Information About Neuro-Ophthalmologist | Neurology

Who is a neuro-ophthalmologist?

Neuro-ophthalmology is a super specialty that integrates the fields of neurology and ophthalmology. Neuro-ophthalmologists are qualified for the diagnosis and control of a number of systemic diseases of the nervous system that affect vision, eye movements, and alignment, as well as pupillary reflexes.

Neuro-ophthalmologists receive specialized training and experience in eye, brain, nerve, and muscle problems. These physicians complete at least five years of clinical training after medical school and normally receive a board certificate in neurology, ophthalmology, or both. Neuro-ophthalmologists have unique abilities to diagnose and treat a wide variety of problems in patients from a neurological, ophthalmological, and medical point of view. Expensive medical exams are often avoided by consulting a neuro-ophthalmologist.

What are the conditions treated by neuro-ophthalmologists?

Conditions that are treated by neuro-ophthalmologists, which include:

  • Unlimited blinking, squeezing, or closing of the eyes
  • Brain tumors or strokes that affect vision
  • Defects in the visual field
  • Double vision
  • Droopy eyelids
  • Eyelid or facial spasms
  • Headache and migraines
  • Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
  • Involuntary eye movement, including nystagmus (also known as “dancing eyes”):  Unusual condition in which the eyes move rapidly in a reversible pattern – sideways, up or down, or in a rotating pattern. This can significantly reduce vision, either temporarily or permanently. It can be inherited or caused by metabolic or neurological problems, including multiple sclerosis, and sometimes in people with an inner ear problem.
  • Microcranial nerve palsy
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Optic neuritis or neuropathy
  • Pseudotumor cerebri
  • Unequal pupils
  • Unexplained vision loss

Neuro-ophthalmology examinations

Neuro-ophthalmology testing starts with a careful review of the patient’s difficulties and related problems, followed by an evaluation of vision and eye movements, usually with visual acuity, color vision, and visual field tests. The eyes are examined under a microscope (slit lamp) with special attention to the optic nerve and the retina. In most cases, dilating drops are given to enhance the testing of these important structures. Eye movements are also evaluated, which may include the use of prismatic lenses and special graphics.

Also, the pressure and size of each eye can be examined. For unequal students, points can be assigned to identify the cause of the problem. Visual field testing is done using a machine that displays lights in different areas, but the patient presses a button to detect each light and assesses patterns of visual field damage leading to diagnosis. Lastly, neuro-ophthalmologists sit down with their patients to discuss their disease and possible treatments or management strategies.

Whats are the treatments done by neuro-ophthalmologists?

Treatment depends on the specific type of disorder being diagnosed but includes vision restoration therapy (VRT). VRT is a non-invasive treatment that helps repair vision loss as an outcome of a traumatic brain injury such as a stroke. Using a specially designed computer device, VRT promotes visual stimulation to increase visual activity in the brain. This has helped some patients to lose their vision.

After making an appointment, you should be ready to see a neuro-ophthalmologist. The test begins with a complete review of your problems. Your vision is then checked, which often includes visual acuity, visual field tests, and color vision. Eye movement is also assessed using prismatic lenses and graphics.

You can also go through a CT scan or MRI to check if the brain is damaged. Some common diseases and their treatments:

Optic neuritis: This is a condition of a sudden loss of vision, which can be due to information from the optic nerve. It is usually caused by an infection and is associated with multiple sclerosis. If you have optic neuritis, your neuro-ophthalmologist will use antibiotics and corticosteroids appropriately, which can help clear the infection and prevent further damage.

Papilloma: Characterized by inflammation of the optic nerve and can be easily detected by a doctor during an evaluation of the retina. It is usually due to increased pressure in the brain and may be due to a tumor or infection.

If it is due to stress, then medications are used to shrink the joint within the skull, but due to this ridiculous enlargement, you may need surgery.

Nutritional optic neuropathy: In this case, the toxins found in tobacco alcohol can damage the optic nerve. It is also caused by a lack of various nutrients and a deficiency of the vitamin B complex. Your ophthalmologist will prescribe vitamins and lifestyle changes.

Diabetic retinopathy: The cause of this disease is usually diabetes, and if diabetes is not diagnosed, it is advisable to control and treat diabetes before further damage to the blood vessels occurs.

What are the services given by neuro-ophthalmologists?

Your care begins with a detailed evaluation. Our neuro-ophthalmologist takes a close look at the interactions between the eyes and the brain, getting to the root of the problem. We recommend personalized treatments to restore vision. If other treatments are unsuccessful, we will not stop until you have the relief you need.

Your care may include:

  • Special Exam: You have access to the latest imaging technologies, including ocular coherence tomography (OCT). This test uses light waves to examine the layer of tissue in the eye through layers. We are also one of the few multifocal electrocardiogram (ERG) programs offered locally to detect retinal problems.
  • Medications: If you have symptoms due to an infection, you may feel better after taking antibiotics. If you experience inflammation, you may need a stronger dose of steroids.
  • Surgery: If surgery is required, you have access to all available surgical treatments. Our neuro-ophthalmologist will perform some procedures. You may also receive care from other members of the Storm Eyes team, including specialists in reconstructive eye surgery.

Overview of Traumatic Brain Injury | Neurology

What is a traumatic brain injury?

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be a disruption within the normal functioning of the brain which will be caused by a blow, bump, or jolt to the top, the top striking an object suddenly and violently, or when an object pierces the skull and enters the brain tissue. The observation of the subsequent clinical signs constitutes an alteration of the traditional functioning of the brain:

  • Loss or decrease of consciousness
  • Focal neurological deficits like muscle weakness, vision loss, speech changes
  • Altered mental statuses like disorientation, slow thinking, or difficulty concentrating

Symptoms of a traumatic brain injury are often mild, moderate, or severe, counting on the extent of the brain damage. Mild cases can cause a quick change in the psychological state of consciousness. Severe cases can cause prolonged periods of unconsciousness, coma, or maybe death.

Types of traumatic brain injury

Concussion may be a mild head injury that will cause a quick loss of consciousness and typically doesn’t cause permanent traumatic brain injury.

An injury may be a bruise during a specific area of the brain caused by an impression to the head; Also called hit or kickback injuries. In injuries, the brain is injured directly below the impact area, while in kickback injuries the brain is injured on the side opposite the impact.

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) may be shearing and stretching of nerve cells at the cellular level. It occurs when the brain moves rapidly back and forth within the skull, tearing and damaging the nerve axons. Axons connect one neuron to a different throughout the brain, like telephone wires. Generalized axonal injury interrupts the brain’s normal transmission of data and may cause large changes during a person’s wakefulness.

Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage involves bleeding into space around the brain. This space is generally crammed with spinal fluid (CSF), which acts as a floating cushion to guard the brain. Traumatic SAH occurs when the tiny arteries are torn during the initial injury. Blood spreads over the surface of the brain causing widespread effects.

A hematoma may be a form when a vessel breaks. Blood that escapes from the traditional bloodstream begins to thicken and clot. Clotting is the body’s natural way of stopping bleeding. A hematoma is often small or it can grow and compress the brain. Symptoms vary counting on the situation of the clot. A clot that forms between the skull and therefore the lining of the brain’s dura is named an epidural hematoma. A clot that forms between the brain and therefore the dura is named a subdural hematoma. A clot that forms deep in brain tissue is named an intracerebral hematoma. Over time, the body reabsorbs the clot. Sometimes surgery is completed to get rid of large clots.

Causes of traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury is typically caused by a blow or other traumatic injury to the top or body. The degree of injury can depend upon several factors, including the character of the injury and therefore the force of the impact.

