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About Homeopathic treatment for Neurology disorders | Neurology

What are neurological disorders?

Neurological disorders or neurological ailments are certain conditions or problems of the brain, spine, and nerves along with disorders associated with the central nervous system in general. Neurological ailments can become extremely severe at times, which can result in creating serious problems for affected individuals. To know the names of the most common neurological disorders or ailments, read carefully.

  • Alzheimer disease
  • Brain tumor
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Concussion
  • Dementia
  • Disc disease of the lower back or neck
  • Epilepsy
  • Migraine
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Neuralgia
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Psychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, severe depression
  • Convulsions
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Career
  • neurological ailments

The homeopathic treatment of diverse types of neurological ailments aims to provide a deeper cure so that pretentious individuals can lead as normal a life as possible. This is exactly what homeopathy does so that people affected by neurological disorders can effectively manage symptoms.

Causes of Neurological Ailments

The brain and spinal cord are protected with various membranes that are insulating in nature. Now, these membranes are vulnerable to both pressure and force. Peripheral nerves are those that are quite deep under the skin and are also vulnerable to damage. Therefore, any damage to these membranes, nerves, brain, or spinal cord can result in a neurological disorder. These ailments can result in affecting the entire neurological pathway or just a single neuron. Only a very small alteration in the structural pathway of the neuron can result in its malfunction. Some of the important causes of neurological diseases are as follows:

  • Causes related to the individual’s lifestyle
  • Various types of infections can cause neurological ailments
  • Genetics plays a vital role in causing these neurological ailments
  • Some nutrition-related conditions, such as deficiency of a vital nutrient, vitamin, etc., can lead to a neurological disorder
  • External factors and environmental conditions or influences also contribute to neurological ailments
  • Physical injuries can lead to numerous neurological disorders

Homeopathic treatment

Homeopathy designs a suitable and effective treatment plan for the treatment of people affected by any neurological disorder or ailment so that both positive and satisfactory results are obtained. Certain homeopathic medicines used for the treatment of different types of neurological ailments are the ones mentioned below:

  • Causticum is an extremely effective solution for multiple sclerosis and is also useful in chronic paralytic infections
  • Gelsemium is the best homeopathic medicine for motor paralysis which acts quickly on the nervous system when there are tremors, dizziness, drowsiness, and so on.
  • Oxalic acid is a very effective medicine for cerebral and posterior sclerosis of the spine along with shooting or spasmodic pains in different parts of the body.
  • Phosphorus acts as a great remedy for atrophy as well as for softening the brain or spinal cord.
  • Kalium bromatum is indicated for neurological ailments that arise from extremely serious situations.
  • Aconite is used for ailments that arise from some sudden shock.
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Disease General Topics

Treatments for Functional Neurological Disorder | Neurology

What is a functional neurological disorder?

Functional neurological disorder (FND) is a medicinal condition in which there is a problem with the operative of the nervous system and how the brain and body send and/or receive signals, rather than a structural disease process such as multiple sclerosis or a stroke. The functional neurological disorder can encompass a wide variety of neurological symptoms, such as limb weakness or seizures.

A functional neurological disorder is a condition at the interface between the specialties of neurology and psychiatry. Conventional tests, such as brain MRIs and EEGs, are usually normal in patients with functional neurological disorders. This has historically led to both doctors and researchers neglecting the disease.

However, it has now been established that functional neurological disorder is a common cause of disability and distress, which can overlap with other problems such as chronic pain and fatigue. Encouraging studies support the possible reversibility of functional neurological disorder with specifically designed treatments. New scientific findings are influencing the way patients are diagnosed and treated, which is creating a general shift in attitudes towards people with functional neurological disorders.

Older ideas that functional neurological disorder is “totally psychological” and that diagnosis is made only when someone has normal tests have changed since the mid-2000s. New understanding, including modern neuroscientific studies, has shown that FND it is not a diagnosis of exclusion. It has specific clinical features of its own and is a disorder of nervous system functioning in which many perspectives are needed. These vary greatly from person to person. In some people, psychological factors are important, in others they are not.

