB (which is not normal) are at higher risk.

Other risk factors that can be controlled, including:

  • Anxiety, depression, and high levels of stress. Working long hours and not having much contact with friends, family, or others outside the home also increases the risk of this disease.
  • Living or working in areas with air pollution.
  • Other medical conditions such as bleeding disorders, sleep apnea, kidney disease, migraine, and sickle cell anemia.
  • Other medicines that cause blood thinning or bleeding.
  • Other unhealthy lifestyle habits such as eating unhealthy foods, not engaging in regular physical activity, drinking alcohol, sleeping too much (more than 9 hours), and using illicit drugs such as cocaine.
  • Excess weight and delays or extra weight load around the waist and abdomen.

Diagnosis of stroke

The first step in evaluating the patient is to determine whether the patient is experiencing an ischemic or hemorrhagic attack so that appropriate treatment can begin. Head CT or MRI is usually the first test done.

Physical exam: Your doctor will perform various tests, such as listening to your heart and checking your blood pressure. They will also do a neurological exam to see how a possible stroke affects your nervous system.

Blood test: You may have several blood tests, including tests to see if your blood clots quickly, if your blood sugar is too high or too low, and if you have an infection.

Computed tomography (CT): A CT scan is done to view a detailed image of your brain. The CT scan shows bleeding, ischemic attack, tumor, or other conditions in the brain. Doctors can inject a dye into the bloodstream (CT angiography) to see the blood vessels in the neck and brain in more detail.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): An MRI is done to create a detailed view of your brain. MRI can detect brain tissue damaged by ischemic attack and brain hemorrhage. Your doctor may inject a dye into a blood vessel (magnetic resonance angiography or magnetic resonance venography) to view the arteries and veins and enhance blood flow.

Carotid ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create detailed images of the inside of the carotid arteries in your neck. This test increases fatty deposits (plaques) in the carotid arteries and increases blood flow.

Cerebral angiogram: In this abnormally used test, your doctor will make a small incision, usually in the groin, inserting a thin, flexible tube (catheter) through your main arteries and into your carotid or vertebral artery. Your doctor will then inject a dye into your blood vessels and make them visible under X-ray images. This procedure provides a detailed view of your brain and the arteries in your neck.

Echocardiogram: An echocardiogram can detect the source of clots in your heart, which can travel from your heart to your brain and cause your stroke.

Treatments for stroke

Treatment is based on the type of stroke.

Ischemic stroke: Treatment for this disease focuses on the restoration of blood to the brain.

  • You can get a freeze-thaw medicine called tissue plasminogen activator (TPA). This medicine improves recovery from a stroke. Doctors try to give this medicine within 3 hours of the start of symptoms. Some people can get help if they can get this medicine within 40 hours of the first symptoms.
  • You can also get aspirin or another antiplatelet medicine.
  • In some cases, a procedure may be done to restore blood flow. The doctor uses a thin, flexible tube (catheter) and a small cage to remove the blood clot. This procedure is called a thrombectomy.

Hemorrhagic stroke: Treatment focuses on controlling bleeding, reducing stress on the brain, and stabilizing important signals, especially blood pressure.

  • To stop the bleeding, you may receive a blood transfusion, such as medicine or plasma. These are administered intravenously.
  • Look closely for signs of increased stress on the brain. These signs include restlessness, confusion, trouble following orders, and headaches. Excessive coughing, vomiting, or other measures taken to avoid lifting or crossing stools or straining to change position.
  • If the bleeding is from a ruptured brain aneurysm, surgery may be done to repair the aneurysm.
  • In some cases, medications may be given to control blood pressure, meningitis, blood sugar levels, fever, and seizures.
  • If a large amount of bleeding occurs and symptoms quickly get worse, you may need surgery. Surgery can remove the blood that collects inside the brain and reduce the pressure inside the head.

Complications of stroke

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): If the blood is moving too slowly through your veins, it can cause a clot or a lump in the blood vessels. When blood clots in a vein, it can cause deep vein thrombosis. DVT is more likely to occur in the lower leg or thigh, but can also occur in other parts of the body. The DVT case can be fatal if the blood clots and goes to an important organ. Medications and early mobilization treatment after stroke can prevent DVT and help a person return to walking and other activities quickly.

Convulsions: It can injure the brain, resulting in scar tissue. This scar tissue interferes with the electrical activity of the brain. Interruption of electrical activity can cause seizures. Epilepsy is one of the most common complications of ischemic attack, affecting 22% of survivors.

Pneumonia: Pneumonia is a leading cause of illness and death. According to the Indiana University School of Medicine, pneumonia is the most common cause of hospitalization. In the case of a stroke, difficulty swallowing may cause aspiration, or food or fluids may enter the airways, leading to a chest infection or pneumonia.