Common events that cause traumatic brain injury include the following:

  • Falls from a bed or a ladder, downstairs, within the bathroom, and other falls are the foremost common explanation for TBI generally, especially in older adults and young children.
  • Vehicle-related collisions. Collisions involving cars, motorcycles, or bicycles, and pedestrians involved in such accidents, are a standard explanation for traumatic brain injury.
  • Violence. Gunshot wounds, violence, maltreatment, and other assaults are common causes. The shaken baby syndrome may be a traumatic brain injury in babies caused by violent tremors.
  • Sports injuries. Traumatic brain injuries are often caused by injuries from various sports, including soccer, boxing, football, baseball, lacrosse, skateboarding, hockey, and other extreme or high-impact sports. These are particularly common in youth.
  • Explosive blasts and other combat injuries. Explosive blasts are a standard explanation for traumatic brain injury in active-duty military personnel. Although how damage occurs remains not well understood, many researchers believe that the pressure wave passing through the brain significantly alters brain function.

Traumatic brain injuries also are the result of penetrating wounds, severe blows to the top with shrapnel or debris, and falls or collisions with objects after an explosion.

Symptoms of traumatic brain injury

Symptoms of the traumatic brain injury vary greatly counting on the severity of the top injury. they will include any of the following:

  • Vomiting
  • Lethargy
  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • Paralysis
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Dilated pupils
  • Vision changes (blurred or diplopia, inability to tolerate bright light, loss of eye movement, blindness)
  • Spinal fluid (CSF) (clear or tinged with blood) appears within the ears or nose
  • Balance problems and dizziness
  • Respiratory problems
  • Slow pulse
  • A slow rate of respiration with increased vital sign
  • Ringing within the ears or changes in hearing
  • Cognitive difficulties
  • Inappropriate emotional responses
  • Speech difficulties (difficulty speaking, inability to know and/or articulate words)
  • Difficulty to swallow
  • Body numbness or tingling
  • Droopy eyelids or facial weakness
  • Loss of bowel or bladder control

Diagnosis of traumatic brain injury

Anyone with signs of moderate or severe TBI should get medical attention as soon as possible. Because there’s not much we will do to reverse the initial brain damage caused by trauma, medical providers attempt to stabilize an individual with TBI and specialize in preventing further injury.

First, heart and lung function is evaluated. this is often followed by a fast full-body exam, followed by an entire neurological exam. The neurological examination includes an assessment using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). In addition to GCS, the power of the pupils to become smaller in bright light is additionally assessed. In patients with large masses of lesions or with high intracranial pressure (ICP), one or both pupils could also be very dilated or “swollen.” The presence of a good or dilated pupil on just one side suggests that there could also be an outsized mass of lesion. Brainstem reflexes, including those for nausea and cornea (blinking), also can be evaluated.

Radiological tests

A computerized tomography (CT) scan is the gold standard for radiological evaluation of a patient with TBI. A CT scan is straightforward to perform and a superb test to detect the presence of blood and fractures, the foremost crucial injuries to spot in cases of medical trauma. Some recommend plain radiographs of the skull as to how to usage patients with mild neurological dysfunction. However, most centers are having CT scans, a more accurate test, reducing the routine use of skull X-rays for TBI patients.

Resonance imaging (MRI) isn’t commonly used for acute head injuries, because it takes longer to perform an MRI than a CT scan. Because it’s difficult to move an acutely injured patient from the ER to an MRI scanner, the utilization of MRI isn’t practical. However, once the patient is stabilized, the MRI can demonstrate the existence of lesions that weren’t detected on the CT scan. This information is usually more helpful in determining prognosis than in influencing treatment. 

Treatment for traumatic brain injury


Many patients with moderate or severe head injuries go straight from the ER to the OR. In many cases, surgery is completed to get rid of an outsized bruise or contusion that significantly compresses the brain or increases pressure within the skull. After surgery, these patients are under observation within the medical care unit (ICU).

Other head injury patients might not attend the OR directly, but instead could also be taken from the ER to the ICU. Since bruises or bruises may become larger during the primary hours or days after the top injury, immediate surgery isn’t recommended in these patients until several days after the injury. Delayed bruising is often discovered when a patient’s neurological examination worsens or when her ICP increases. At other times, a routine follow-up CT scan to work out whether a little lesion has changed in size indicates that the hematoma or contusion has become significantly enlarged. In these cases, the safest method is to get rid of the lesion before it enlarges and causes neurological damage.

During surgery, the hair on the affected part of the top is typically shaved. After the scalp incision, the removed bone is removed in one piece or flap, then replaced after surgery unless contaminated. The dura is carefully moved to reveal the underlying brain. After removing any bruises or contusions, the neurosurgeon makes sure the world isn’t bleeding. Then close the dura, replace the bone, and shut the scalp. If the brain is extremely swollen, some neurosurgeons may decide to not replace the bone until the swelling subsides, which may take several weeks. The neurosurgeon may prefer to fit an ICP monitor or other sorts of monitors if these aren’t already in situ. The patient returns to the ICU for observation and extra care.

Non-surgical treatments

Currently, there are not any medications given to stop nerve damage or promote nerve healing after TBI. The most goal within the ICU is to stop any secondary injury to the brain. “Primary insult” refers to the initial trauma to the brain, while “secondary insult” is any later development that will contribute to neurological injury. for instance, an injured brain is particularly sensitive and susceptible to drops in vital signs that might rather be well tolerated. a method to avoid secondary insults is to undertake normal or slightly elevated vital sign levels. Also, increases in ICP decreased oxygenation of the blood, increased blood heat, increased blood sugar, and lots of other changes can potentially worsen neurological damage. the most role of ICU management is the prevention of secondary injuries in patients with head injuries.

Prevention of traumatic brain injury

Follow the following pointers to scale back your risk of traumatic brain injury:

  • Seat belts and airbags. Always wear a safety belt during a motor vehicle. A young child should sit within the back seat of a car secured during a child safety seat or booster seat that’s appropriate for his or her size and weight.
  • Consumption of alcohol and medicines. Don’t drive under the influence of alcohol or drugs, including prescribed drugs which will affect the power to drive.
  • Helmets. Wear a helmet when riding a bicycle, skateboard, motorcycle, snowmobile, or ATV. Also wear proper head protection when playing baseball or contact sports, skiing, skating, snowboarding, or horseback riding.

Complications of traumatic brain injury

  • Physical complications
  • Altered consciousness
  • Intellectual problems
  • Communication problems
  • Behavior changes
  • Emotional changes
  • Sensory problems
  • Degenerative diseases of the brain

Departments to consult for this condition

  • Department of Neurology

Symptoms, Causes, and Risk Factors of Angina | Cardiology

What is angina?

Angina is chest pain that occurs because there is not enough blood in the part of your heart. It may feel like a heart attack, with pressure or tightness in the chest. It is sometimes called angina pectoris or ischemic chest pain.

It is a symptom of heart disease and occurs when something blocks the arteries or there is not enough blood flow in the arteries that carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart. Angina usually goes away quickly. Still, it can be a sign of a dangerous heart problem. It is important to know what is happening and what you can do to prevent a heart attack.

Medicines and lifestyle changes can usually control angina. If it’s more serious, you may also need surgery. Or you may need what’s called a stent, a tiny tube that holds open arteries.

Symptoms of angina

Angina involves any of the following sensations in the chest:

  • Squeezing
  • Pressure
  • Heaviness

Burning or pain in the chest, which usually begins behind the breastbone. The pain frequently spreads to the neck, jaw, arms, shoulders, throat, back, or teeth.

Other possible symptoms include:

  • Indigestion
  • Acidity
  • Weakness
  • Perspiration
  • Nausea
  • Cramps
  • Difficulty breathing

The period of these symptoms depends on the type of angina. Anyone experiencing severe or persistent chest pain should call 911 or seek emergency care.