Signs and symptoms of functional neurological disorder

Patients with a functional neurological disorder can experience a wide range and combination of physical, sensory, and/or cognitive symptoms. The most common include:

Motor dysfunction

  • Functional weakness/paralysis of the limbs
  • Functional movement disorders; including tremors, spasms (dystonia), jerky movements (myoclonus), and trouble walking (gait disorder)
  • Functional speech symptoms; including whispering (dysphonia), slurred speech, or stuttering

Sensory dysfunction

  • Functional sensory disturbance includes altered sensation; eg numbness, tingling, or pain in the face, torso, or extremities. This often occurs on one side of the body
  • functional visual symptoms; including vision loss or double vision

Episodes of altered consciousness

  • Dissociative (non-epileptic) seizures, fainting spells, and fainting spells: These symptoms may overlap and may look like epileptic seizures or blackouts (syncope)

Symptoms often fluctuate and can vary from day to day or be present all the time. Some patients with a functional neurological disorder may experience a substantial or even complete remission followed by sudden relapses of symptoms.

Patients with the functional neurological disorder often experience other physical and psychological symptoms, but they may not be present. These include chronic pain, fatigue, trouble sleeping, memory symptoms, bowel and bladder symptoms, anxiety, and depression.

Causes functional neurological disorder

The exact cause of the functional neurological disorder is unknown, although ongoing research is beginning to provide suggestions on how and why it develops. Many different predisposing factors can make patients more susceptible to FND, such as having another neurological condition, experiencing chronic pain, fatigue, or stress. However, some people with functional neurological disorders do not have any of these risk factors.

By the time FND begins, studies have shown that there can be triggers such as a physical injury, infectious disease, panic attack, or migraine that can give someone the first experience of symptoms. These symptoms usually go away on their own.

However, in FND the symptoms “get stuck” in a “pattern” in the nervous system. This “pattern” is reflected in altered brain function. The result is a genuine and disabling problem, which the patient cannot control. The goal of treatment is to “retrain the brain,” for example, by unlearning abnormal and dysfunctional movement patterns that have developed and re-learning normal movement.

One way to think about FND is to think of it as a “software” problem on a computer. The “hardware” is not damaged, but there is a problem with the “software”, so the computer does not work, it does not work properly. Conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is usually normal in FND unless the person has another neurological condition.

Functional brain scans (fMRI) are beginning to provide early evidence of how the brain fails in FND. Functional magnetic resonance imaging shows changes in FND patients who look different from healthy patients without these symptoms, as well as from healthy people who “pretend” to have these symptoms.

Functional imaging is still a research tool and is not sufficiently developed to be used in the diagnosis of FND. The scans support what patients and researchers already know: These are genuine disorders in which there is a change in how the brain works, which is beyond the control of the person with FND.

Diagnosis of functional neurological disorder

The diagnosis of a functional neurologic disorder depends on the positive features of the history and examination.

Positive features of functional softness on examination include the Hoover sign, when there is the weakness of hip extension that regularizes with contralateral hip flexion, and the abductor thigh sign, thigh abduction weakness which is normalized with the abduction of the contralateral thigh. Signs of functional tremors include entrainment and distraction.

The trembling patient should be asked to copy the rhythmic movements with one hand or one foot. If the tremor on the other hand follows the same rhythm, stops, or if the patient has trouble copying a simple movement, this may indicate a functional tremor.

Functional dystonia usually presents with an inverted ankle stance or with a clenched fist. Positive features of dissociative or nonepileptic seizures include prolonged immobile unresponsiveness, long-lasting episodes (> 2 minutes), and dissociative symptoms before the seizure. These signs can be usefully discussed with patients when making the diagnosis.

Patients with functional movement disorders and limb faintness may experience the onset of symptoms triggered by an episode of acute pain, bodily injury, or physical trauma. They may also experience symptoms when faced with a psychological stressor, but this is not the case for most patients. Patients with functional neurological disorders are more likely to have a history of another disease, such as irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pelvic pain, or fibromyalgia, but this cannot be used to make a diagnosis.