Cerebral edema: Inflammation is part of the body’s natural response to injury. Edema refers to inflammation due to trapped fluid. If edema occurs in the brain, it can cause serious problems. Cerebral edema restricts blood supply to the brain, resulting in brain tissue death. Inflammation of the brain is one of the major complications of ischemic attack. Getting medical treatment as soon as the symptoms of a stroke are noticed reduces the chance of developing severe brain edema.

Bladder problems: There is a lot of bladder-related problems that can arise from a stroke. Often, stroke survivors have a strong urge or need to urinate frequently. When stroke survivors are unable to reach the bathroom or relieve themselves adequately because of the inability to remove clothing, this is called functional incontinence. Consequently, when a stroke survivor is unable to empty their bladder completely, this is called urinary retention. If this happens, the person will need a catheter to make sure the bladder is completely empty.

Clinical depression: Clinical depression often occurs after a major health crisis. One in four stroke survivors suffers from severe depression. Depression can cause sadness, irritability, difficulty concentrating, helplessness, apathy, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, and sometimes even suicidal thoughts. It is important to treat depression with the help of mental health providers.

Pressure sores: When the soft tissue is pressed too hard on a hard surface such as a chair or bed, the blood supply to that area decreases. This causes the skin tissue to be damaged or die. When this happens, a sore throat can occur. Prevention with pressure sores is crucial: proper positioning and appropriate equipment are needed to prevent them. Stroke survivors should discuss appropriate equipment such as air mattresses and wheelchair cushions with their physician or therapist.

Contracts: Loss of movements over time contracts due to the abnormal reduction of soft tissue structures that extend into one or more joints. These include skin, tendons, ligaments, muscles, and joint capsules. Loss of movement in any of these structures restricts joint movement, leading to pain, stiffness, and eventually a contraction. Low-load, long-term stretch is the preferred method for contracture resolution. Such a product, Cybo Stretch, uses a revolutionary stretch technique to maintain or improve movement, while at the same time reducing joint damage and pain.

Shoulder pain: 80% of patients suffer from shoulder pain. Subluxation or partial dislocation of the shoulder, spasticity of the shoulder, tendon, and rotating cuff tears are the causes of shoulder pain. Shoulder pain can be treated by proper positioning, including joint support with orthotics, as well as early occupational and/or physical therapy intervention. In some cases, if the pain becomes chronic, the doctor may prescribe oral corticosteroids.

Waterfalls and accidents: Common impairments such as imbalance, sensory impairment, weakness, visual problems, and coordination disorder naturally increase the risk of falls and accidents. Physical and occupational therapy can help reduce this risk and restore stability and lost function. Home modifications and assistive devices can be purchased to help prevent falls and accidents while performing routine daily activities.

Prevention of stroke

The best way to help prevent a stroke is to eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly, smoke, and drink heavily.

These lifestyle changes lower your risk for problems:

  • Atherosclerosis (atherosclerosis)
  • Hypertension
  • High cholesterol levels

If you already have a stroke, making these changes can lower your risk of having another stroke in the future.

Diet: Stroke with diabetes has specific health problems that must be addressed through your diet under the guidance of a doctor. In general, the dietary recommendations for stroke recovery are similar to those for diabetics. Stroke patients are often advised to focus on eating lean protein and nutrient-rich fruits and vegetables while limiting sugar, salt, and fat. Most liquid meal replacements contain large amounts of sugar, including many yogurts, puddings, and jellies, which are delicious and very bland foods. If you have a stroke and diabetes patient, watch out for these and choose sugar-free versions.

Exercise: Exercise is a valuable component that is not yet used for post-stroke care. The American Heart Association / American Stroke Association recommends that survivors recommend exercise because they experience physical degeneration and often lead a sedentary lifestyle after a stroke.

This reduces your ability to carry out activities of daily living and increases your risk of having another stroke. Heart fitness, walking ability, and upper arm strength, as well as depression, cognitive function, memory, and memory. quality of life after a stroke can be improved by physical activity.

Stop smoking: Smoking or chewing tobacco increases your chances of having a stroke. Nicotine makes your blood pressure go up. Cigarette smoke increases fat in the main cervical artery. It also makes your blood thicker and more likely to clot. Secondhand smoke can affect it too.

Alcohol: Alcoholic beverages are high in calories and have no nutritional value. Reducing the amount of alcohol you drink can help you achieve and maintain a healthy weight.

Cut down on alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption contributes to many risk factors for stroke. If you already have a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), drinking only safe alcohol can help lower your risk of having another stroke.

High blood pressure: It is a major risk factor for stroke, and drinking too much alcohol can increase your blood pressure. Atrial fibrillation, a type of irregular heartbeat, is triggered by excessive alcohol consumption.

Diabetes: Being diabetic and being overweight increases your risk of having a stroke. Both risk factors are associated with excessive alcohol consumption.