Symptoms in women

In anyone, angina can be due to coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease. MVD affects women more often than men, and as a result, explains the American Heart Association (AHA), women can experience different symptoms that accompany angina.

In addition to chest pain, which can be severe, a woman with angina may experience:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fatigue
  • Difficulty breathing

The AHA urges women to seek help for symptoms of heart disease. They highlight that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women in the United States, occurring in nearly half of African American women.

Types of angina

Stable angina: This is the most common. Physical activity or stress can trigger it. It usually lasts a few minutes and disappears when you rest. It is not a heart attack, but it may be a sign that you are more likely to have one. Tell your doctor if this happens to you.

Unstable angina: You can have this while you are resting or not very active. The pain can be strong and long-lasting, and it can come back again and again. It can be a sign that you are about to have a heart attack, so see a doctor immediately.

Microvascular angina: With this kind, you have chest pain but no coronary artery blockage. Instead, it happens because your smaller coronary arteries aren’t working the way they should, so your heart isn’t getting the blood it needs. Chest pain usually lasts more than 10 minutes. This type is more common in women.

Prinzmetal’s angina (variant angina): This guy is weird. It can happen at night while you sleep or rest. The arteries in your heart suddenly contract or narrow. It can cause a lot of pain and should be treated.

Causes of angina

The heart gets its blood supply from the coronary arteries that branch off the aorta just as it exits the heart. The coronary arteries run along the surface of the heart, branching out into smaller and smaller blood vessels as they complement each muscle cell in the heart. The most common reason a patient complains of angina is due to narrowing of the coronary arteries caused by atherosclerotic heart disease (ASHD).

Cholesterol plaque gradually builds up on the inner lining of a coronary artery, narrowing its diameter and decreasing the amount of blood that can flow past the blockage. If the heart is asked to do more work and pump harder and faster, it may not be possible to deliver enough oxygen beyond the blockage to meet the myocardial energy demand and this can cause symptoms of a heart attack. angina.

If a plaque ruptures, a blood clot can form, completely occluding the coronary artery and preventing blood flow to the section of the heart muscle that supplies the artery. This is called a heart attack or myocardial infarction and is a medical emergency. The heart muscle that loses its blood supply will die and be replaced by scar tissue that cannot contract. This can decrease the heart’s ability to pump as hard as before.

Also, the heart muscle that loses its blood supply can become irritable and cause heart rhythm disturbances such as ventricular fibrillation or ventricular flutter that can result in sudden cardiac death. Because each heartbeat not only sends blood to the body, but also to itself, there are a variety of systems in the body and within the heart that have to function normally to supply oxygen to the heart muscle. If any of them, either individually or in combination, do not work properly, angina can occur. Examples include the following:

The heart’s electrical system must be able to generate a heartbeat that is neither too sluggish (bradycardia) nor too fast (tachycardia). There may be an intrinsic problem with the electrical conduction system of the heart.

Atrial fibrillation with the rapid ventricular response, atrial flutter, and ventricular tachycardia are extremely fast rates that can be associated with chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms of angina. Complete heart block can cause the heart to beat too slowly. The abnormal heart rhythm may be due to electrolyte or hormone abnormalities, medications, or ingestion of toxins (for example, cocaine overdose).

Heart valves need to allow blood to flow between the heart chambers and into the body and lungs in the right direction and at the right speed. This is especially true in the case of the aortic valve that controls the blood that leaves the heart and into the aorta. Severe aortic stenosis or narrowing of the aortic valve may not allow enough blood to flow out of the heart with each beat to provide blood flow to the coronary arteries.

The heart muscle must be able to have adequate contraction or force to pump blood. The lack of this ability may be due to cardiomyopathy (damaged heart muscle). There need to be enough red blood cells in the bloodstream to carry oxygen. Patients who have anemia can grow shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain with activity.

The lungs need to work to deliver enough oxygen to the body. Patients with COPD or emphysema may not be able to extract enough oxygen from the air to meet the body’s needs. In most cases, these patients have shortness of breath, but they can also develop angina. Certain poisonings, including carbon monoxide, can prevent oxygen from sticking to red blood cells and cause shortness of breath and chest pain.

If any of these steps fail, the heart muscle may not get enough oxygen and the patient may experience pain or discomfort called angina.

Risk factors of angina

The following risk factors increase your risk for coronary artery disease and angina:

Tobacco: Chewing tobacco, smoking, and prolonged exposure to secondhand smoke damage the inner walls of the arteries, including the arteries of the heart, allowing cholesterol deposits to build up and block blood flow.

Diabetes: Diabetes increases the risk of coronary artery disease, which principals to angina and heart attacks by accelerating atherosclerosis and cumulative cholesterol levels.

Hypertension: Over time, high blood pressure damages the arteries by accelerating the hardening of arteries.

High cholesterol: Cholesterol is an important part of the deposits that can narrow arteries throughout the body, including those that supply the heart. A high level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as “bad” cholesterol, increases the risk of angina and heart attacks. A high level of triglycerides, a type of fat in the blood related to your diet, is also not healthy.

Family history of heart disease: If a family member has coronary artery disease or has had a heart attack, you are at higher risk of developing angina.

Advanced age: Men over 45 and women over 55 are at higher risk than younger adults.

Lack of exercise: An inactive lifestyle donates to high cholesterol, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. However, it is important to speak with your doctor before beginning an exercise program.

Obesity: Obesity is linked to high blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and diabetes, all of which increase the risk of angina and heart disease. If you are over heavy, your heart has to work harder to supply blood to the body.

Stress: Stress can increase the risk of angina and heart attacks. Too much stress, as well as anger, can also increase your blood pressure. The sudden increases in hormones produced during stress can narrow the arteries and make angina worse.

Diagnosis of angina

All chest pain should be seen by a healthcare provider. If you have chest pain, your doctor will want to know if it is angina and if it is, if the angina is stable or unstable. If it is unstable, you may need emergency medical treatment to try to prevent a heart attack.

Your physician will most likely perform a physical exam, ask about your symptoms, and ask about your risk factors and family past for heart disease and other cardiovascular conditions.

Treatment of angina

Treatment for stable angina includes lifestyle changes, medication, and surgery. You can usually predict when the pain will occur, so reducing exertion can help control chest pain. Discuss your exercise and diet routine with your doctor to determine how you can safely adjust your lifestyle.

Lifestyle: Certain lifestyle alterations can help prevent future episodes of stable angina. These changes may include exercising regularly and eating a healthy diet of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. You should also stop smoking if you are a smoker.

These habits can also lower your risk of developing chronic (long-term) diseases, such as diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. These conditions can affect stable angina and can eventually lead to heart disease.

Medicine: A drug called nitroglycerin effectively relieves pain associated with stable angina. Your physician will tell you how much nitroglycerin to take when you have an affair with angina. You may need to take other medications to control underlying conditions that contribute to stable angina, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes.

Tell your physician if you have any of these conditions. Your doctor may prescribe certain medications that can help stabilize your blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose levels. This will reduce your risk of experiencing more episodes of angina. Your doctor may also prescribe blood-thinning medications to prevent blood clots, a contributing factor to stable angina.

Surgery: A slightly invasive procedure called angioplasty is often used to treat stable angina. Throughout this procedure, a surgeon places a small balloon confidential your artery. The balloon is inflated to widen the artery, and then a stent (a small coil of wire mesh) is inserted. The stent is permanently placed in your artery to keep the duct open.

Blocked arteries may need to be repaired surgically to prevent chest pain. Open heart surgery may be done to perform a coronary artery bypass implant. This may be essential for people with coronary heart disease.