FND does not show up on blood tests or structural brain images, such as MRI or CT. However, this is also the case for many other neurological conditions, so negative investigations should not be used alone to make the diagnosis. However, FND can occur along with other neurological diseases, and tests can show nonspecific abnormalities that confuse clinicians and patients.

Treatment for a functional neurological disorder

There is no best treatment for a conversion disorder. A physician is likely to provide support and reassurance and tailor treatment goals to the specific situation.

Most doctors will explain the limits of what the physical exam and tests could show about symptoms. They try to avoid confronting the individual with the idea that the symptoms are “false”, because the symptoms are often distressing and are not under the control of the person. It is helpful to avoid overly intrusive and uncomfortable medical tests, while still monitoring symptoms.

Symptoms occasionally go away on their own after the stress has been reduced, the conflict has been resolved, or the family or public has responded with concern and support.

If symptoms do not recover relatively quickly, more vigorous rehabilitation may be required. Physical or occupational therapy can be helpful.

Psychotherapy can deliver relief, although there is no evidence that one type of therapy is more effective than another. Many therapists will focus on encouragement and motivational interviewing, with the goal of improving functioning.

If the source of the conflict or stress can be determined, it can be helpful to know what triggered the symptoms. For instance, the person may be in conflict about leaving home, starting a new job, or having a first child.

In psychotherapy, the person can learn to cope with conflict or withdraw from the source of distress. In either case, the physical symptoms can go away. Performance remains a higher priority than knowledge.

As with psychotherapy, there is no single drug that is best for this disorder. Medication can be helpful in treating an underlying problem with anxiety or depression.

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Disease General Topics

Symptoms of Central Nervous System Depression | Neurology

What is central nervous system depression?

Central command brain. It commands his lungs and lungs to breathe and his heart to beat. It controls all the other parts of your body and mind, how you feel, and interacts with the world around you. The spinal cord maintains nerve impulses, allowing your brain to communicate with the rest of your body.

When the functions of the CNS slow down, this is called central nervous system depression. Slowing down a bit is not dangerous. Of course, sometimes it even helps. But if it slows down too much, it can quickly turn into a fatal event. People should use sleeping pills, pain relievers, and other CNS depressants with caution.

A person can benefit from taking the correct dose of central nervous system depression patients, such as opioid pain relievers. However, an overdose of these drugs can reduce CNS activity to dangerous levels. The CNS contains the brain and spinal cord. It regulates many bodily functions, including breathing and the heart, sending messages through the spinal cord between the brain and other nerves.

It plays a role in essential physiological processes:

Involuntary processes: These do not require conscious thought. These regulate vital organs such as the heart, lungs, and stomach. They are responsible for functions that include digestion and blood circulation.

Voluntary processes: These include conscious thinking. They allow people to move their arms and legs or blink. Central nervous system depression patients are drugs and other substances that slow down the CNS. Most central nervous system depression patients work by increasing the chemistry of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which inhibits or slows the transmission of messages between cells. 

Symptoms of central nervous system depression

Mild CNS decline can make you feel less anxious and more relaxed. Therefore, central nervous system depression patients are used to treat anxiety and insomnia. People with CNS depression have various overdose symptoms. Factors affecting the impact of CNS depression:

  • Type and dose of a substance
  • The severity of illness or injury
  • The size of the person
  • The individual’s medical history
  • Mild symptoms
  • Mild symptoms of CNS depression
  • Lack of coordination and little sense of space.
  • Muscular weakness
  • sloth
  • Dizziness
  • Disorientation
  • Speaks slow or stutters
  • Short piri or shallow breathing
  • Heart rate decreased slightly
  • Constipation
  • Dry mouth
  • Volatility and anxiety
  • Unhappy
  • Blurred, altered, or double vision
  • Severe symptoms
  • Symptoms of acute CNS depression:
  • Decreased heart rate
  • Respiratory rate less than 10 breaths per minute
  • Severe confusion or memory loss
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Lack of criteria
  • Blue lips or fingers
  • Irritability and aggression
  • Cold or clammy skin
  • Sudden and intense mood change
  • Slow reactions

If a person has any of these symptoms, they should seek medical attention immediately. Lastly, severe symptoms can lead to unresponsiveness, coma, and death.

Long-term effects: Continued use of some CNS depressants is harmful in the long term because the body cannot excrete these substances.

Effects can include:

  • Thinking, memory, and judgment problems.
  • Confusion and confusion
  • Muscular weakness
  • Loss of coordination
  • Speak slow

Also, a person may need more and more medications to experience the same benefits. This leads to a greater dependence on needs. Some people may need rehabilitation treatment to stop taking medicine.

Severely depressed CNS can lead to forgetfulness or coma. Without prompt treatment, it can be fatal.

Causes central nervous system depression?

Some drugs affect the neurotransmitters in your brain, causing brain activity to decrease. It makes your breathing slow and shallow. Slow heart rate.

Common causes of central nervous system depression are the use of drugs, medications, or alcohol. Initially, they cause a mild stimulating effect or a sensation of pleasure. But make no mistake about it, these substances are CNS depressants. Some specific antidepressants:

Barbiturates: They are sometimes prescribed before surgery. They can also be used as anticonvulsants. Because they are so powerful, they are not currently prescribed for anxiety and insomnia.

Medicines of this group:

  • Mephoborbital (Mabral)
  • Sodium Pentobarbital (Nembutal)
  • Phenobarbital (luminal sodium)
  • Benzodiazepines

These medications, which are considered safer than barbiturates, are prescribed to treat anxiety and insomnia. There are many benzodiazepines, which you may have heard of:

  • Alprazolam (Genox)
  • Diazepam (volume)
  • Triazolam (holcian)
  • Opiates
  • They are usually prescribed for pain. Common opioids include:
  • Codeine
  • Hydrocodone (Vicodin)
  • Morphine (Kadian)
  • Oxycodone (Percocet)
  • Heroin is also an opiate.
  • Sleeping pills
  • Some sleep aids also fall into this category. In addition to:
  • Eszopiclone (Lunesta)
  • Jaleplan (Sonata)
  • Zolpidem (Ambien)

In small doses, these medications can slow down brain function and cause a feeling of calm or sleepiness. An overdose can reduce your heart and breathing rates. Risk when the CNS slows down too much, which can lead to loss of consciousness, coma, and death.

Combining alcohol with other central nervous system depression patients improves its effectiveness and, in many cases, can be fatal.

Medical causes: Central nervous system depression can also be caused by serious health events.

Chronic medical conditions can lead to CNS depression. These include:

  • Diabetes
  • Thyroid problems
  • Liver disease
  • Nephropathy

Direct injury to the brain can also cause CNS depression. These include:

  • Brain aneurysm
  • Tumor
  • Career
  • Infection
  • Injury from a fall or accident.

Any event that causes a decrease in blood flow and oxygen to the brain, such as a severe heart attack, can also lead to CNS depression.

Other reasons

Many other things in your environment can cause central nervous system depression when ingested or inhaled. One of those products is a chemical found in a wide variety of consumer goods, including ethylene glycol, antifreeze, and de-icing products. When taken, this chemical is toxic to the CNS, kidneys, and heart. It can cause serious health problems, including death.

The risk factor of central nervous system depression

When people use CNS depressants, it can be dangerous for several reasons:

  • Dependence
  • Withdrawal symptoms when use is discontinued
  • Overdose
  • Long-term adverse effects

Abuse can occur if one person uses another person’s action medications, takes more than the recommended dose, or uses medications that have not been prescribed by a doctor.

Combining ingredients: The combination of central nervous system depression patients, for example, alcohol with sleeping pills is dangerous. The combination of CNS depressants, opioids, and alcohol increases its effectiveness. There can be serious adverse reactions and fatal consequences.