Complications of angina

The chest pain that happens with angina can make responsibility some normal activities, such as walking, uncomfortable. Though, the most dangerous complication is a heart attack.

Common signs and symptoms of a heart bout include:

  • Pressure, fullness, or a squeezing pain in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes.
  • Pain that extends beyond the chest to the shoulder, arm, back, or even to the teeth and jaw
  • Increased episodes of chest pain.
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Prolonged pain in the upper abdomen.
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Perspiration
  • Fainting
  • The impending sense of doom

If you have any of these symptoms, seek spare medical attention immediately.

Prevention of angina

You can help prevent angina by creation the same lifestyle changes that might improve your symptoms if you already have angina. These include:

  • Give up smoking.
  • Monitor and control other health situations, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes.
  • Eat a healthy diet and preserve a healthy weight.
  • Increase your physical activity after getting approval from your doctor. Try to get 150 minutes of moderate activity each week. Additionally, it is recommended that you do 10 minutes of strength training twice a week and stretch three times a week for five to 10 minutes each time.
  • Reduce your stress level.
  • Limit alcohol consumption to two drinks or less a day for men and one drink a day or less for women.
  • Get an annual flu shot to prevent heart complications caused by the virus.

Symptoms, Causes, and Risks of Atherosclerosis | Cardiology

What is atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is a toughening and narrowing of the arteries. It can put your blood flow at risk as your arteries get blocked. You may hear it called arteriosclerosis or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is the common cause of heart attacks, strokes, and outlying vascular disease, collectively called cardiovascular disease.

Symptoms of atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis generally affects older people, but it can begin to develop during adolescence. Inside the artery, streaks of white blood cells will appear on the wall of the artery. Often, there are no symptoms until some plaque breaks down or blood flow is restricted. This can take many years to happen. The symptoms of atherosclerosis are contingent on the arteries affected.

Carotid arteries: The carotid arteries provide blood to the brain. The restricted blood supply can lead to a stroke. Symptoms of a stroke can appear suddenly and include:

  • Weakness
  • Labored breathing
  • Headache
  • Facial numbness
  • Paralysis

If a being has signs of a stroke, they need instant medical attention.

Coronary arteries: The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart. When the blood supply to the heart decreases, it can cause angina and heart attack. A person can experience:

  • Chest pain
  • Throwing up
  • Extreme anxiety
  • Coughing
  • Weakness

Renal arteries: The renal arteries supply blood to the kidneys. If the blood supply is reduced, chronic kidney disease can develop. Someone with a renal artery blockage significant enough to cause chronic kidney disease may experience:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Swelling of the hands and feet
  • Difficult to focus

Peripheral arteries: These arteries source blood to the arms, legs, and pelvis. If blood cannot circulate effectively, a person may experience numbness and pain in the extremities. In severe cases, tissue death and infection can occur. Peripheral artery disease also increases the risk of stroke or heart attack.

Causes of atherosclerosis

Plaque buildup and subsequent hardening of the arteries restrict blood flow in the arteries, preventing your organs and tissues from getting the oxygenated blood they need to function.

The following are communal causes of hardening of the arteries:

High cholesterol: Cholesterol is a yellow, waxy substance that occurs naturally in your body and in certain foods you eat. If the cholesterol levels in your blood are too high, it can clog your arteries. It turns into hard plaque that restricts or blocks blood flow to your heart and other organs.

Diet: It is important to eat a healthy diet. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends that you follow a general healthy dietary pattern that emphasizes:

  • A wide range of fruits and vegetables
  • Whole grains
  • Low-fat dairy products
  • Poultry and fish, skinless
  • Nuts and legumes
  • Non-tropical vegetable oils, such as olive or sunflower oil.

Some other dietary tips:

  • Avoid foods and drinks with added sugar, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets, and desserts. The AHA endorses no more than 6 teaspoons or 100 calories of sugar a day for most women and no more than 9 teaspoons or 150 calories a day for most men.
  • Avoid foods that are high in salt. Try not to have more than 2,300 milligrams (mg) of sodium per day. Ideally, you would not consume more than 1,500 mg per day.
  • Escape foods high in unhealthy fats, like trans fats. Change them with unsaturated fats, which are well for you. If you need to inferior your blood cholesterol, reduce saturated fat to no more than 5 to 6 percent of total calories. For someone who consumes 2,000 calories a day, that’s about 13 grams of saturated fat.

Aging: As you age, your heart and blood containers work harder to pump and receive blood. Your arteries can become weak and less elastic, making them more susceptible to plaque buildup.

Risk factors of atherosclerosis

Hardening of the arteries occurs over time. In addition to aging, factors that increase the risk of atherosclerosis include:

  • Hypertension
  • High cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Smoking and other uses of tobacco
  • Family history of early heart disease
  • Lack of exercise
  • An unhealthy diet

Diagnosis of atherosclerosis

A healthcare provider will perform a physical exam and listen to the heart and lungs with a stethoscope. Atherosclerosis can create a hiss or murmur (“murmur”) over an artery. All adults over the age of 18 should have their blood pressure check every year. More frequent measurements may be needed for those with a history of high blood pressure readings or those with risk factors for high blood pressure.

  • Cholesterol testing is recommended for all adults. The main national guidelines differ in terms of the suggested age to start the test.
  • Screening should begin between the ages of 20 and 35 for men and between 20 and 45 for women.
  • It is not necessary to repeat the test for five years for most adults with normal cholesterol levels.
  • The test may need to be repeated if there are lifestyle changes, such as a large weight gain or a change in diet.
  • More frequent tests are needed for adults with a history of high cholesterol, diabetes, kidney problems, heart disease, stroke, and other conditions.
  • Various imaging tests can be used to see how well blood moves through the arteries.
  • Doppler tests that use ultrasound or sound waves.
  • Magnetic resonance arteriography (MRA), a special type of magnetic resonance imaging
  • Special CT scans called CT angiography
  • Arteriograms or angiograms use x-rays and contrast material (sometimes called “dye”) to see the path of blood flow within the arteries.

Treatment for atherosclerosis

Treatments for atherosclerosis may include heart-healthy lifestyle changes, medications, and medical procedures or surgery. The goals of treatment include:

  • Reduce the risk of blood clots.
  • Prevention of diseases related to atherosclerosis
  • Reduce risk factors in an effort to slow or stop plaque buildup.
  • Relieve symptoms
  • Widening or shunting of plaque-clogged arteries
  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes

Your doctor may endorse heart-healthy lifestyle changes if you have atherosclerosis. Heart-healthy lifestyle changes include heart-healthy eating, a goal of a healthy weight, stress management, physical activity, and smoking cessation.

Medicines: Sometimes lifestyle changes alone are not enough to control your cholesterol levels. For example, you may also need statin medications to control or lower your cholesterol. By lowering your blood cholesterol level, you can lower your chances of having a heart attack or stroke. Doctors often prescribe statins to people who have:

  • Coronary heart disease, peripheral artery disease, or a previous stroke
  • Diabetes
  • High levels of LDL cholesterol
  • Doctors may discuss starting statin treatment with people who are at high risk of developing heart disease or having a stroke.

Your doctor may also prescribe other medications to:

  • Lower your blood pressure
  • Lower your blood sugar levels
  • Prevent blood clots, which can lead to heart attack and stroke.

Prevent inflammation: Take all medications regularly, as prescribed by your doctor. Do not alter the amount of your medicine or skip a dose unless your doctor tells you to. You must still follow a heart-healthy lifestyle, even if you take medicine to treat your atherosclerosis.

Surgery and medical procedures: If you have severe atherosclerosis, your physician may acclaim a medical procedure or surgery.

  • Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), also known as coronary angioplasty, is a procedure used to open blocked or narrowed coronary (heart) arteries. PCI can recover blood flow to the heart and relieve chest pain. Occasionally a small mesh tube called a stent is placed in the artery to keep it open after the procedure.
  • Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a type of surgery. In CABG, arteries or veins from other areas of your body are used to bypass or bypass the narrow coronary arteries. CABG can improve blood flow to the heart, relieve chest pain, and possibly prevent a heart attack.
  • The bypass graft can also be used for the arteries in the legs. For this surgery, a healthy blood vessel is used to bypass a narrow or blocked artery in one of the legs. The healthy blood vessel redirects blood around the blocked artery, which improves blood flow to the leg.
  • Carotid endarterectomy is a type of surgery to eliminate plaque buildup from the carotid arteries in the neck. This procedure reinstates blood flow to the brain, which can help prevent a stroke.
  • In some cases, plaque is part of a process that causes the wall of an artery to weaken. This can cause a bulge in an artery called an aneurysm. Aneurysms can rupture (rupture). This causes bleeding that can be life-threatening.

Prevention of atherosclerosis

The same healthy lifestyle variations recommended for treating atherosclerosis also help prevent it. These include:

  • Give up smoking
  • Eating healthy food
  • Exercise regularly
  • Keep a healthy weight

Just remember to make the changes step by step and be aware of which lifestyle changes are manageable for you in the long run.


Causes and Risk Factors of Erb’s palsy | Neurology

What Is Erb’s Palsy?

Erb’s palsy affects the part of the “brachial plexus”. The brachial plexus originates from the spinal cord. It is located in the arm and between the neck bones. Nerves in your body form a complex pathway for communication. Erb’s palsy disrupts this flow.

There are nerves in the upper part of the neck that provide flexibility and support for the arm. The condition occurs when the main nerve stem is cut off.

Different nerves in the lower part of the neck control feeling and flexibility in the hands and fingers. This is why you may see babies who cannot move the upper arm but can wiggle their fingers. When paralysis affects the entire arm, hand, and fingers, and it is called plexiglass plexus.

Generally, there are four types of nerve injuries. They can all occur at the same time in the same infant. Indications of a nerve injury are the equivalent (loss of feeling and halfway or complete loss of motion), paying little mind to the sort of injury. It is the severity of the injury that influences treatment decisions and the extent of possible recovery.

Types of Erb’s palsy injuries

  1. Neurapraxia: The most common type is a stretching injury that “strikes” but does not tear the nerve. This is called “Neurapraxia”. Typically, these injuries heal on their own, usually within 3 months. Neurapraxia can occur in adults as well as infants. For example, when it occurs to soccer players who are injured while playing, it is called “stinging”.
  2. Neuroma: A stretching injury that damages some nerve fibers may result in a scar. Scar tissue may compress a remaining healthy nerve. This condition is called “neuroma”. There is usually some healing, but not completely.
  3. Rupture: A stretching injury that causes a nerve to tear (rupture) will not heal on its own. A tear occurs when the nerve itself is torn.
  4. Avulsion: Extraction occurs when a nerve is torn from the spinal cord. Nerve tears and extractions are the most serious types of nerve injuries. It may be possible to repair the tear by ‘braiding’ a nerve graft from another nerve to the child. Ejaculation cannot be repaired from the spinal cord. Now and again, it might be conceivable to reestablish some capacity in the arm by utilizing a nerve from another muscle as a contributor.

Symptoms of Erb’s palsy

The injury that causes Erb’s palsy occurs during childbirth. Signs of damage or injury include decreased reflexes on the affected side, no movement in the arm or part of the arm, less grip strength in the affected hand, bending of the arm at the elbow, and a firm grip on the infant’s side.

If the condition is not somehow detected until later, the child may experience weakness, loss of sensation, or partial or complete paralysis in the arm.

Causes and risk factors of Erb’s palsy

The most common cause of Erb’s palsy is excessive straining or pulling of a baby’s head and shoulders during vaginal delivery. For example, if an infant’s head and neck are pulled to the side at the same time as the shoulders pass through the birth canal, this may cause Erb’s palsy.

This birth injury can also result from excessive straining of the shoulders during the birth of the head first, or by stressing the infant’s raised arms during the birth of the foot first. This usually occurs when the baby is “stuck” in the birth canal, requiring the caregiver to pull more forcefully to remove the baby.

Erb’s palsy can also develop depending on the baby’s position in the birth canal. This condition is common in children who are larger and have broad shoulders. What usually happens is that the infant’s head falls into the birth canal but one shoulder is retracted due to the mother’s pubic bone. When the baby’s head is pushed down into the birth canal, the nerves stretch, causing Erb’s palsy.

A baby’s risk of developing Erb’s palsy roughly triples if he develops shoulder dystocia during birth. This occurs when the infant’s head is delivered, but both shoulders are stuck inside the mother’s uterus.

Include risk factors for developing Erb’s palsy:

  • Big baby size
  • Maternal diabetes
  • The shape of the mother’s pelvis is small or abnormal
  • Use of extraction tools during childbirth
  • The second stage of labor lasts more than an hour
  • Excessive maternal weight gain

Erb’s palsy treatment options

In most cases, children who develop Erb’s palsy should be referred to a treatment center that offers multidisciplinary specialties. These types of treatment centers consist of a large team of doctors specializing in different areas of healthcare, such as neurologists, neurosurgeons, physical therapists, occupational therapists, and orthopedic surgeons.

However, not all children have the option to go to a multidisciplinary treatment center. In these cases, your child should be examined by a pediatric neurologist.

Include treatment options:


If the doctor recommends surgery, it should be performed within the first three to six months after birth, unless your child’s doctor recommends otherwise. Studies show that delaying surgery until a child is older reduces the chances of a successful operation. Microsurgical techniques should be performed around three months old. Surgical attempts to restore partial arm function to treat cardiac injuries should be made around six months of age.

Non-surgical treatment options

When nerve injuries to the brachial plexus are mild, the best approach is usually physical therapy, which should include a gentle massage around the affected arm. Physical therapy also includes the use of techniques such as range of motion exercises to improve arm strength and flexibility, as well as nerve function. In some cases, injecting Botox into the affected area, and applying electrical stimulation may help your child recover. If nerve function does not return after six to eight weeks of treatment and other forms of treatment, your doctor may recommend surgery.

However, it is important to note that home care is just as important. For example, you will need to gently massage the baby’s arm and do physical therapy exercises at home, along with physical therapy sessions. Make sure to participate during your child’s physical therapy sessions so that you understand which type of exercises you should do at home.


Most children and older patients with Erb’s palsy regain strength and movement in the affected arm. In rare cases, the affected arm may grow slightly shorter, fail to regain full strength, or be unable to make circular movements.

Diagnosis of Erb’s palsy

To determine whether an infant or an older patient has Erb’s palsy, a doctor will perform a physical exam to assess arm weakness. Then we use advanced diagnostic procedures and techniques to effectively diagnose, inform treatment, and carefully monitor the condition. It may include diagnostic procedures:

  • Electromyogram (EMG): This test measures the electrical activity of the muscle in response to stimulation, as well as the nature and speed of conduction of electrical impulses along a nerve. To confirm the presence of nerve damage and assess its severity.
  • Imaging studies: The doctor may order an X-ray, ultrasound, or another imaging test to check for damage to the bones and joints of the neck and shoulder.
  • Nerve conduction studies: These tests measure the ability of individual nerves to send an electrical signal from the spinal cord to the muscles.