Sometimes a person may not realize that there is an overdose risk when using opioid pain relievers and then drinking alcohol. First, people should check with their doctor to see if it is safe to take medications for CNS depression and any of the following:

Alcohol:

  • Over-the-counter medications with symptoms similar to pain relievers
  • Allergy medications
  • Sleeping aids
  • Tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants (TCAs) also exacerbate the effects of CNS depressants, especially drowsiness.

Dependence and withdrawal: Some CNS depressants become less effective over time, causing the person to feel the need to take larger doses. If they stop using the drug, the original symptoms will return more severe than before. A person who wants to stop using a CNS depressant should do so gradually to avoid adverse effects. Your doctor can help you do this.

Overdose: Central nervous system depression overdose can happen by accident, but people sometimes choose to take more than the recommended dose for a “severe” effect. This can lead to an overdose and death. People deliberately take high doses of these drugs to end their lives.

A person can recover from an overdose, but research in the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology shows that some people continue to have problems with daily functioning after leaving the hospital.

Long-term effects: Some types of central nervous system depression can also have long-term effects, causing someone to have trouble thinking, confusion, speech problems, loss of coordination, and muscle weakness. Addiction to CNS depressants can see a person’s social and family problems, difficulties at work, and the inability to work on a daily basis.

Opioid Crisis: Some Statistics

Since 2000, more than 300,000 Americans have died from opioid overdoses. Data from 2016 estimated at least 64,000 overdose deaths from overdose, the highest number ever recorded in the United States.

Treatment for central nervous system depression

Serious symptoms of central nervous system depression include loss of consciousness, coma, and death. Anyone with these symptoms needs immediate medical attention. Treatment of CNS depression or CNS depression overdose depends on the ingredients.

Some CNS medications contain antidotes that can reverse their effects. These include naloxone for opioid overdose and flumazenil for benzodiazepine overdose. A person may need emergency care if they do not know they are overdosing on CNS depression, especially after accidentally abusing their medicine or due to a medical problem.

Anyone with signs of CNS depression or an overdose in someone else should call emergency services or the local Poison Control Center for guidance.

In these cases, treatment may include:

  • Monitors a person’s heart and breathing rate.
  • Giving oxygen through an oxygen mask or respirator
  • Give stimulant medications to increase a person’s heart rate

Prevention of central nervous system depression

If you have a medical condition that causes central nervous system depression, talk to your doctor. Discuss the best way to maintain your health and how to identify complications from your illness in advance.

When your doctor prescribes an action ointment, make sure you understand its purpose and how long it will take. Ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain the potential risks.

To reduce the chances of CNS depression due to substances, follow these tips:

  • Tell your doctor about other medications you take and any other medical conditions you have, including problems with addiction.
  • Follow directions for taking your medications. Never increase the dose without consulting your doctor. Consult with your doctor when you want to stop taking the medication.
  • When taking CNS depressants, don’t drink alcohol or take other medications that are also CNS depressants.
  • Inform your doctor if you’re having troubling side effects.
  • Never share prescription medications with others. Store medicines, alcohol, and other potentially hazardous materials safely away from children and pets.
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Overview of Heart Failure in Children | Cardiology

What is heart failure in children?

The most common cause of heart failure in children is congestive heart failure, in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body’s organs. The heart continues to pump, but not as efficiently as a healthy heart. In general, heart failure reflects a progressive underlying heart condition.

For a child to grow and develop, the heart needs to maintain a normal pumping function, providing adequate blood flow throughout the body. However, sometimes a child’s heart may not function normally. The term “cardiac arrest” describes a dysfunctional heart. This does not mean that the heart has stopped working, but that it is not working.

Heart failure in children is caused by smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and faulty heart valves. It can occur in newborns, young children, young children, and adolescents for other reasons. Because heart failure has different causes and outcomes, it is important to identify how it is diagnosed, treated, and cured in young children.

How is heart failure in children identified?

Heart failure in children is often accompanied by shortness of breath, poor diet, poor growth, excessive sweating, or low blood pressure. Sometimes heart failure can be similar to other problems, such as colic, pneumonia, or other respiratory infections.

Parents often notice that it takes a long time to feed the baby or that they are not interested in feeding after a short time. If the heartbeat is caused by a very fast heartbeat, parents may experience a rapid heartbeat through the chest wall while the baby is sleeping or resting peacefully.

Older children and teens can quickly complain of fatigue, especially if the virus infection damages the heart muscle.

Causes of heart failure in children

Heart failure is more common in children with certain congenital heart defects (congenital heart defects). These include defects like holes in the heart, which increase blood flow from one side of the heart to the other. It alters the dynamics of blood flow and weakens one side of the heart. The heart then becomes unable to support blood flow, resulting in further deterioration of heart function.

Other types of heart problems, such as cardiomyopathy, can also cause heart failure, a condition that affects the pumping function of the heart. Some non-heart problems, such as kidney failure, are caused by changes in the body’s fluid balance or hormonal changes that lead to high blood pressure.

Risk factors for heart failure in children

  • Smoking
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • The high blood level of cholesterol
  • Physical inactivity
  • Obesity
  • Family history of early-onset heart disease

Symptoms of heart failure in children

Symptoms are slightly different for each child. They can include:

  • Swelling of the feet, ankles, calves, abdomen, liver, and cervix (edema)
  • Difficulty breathing, especially with rapid breathing, shortness of breath, or excessive coughing
  • Poor diet and weight gain (in babies)
  • Feeling tired
  • Excessive sweating when eating, playing, or exercising
  • Irritated

Older children may also have:

  • Weight loss
  • Passing out
  • Chest pain

The severity of the symptoms depends on how much the heart’s pumping ability is affected.

The symptoms of heart failure are similar to those of other conditions. See your child’s healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

Diagnosis of heart failure in children

Your child’s doctor will obtain a complete medical history and physical exam by asking questions about your child’s appetite, breathing patterns, and energy level. Other diagnostic procedures for heart failure may include:

  • Blood and urine tests
  • Chest X-ray: A diagnostic test that uses invisible X-rays to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): A test that records the electrical activity of the heart shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmia or dysrhythmia) and can detect problems with the heart muscle.
  • Echocardiogram (echo): A noninvasive test that uses sound waves to study the movement of the heart’s chambers and valves. The echo sound waves create an image on the monitor when the ultrasound transducer passes over the heart.
  • Cardiac catheterization (cath): Assault test that inserts a small catheter into the heart from the groin or arm. It allows the different pressures within the heart to be measured to help detect heart failure. Also, a heart tissue biopsy can be obtained to determine the root cause of heart failure.

Treatment for heart failure in children

Treatment of heart failure in children depends on the cause of the problem. Most heart defects resolve on their own over time, and some can resolve with medication. Sometimes surgery or other procedures may be necessary. In some cases, your child may need a combination of therapies.   

Medicine

For some heart problems, children can take medicine after they get better. Medicines sometimes need to be taken for many years or even the child’s entire life.

Surgery

Heart surgery can provide a lifelong cure for certain heart conditions. The cardiac surgeon will discuss the risks and benefits with you in detail. Sometimes surgery can be delayed until your child is older and stronger, which means they will be able to tolerate the surgery better. Depending on the condition of your child, multiple operations may be required.

In very rare cases where surgery, procedures, or medications do not help, children may need a heart transplant.

Other procedures

Some procedures involve placing a narrow tube called a catheter into the heart through a vein to treat a heart defect. Your child will be given general anesthesia for this procedure.

Prognosis

All results depend on the cause. If the bleeding is constant due to a structural problem of the heart, the result is excellent.

Children with large ventricular septal defects, whose pores are small or surgically closed, can lead normal lives. Children with more complicated congenital heart disease may have more variable outcomes.

Older children with cardiomyopathy can progress if the cause of the cardiomyopathy is not reversible. The key to managing heart failure is making a proper diagnosis, staying in contact with a cardiologist, and taking prescribed medications daily.

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Common Heart Conditions in Children | Cardiology

What Are Heart Conditions In Children?