The doctor places an electrode to directly shock the nerve to be studied, and an electrode to record over the muscles provided by that nerve. The shock electrode sends brief and repeated electrical impulses to the nerve, and the recording electrode records the time it takes the muscle to contract in response to the electrical impulse.


Many children with brachial plexus injuries will continue to feel some weakness in the shoulder, arm, or hand. There may be other surgical procedures that can be performed at a later time that may improve function. As your child grows, your doctor will discuss various treatment options and make a specific recommendation based on your child’s individual condition.


Most cases of Erb’s palsy are preventable in infants:

  • Advanced planning: If the baby is older than usual or in an incorrect position in the weeks leading up to the due date, advance planning by the obstetrician to prevent Erb’s palsy should include ensuring that qualified personnel is present in the delivery room, proper use of birth aids and extractions and induction of labor or cesarean delivery if Several risk factors have been identified.
  • Maternal healthcare: Good maternal health care during pregnancy, including avoiding or controlling diabetes, can help to prevent Erb’s palsy.

Symptoms, Causes and Risks of Heart attack | Cardiology

What is a heart attack?

Heart attack means the death of a part of the heart muscle due to loss of blood supply. Blood is usually cut off when a blood clot blocks the artery that supplies the heart muscle. When part of the heart muscle dies, a person experiences chest pain and electrical instability of the heart muscle tissue.

Other names

  • Myocardial infarction (MI)
  • Acute myocardial infarction (AMI)
  • Acute coronary syndrome
  • Coronary thrombosis
  • Coronary occlusion

Signs, symptoms, and Complications

If you experience these heart attack warning signs do not wait to get help. Some heart attacks are sudden and severe. Take care of your body and call a physician if you experience it.

Chest discomfort: Most heart attacks have discomfort in the middle of the chest for more than a few minutes, or it may go away and come back. It can feel like uncomfortable stress, squeezing, fullness, or pain.

Discomfort in other parts of the body: Symptoms include pain or discomfort in one or both arms, back, neck, jaw, or abdomen.

Shortness of breath: It occurs with or without chest discomfort.

Other signs: There are other signs such as cold sweats, nausea, or a mild headache.

Damage to the heart during a heart attack often leads to complications, which can lead to further complications. Arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythms), heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and valve problems are the most common complications.

Causes of heart attack

When one or more of your coronary arteries become blocked it leads to a heart attack. Over time, fatty deposits, including cholesterol, form substances called plaques, which can narrow the arteries (atherosclerosis). This condition, called coronary artery disease, causes many heart attacks.

  • During a heart attack, a plaque breaks down and leaks cholesterol and other substances into the bloodstream. Blood clots at the site of the break. If the clot is large, it can block blood flow through the coronary artery, depriving the heart of oxygen and nutrients (ischemia).
  • You may have a partial or complete blockage of the coronary artery.
  • Complete inhibition means you have an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
  • Partial occlusion means you have a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).
  • Diagnosis and treatment can vary depending on what type you have.
  • Another cause of heart attack is a narrowing of the coronary artery, which blocks blood flow to the heart muscle. Using tobacco and illicit drugs such as cocaine can lead to fatal seizures.
  • COVID-19 infection can also damage your heart and lead to a heart attack.

Risk factors of heart attack

The risk factors of a heart attack include:

Smoking: Chemicals in tobacco smoke can damage blood cells. They can also damage the function of your heart and the structure and function of your blood vessels. This damage increases your risk of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the formation of a waxy substance called plaque in the arteries. Over time, the plaque hardens and narrows the arteries.

It restricts the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body. Ischemic heart disease occurs when plaque forms in the arteries that supply blood to the heart, called the coronary arteries. Over time, heart disease can lead to chest pain, heart attack, heart failure, arrhythmia, or death. Smoking increases the risk of heart disease when combined with unhealthy blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and other risk factors such as being overweight or the esophagus.

High blood pressure: Blood pressure is measured by estimating the pressure of the blood flowing through your arteries against the walls of those arteries. During a heart attack, blood flow to some part of the heart muscle is restricted or cut off because the blood clot blocks the artery. Without the necessary blood supply, the affected part of your heart will not receive the oxygen it needs to function properly.

High blood cholesterol: When you have high cholesterol in your blood, it forms on the walls of your arteries, causing a process called atherosclerosis, a form of heart disease. The arteries are narrow and slow or block blood flow to the heart muscle. Blood carries oxygen to the heart and if not enough blood and oxygen get to the heart, you can experience chest pain. If the blood supply to part of the heart is completely cut off, the result is a heart attack.

There are two forms of cholesterol known to most people low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad” cholesterol) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL or “good” cholesterol). These are the ways that cholesterol travels through the blood. The main source of arterial occlusion plaque is LDL. HDL works to remove cholesterol from the blood.

Overweight and obesity: His arrhythmia appears to be associated with a fatal heart attack. Inflammation is a major factor in cardiovascular disease, researchers say, and esophagitis is now increasingly recognized as an inflammatory condition.

An unhealthy diet: When it comes to heart disease risk, what you eat is yourself. Poor diet contributes to cholesterol and triglycerides, high blood pressure, diabetes, and balance. Several important studies provide compelling evidence that diet also affects the risk of complete coronary heart disease and heart attack.

Lack of routine physical activity: Not getting enough physical activity can lead to heart disease even for people who do not have other risk factors. It also increases the risk of developing other heart disease risk factors, including esophagitis, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes.

High blood sugar due to insulin resistance or diabetes: The blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart and blood vessels can be damaged by high blood glucose from diabetes. If you have diabetes for a long time, you are more likely to get heart disease. People with heart disease are more prone to heart attack than with diabetes.

The most common causes of death in adults with diabetes are heart disease and stroke. Adults with diabetes are almost twice as likely to die of heart disease or stroke than those with diabetes. The good news is that the steps you take to manage your diabetes can also help reduce your risk of heart disease or stroke.

Risk factors such as arrears, high blood pressure, and high blood sugar can occur together. When they do, it is called metabolic syndrome. In general, a person with metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to have heart disease, and a person five times more likely to have diabetes than a person without metabolic syndrome.

Diagnosis of heart attack

Tests to diagnose a heart attack include:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): This first test done to diagnose a heart attack records electrical signals as they pass through your heart. Adhesive patches (electrodes) are attached to your chest and limbs. Signals are recorded as waves displayed on the monitor or printed on paper. Because the injured heart muscle does not normally conduct electrical impulses, an ECG shows that a heart attack has occurred or is in progress.
  • Blood tests: Some heart proteins will slowly leak into your bloodstream after a heart attack from a heart attack. Emergency room doctors take samples of your blood to check for these proteins or enzymes.

Treatments for heart attack

If your doctor suspects a heart attack, you can treat it immediately:

  • Aspirin to prevent blood clots
  • Nitroglycerin to relieve chest pain and improve blood flow
  • Oxygen therapy

Once your doctor has diagnosed a heart attack, they will prescribe medication. They may recommend surgery if necessary.

  • Give your medicine: The medicine drug is called thrombolytic. It helps to clot the blood that clogs the coronary artery.
  • Do a coronary angiography: X-ray of the blood vessels.
  • Do an angioplasty or stent: Angioplasty involves inserting a small balloon into an artery in your arm or leg. The balloon threads the artery to the heart. The balloon pushes the open black coronary arteries. A small metal rod called a stent can be placed in the clogged artery to keep the artery open.
  • Do coronary artery bypass surgery: If angioplasty and/or stenting is not appropriate, you may need this major surgery. Your doctor will remove a healthy vein from your leg or artery from your upper body. He or she will bypass around the blockage in your coronary artery. This allows blood to flow around the blockage.

Cardiac screening

  • If screening tests reveal coronary artery disease, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk for heart attack or exacerbated heart disease. Your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, exercise, and smoking cessation. Medications may also be required. Medications can treat risk factors for coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, and low blood flow.
  • A negative cardiac CT for calcium scoring means that no calcification has been found in your coronary arteries, indicating that there is no coronary artery disease or not being seen by this technique. Under these conditions, you are less likely to have a heart attack in the next two to five years.
  • A positive cardiac CT for calcium scoring means you have CAD regardless of what symptoms you are experiencing. Calcification is expressed as the total calcium score. A score of 1 to 10 indicates minimal evidence of CAD, 11 to 100 indicates mild evidence, 101 to 400 indicates moderate evidence of disease, and a score of more than 500 indicates extensive evidence of disease.
  • Your calcium score can help assess the likelihood of myocardial infarction (heart attack) in the years to come and help your doctor decide whether you should take preventative medicine or take other measures such as diet and exercise to reduce your risk of a heart attack.
  • If there is coronary artery disease, lifestyle changes, medications, and if necessary, medical or surgical procedures in stages to reduce the person’s risk of heart attack and manage symptoms.
  • Angioplasty and stenting: In an angioplasty procedure, a balloon-tipped catheter is used to guide a long, thin plastic tube into the coronary artery and to propel the vessel into a narrow or obstructed area. The balloon is then inflated, inflated, and removed to open the vessel. During angioplasty, a small wire mesh tube called a stent can be placed permanently in the newly opened artery to help keep it open. There are two types of stents: bare stents (wire mesh) and drug-eluting stents.
  • Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG): CABG is a surgical instrument used to re-circulate blood around diseased vessels. During this surgery, a healthy artery or vein from other parts of the body connects or sticks to the coronary artery, bypassing the barrier, creating a new way for oxygen-rich blood to flow to the heart muscle.

Prevention of heart attack

  • Control your blood pressure: It is important to check your blood pressure regularly, once a year for most adults, and if you have high blood pressure. Take measures, including lifestyle changes to prevent or control high blood pressure.
  • Keep your cholesterol and triglyceride levels under control: High cholesterol clogs your arteries and increases the risk of coronary artery disease and heart attack. Lifestyle changes and medications (if needed) can lower your cholesterol. High levels of triglycerides increase the risk of coronary artery disease, especially in women.
  • Stay at a healthy weight: Obesity increases your risk of heart disease. They are associated with high blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as other heart disease risk factors, including high blood pressure and diabetes. Controlling your weight will reduce these risks.
  • Eat a healthy diet: Foods high in sodium, saturated fats, and added sugars should be consumed in limited quantities. Eat plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The dash diet is an example of an eating plan that can help you lower your blood pressure and cholesterol, which can reduce your risk of heart disease.
  • Get regular exercise: Exercise has many benefits such as strengthening your heart and improving your circulation. It can help you maintain a healthy weight and lower cholesterol and blood pressure. All of these can reduce your risk of heart disease.
  • Limit alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption can increase your blood pressure. It also adds extra calories, which can lead to weight gain. Both of these increase your risk of heart disease. Men should not have more than two alcoholic beverages per day and women should not have more than one.
  • Don’t smoke: Cigarette smoking raises your blood pressure and increases your risk of heart attack and stroke. If you do not smoke, do not start. If you smoke, quitting will reduce your heart disease. You can talk to your healthcare provider to help to find the best way to exit.
  • Manage stress: Stress is one of the causes of to increase in the risk of heart disease. It raises your blood pressure. Severe stress can “trigger” a heart attack. Also, some common ways to deal with stress, such as overeating, overeating, and smoking, are bad for your heart. Some of the ways that can help you manage your stress are exercise, listening to music, focusing on those who are calm or relaxed, and meditating.
  • Manage diabetes: Having diabetes doubles the risk of diabetic heart disease. This is because, over time, Blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart and blood vessels can be damaged by high blood sugar. So, it is important to get tested for diabetes, and if you have it, you need to keep it under control.
  • Make sure that you get enough sleep: If you do not get enough sleep, you will increase your risk of high blood pressure, esophagus, and diabetes. Those three things increase the risk of heart disease. 7 to 9 hours of sleep a night is required for adults. Make sure you have good sleep habits. If you have frequent sleep problems, consult your healthcare provider. One problem, sleep apnea, is that people often stop breathing during sleep. It can impair your ability to relax well and increase your risk of heart disease. If you think you may have it, ask your doctor about a sleep study. If you have sleep apnea, make sure you get treatment for it.

Treatment and Diagnosis of Heart failure | Cardiology

What is heart failure?

Heart failure, sometimes known as congestive heart failure, occurs when the heart muscle does not pump blood as well as it should. Certain conditions, such as narrowing of the arteries in the heart (coronary artery disease) or high blood pressure, cause your heart to gradually weaken or stiffen so that it cannot fill and pump efficiently.

Your body relies on the heart’s pumping process to deliver oxygen and nutrient-rich blood to your cells. When the cells are properly nourished, the body can function normally. With heart failure, the weakened heart cannot supply the cells with adequate blood supply. This results in fatigue, shortness of breath, and some people cough. Daily activities such as walking, climbing stairs, or carrying groceries can become very difficult.

Cardiovascular breakdown is a genuine ailment that requires treatment. Early treatment increases the chances of long-term recovery with fewer complications, and one way to prevent heart failure is to prevent and control conditions that cause heart failure, for example, coronary course sickness, hypertension, diabetes, or stoutness.

How does the normal heart work?

A normal healthy heart is a powerful muscle pump that is slightly larger than a fist. Blood is constantly being pumped through the circulatory system.

The heart contains four chambers, two on the right and two on the left:

  • Two upper chambers called the atria (one called the atrium)
  • Two lower chambers called the ventricles

The right atrium takes oxygen-depleted blood from the rest of the body and sends it through the right ventricle where the blood in the lungs is oxidized. The oxygen-rich blood travels from the lungs to the left atrium, then to the left ventricle, which pumps it to the rest of the body. The heart pumps blood to the lungs and all tissues of the body through a series of highly regulated contractions of the four chambers. For the heart to function properly, the four chambers must beat in an orderly fashion.

What are the different types of heart failure?

The heart has four chambers through which blood is siphoned. Freshly oxygenated blood is pumped from the lungs into the left atrium and left ventricle and out through the aorta for circulation through the rest of the body. After using the oxygen, blood returns through the veins to the right atrium and the right ventricle to the lungs to return the oxygen.

Systolic heart failure (left-sided heart failure)

When the heart loses its strength on the left side (the left ventricle) and cannot pump blood into the circulation, this is called systolic heart failure or left heart failure. When this happens, the heart dilates and becomes weak. Heart muscle strength can be measured with an echocardiogram that measures the ejection fraction. 70% of the ejection fraction is normal. The term congestive heart failure, or CHF, refers to a build-up of fluid in the tissues. Fluid can build up in the legs causing swelling (edema), in the lungs causing pulmonary edema, or in the abdomen where it is called ascites. A type of heart failure called acute decompensated heart failure is an emergency situation.

Diastolic heart failure (right-sided heart failure)

The second type of heart failure is diastolic heart failure, which is characterized by the thickening and stiffening of the lower chambers of the heart. When this happens, the left ventricle cannot fill with enough blood, and not enough blood is pumped into the circulation, even if the pumping process is still vigorous. This is the reason diastolic cardiovascular breakdown is in some cases alluded to as cardiovascular breakdown with protected launch division (PEF), or right-sided cardiovascular breakdown. If signs and symptoms of heart failure are present and the ejaculation rate is greater than 50%, then diastolic heart failure may be considered, especially if the echocardiogram shows that the heart muscle is enlarged.

Heart failure signs and symptoms

The signs and symptoms are:

  • Shortness of breath or trouble breathing
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • Reduced ability to exercise
  • Persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged phlegm
  • Increased need to urinate at night
  • Fatigue (tiredness)
  • Swelling in the ankles, feet, legs, abdomen, and veins in the neck
  • Swelling of your abdomen (ascites)
  • Very rapid weight gain from fluid retention
  • Sudden, severe shortness of breath and coughing up pink, foamy mucus
  • Chest pain if your heart failure is caused by a heart attack
  • Lack of appetite and nausea
  • Difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness

Causes of heart failure

Conditions that damage or overexert the heart muscle can cause heart failure. Over time, the heart weakens. It is not able to fill and/or pump blood as well as it should. When the heart weakens, some proteins and substances may be released into the blood. These substances have a toxic effect on the heart and blood flow, and they exacerbate heart failure.

Causes may include:

  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Cardiomyopathy, a disorder of the heart muscle that causes the heart to become weak
  • A congenital heart defect
  • A heart attack
  • Heart valve disease
  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Certain types of arrhythmias, or irregular heart rhythms
  • Emphysema, a disease of the lung
  • HIV
  • AIDS
  • Severe forms of anemia
  • An overactive or underactive thyroid
  • Certain cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy
  • Drug or alcohol misuse

Risk factors

One risk factor may be sufficient to cause heart failure, but a combination of factors also increases the risk.

Risk factors include:

  • High blood pressure: Your heart works harder than it should if your blood pressure is high.
  • Coronary artery disease: Narrowed arteries may limit the heart’s supply of oxygen-rich blood, causing the heart muscle to weaken.
  • Heart attack: A heart attack is a form of coronary artery disease that occurs suddenly. Damage to the heart muscle from a heart attack may mean that your heart is no longer able to pump blood as well as it should.
  • Having diabetes increases your risk of developing high blood pressure and coronary artery disease.
  • Some diabetes medications: The diabetes drugs rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone (Actos) have been found to build the danger of a cardiovascular breakdown in certain individuals. However, do not stop taking these medications on your own. If you are taking it, discuss with your doctor whether you need to make any changes.
  • Certain medications: Some medications can lead to heart failure or heart problems. Medicines that may increase the risk of heart disease include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Some anesthetics, some antiarrhythmic drugs. Certain medicines are used to treat high blood pressure, cancer, blood diseases, neurological diseases, psychiatric conditions, lung diseases, urinary tract diseases, infections, and infections; And other over-the-counter medications.
  • Do not stop taking any medications on your own. If you have questions about the medications you take, discuss with your doctor whether he recommends any changes.
  • Sleep apnea: The inability to breathe properly while sleeping at night reduces oxygen levels in the blood and increases the risk of heart rhythm disturbances. Both of these problems can weaken the heart.
  • Congenital heart defects: Some people with heart failure are born with structural heart defects.
  • Valvular heart disease: People with valvular heart disease have a higher risk of developing heart failure.
  • A viral infection may have damaged your heart muscle.
  • Alcohol use: Drinking a lot of liquor can debilitate heart muscle and lead to a cardiovascular breakdown.
  • Tobacco use: Using tobacco must increase your risk of cardiac infarction.
  • People who are obese have a higher risk of developing cardiac infarction.
  • Irregular heartbeats: These abnormal rhythms, especially if they are frequent and too fast, can weaken the heart muscle and cause heart failure.

How is heart failure diagnosed?

To diagnose heart failure, your doctor will ask you questions about your medical history, talk about your symptoms, and physically examine you. This will include checking your heart rate and rhythm, measuring your blood pressure, and checking whether you have fluid in your lungs, legs, and other parts of your body. In most cases, you’ll also undergo further tests to confirm the diagnosis and guide how your symptoms are managed.

You may hear your doctor talk about an “ejection fraction” of your heart. This refers to the amount of blood that is pushed out of the left ventricle each time your heartbeats. It is usually expressed as a percentage – more than 50% is considered normal. Some people with this heart defeat have a normal ejection fraction, so the ejection fraction is used along with other tests to help diagnose heart failure.

Heart failure treatment

Monitoring and self-care

If you have heart failure, your provider will monitor you very closely. You will have follow-up visits at least every 3 to 6 months, but sometimes much more. You will also have tests to check the function of your heart. Knowing your body and the worsening symptoms of your cardiopulmonary arrest will help you stay healthier and out of the hospital. At home, watch for changes in heart rate, pulse, blood pressure, and weight.

Weight gain, especially over a day or two, can be a sign that your body is retaining extra fluid and your heart failure is getting worse. Talk to your provider about what you should do if you gain weight or develop more symptoms. Reduce the amount of salt you eat. Your provider may also ask you to limit the amount of fluid you drink during the day.

Other important changes to make in your lifestyle:

  • Ask your provider how much alcohol you may drink.
  • DO NOT smoke.
  • Stay active. Walk or ride a stationary bike. Your provider can provide you with a safe and effective exercise plan. Don’t exercise on days when you gain fluid weight or feel unwell.
  • Get enough rest, including after exercise, eating, or other activities. This allows your heart to rest too.
  • Lose weight if you are overweight.
  • Lower your cholesterol by changing your lifestyle.

Medicines, surgery, and devices

You will need to take medications to treat heart failure. Meds treat the indications, keep your cardiovascular breakdown from deteriorating, and assist you with living longer. You must take your medication as directed by your health care team.

These medicines:

  • Help the heart muscle pump better
  • Open up blood vessels or slow your heart rate so your heart does not have to work as hard
  • Reduce damage to the heart
  • Keep your blood from clotting
  • Lower your cholesterol levels
  • Reduce the risk of abnormal heart rhythms
  • Replace potassium
  • Rid your body of excess fluid and salt (sodium)

You must take your medication as directed. Do not take any other medicines or herbs without first asking your provider. Medicines that may cause your heart failure include:

  • Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)
  • Naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn)

The following devices and surgeries may be recommended for some people with heart failure:

  • Coronary bypass surgery (CABG) or angioplasty with or without stenting may help improve blood flow to the damaged or weakened heart muscle.
  • A defibrillator sends an electrical pulse to stop life-threatening abnormal heart rhythms.
  • Heart valve surgery may be done if changes in a heart valve are causing your heart failure.
  • A pacemaker can help treat slow heart rates or help both sides of your heart contract at the same time.


If you have heart failure, your outlook on the cause and severity, your general health, and other factors such as your age.

Complications can include:

  • Kidney damage or failure: It can reduce blood flow to your kidneys, which can eventually lead to kidney failure if left untreated. Kidney damage caused by heart failure can require hemodialysis for treatment.
  • Heart valve problems: The valves in your heart that keep blood flowing in the correct direction through your heart may not function properly if your heart is enlarged or if the pressure in your heart is too high because of heart failure.
  • Heart rhythm problems: Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) can be a possible complication of heart failure.
  • Liver damage: It can lead to fluid buildup and put severe pressure on the liver. This reserve fluid can lead to scarring, making it more difficult for the liver to function properly.

With appropriate treatment, some people’s symptoms and heart function will improve. However, cardiac arrest is life-threatening. People with heart failure may have severe symptoms, and some may require a heart transplant or ventricular assist device support.

How can you prevent heart failure?

A sound way of life can help treat cardiovascular breakdown and keep the condition from creating in any case. Losing weight and exercising regularly can greatly reduce your risk of cardiopulmonary arrest. Reducing the amount of salt in your diet can reduce your risk.

Other healthy lifestyle habits include:

  • Reducing alcohol intake
  • Getting an adequate amount of sleep
  • Quitting smoking
  • Avoiding foods high in fat