Heart disease is a very broad term for many things that can go wrong with the heart—in both adults and children. Narrow the focus to children, and the term still encompasses many different types of heart conditions in children that range from a condition that has no symptoms and is never diagnosed, to a problem that is severe and potentially life-threatening that is apparent at birth.

If you are looking for information about a specific disease i.e., heart conditions in children, and would like to know more about its symptoms, how the disease develops over time, and how heart conditions in children are treated, the list below is a good place to start. Some of the most common heart conditions in children are listed as either congenital (present from birth) or acquired (developed after birth).

Congenital heart conditions

  • Anomalous Coronary Arteries/Fistulas
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
  • L-Transposition of the Great Arteries
  • Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return
  • Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD)
  • Tricuspid Atresia
  • Truncus Arteriosus
  • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
  • Coarctation of the Aorta/Interrupted Aortic Arch
  • D-Transposition of the Great Arteries
  • Pulmonary Atresia
  • Pulmonary Stenosis
  • Aortic Stenosis/Bicuspid Aortic Valve
  • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
  • Ebstein’s Anomaly
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Vascular Ring/Sling

Acquired heart disease

  • Dilated Cardiomyopathy
  • Rheumatic Fever
  • Kawasaki Disease
  • Myocarditis
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
  • Pericarditis
  • Endocarditis

Signs of heart conditions in children

Signs of heart conditions in children vary depending on the condition, the child’s age, and whether or not the heart condition or disease was acquired before the baby was born or during infancy.

Heart conditions in children

Signs of potential heart conditions in children can include:

  • Difficulty gaining weight
  • Bluish color to the lips, tongue, or nail bed
  • Difficulty feeding
  • Rapid or rapid breathing, or difficulty breathing, even at rest
  • Fatigue easily while eating
  • Sweating during breastfeeding
  • Call your doctor right away if you notice that your child is showing any of these signs or symptoms

Heart conditions in young children

In young children, look for:

  • Loss of consciousness during physical exercise or activity
  • Heart palpitations: A heartbeat that seems funny or moody for the child
  • Shortness of breath during play or activity
  • Chest pain

What causes heart conditions in children?

Sometimes there is a defect in the walls of the heart (such as a hole in the heart) or a problem with the valves (for example, they may be too narrow or completely blocked). This means either that blue and red blood is mixed together, or the heart may not be pumping well. When these problems occur, the body may not get the normal amount of oxygen.

Usually, a heart defect appears while the baby is still growing in the womb. It is not caused by anything the mother did during pregnancy, and doctors often cannot know the cause of the defect. Sometimes, heart problems are caused by genetic factors (there is a family history of heart defects). Sometimes, childhood illnesses damage the heart. Children can develop heart problems after contracting a viral (virus) infection. However, this is extremely rare.

Treatment of heart conditions in children

Once your child’s problem is diagnosed, the next step is to correct it. For some children, immediate intervention will not be necessary. For others, pharmacologic, interventional catheterization, or surgery may be the recommended course of treatment.

Medications

  • ACE (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme) Inhibitors: ACE inhibitors relax arteries throughout the body, lower blood pressure and reduce the workload on the heart. It is useful in treating heart failure and high blood pressure. Medicines commonly used in this class are captopril, enalapril, and lisinopril.
  • Antiarrhythmics: A group of medicines used to treat heart rhythm disorders.
  • Beta-Blockers: A class of drugs used to treat various disorders related to the circulatory system. These medications slow the effect of adrenaline, slow the heart rate, reduce pressure in blood vessels, and reduce the strength of heart contractions. They are useful for treating heart failure, high blood pressure, and some heart rhythm disorders. It is also used to control migraines and fainting spells. This large group includes propranolol, atenolol, and metoprolol.
  • Digoxin: Digoxin (a type of digitalis) is one of the oldest heart medications, it makes the contraction of the heart muscle stronger and more efficient, slows the heart rate, and helps remove excess fluid from the body tissues. It’s sometimes used to treat heart failure and some heart rhythm disorders. Lanoxin is a popular drug in this class.
  • Diuretics: In children, diuretics are the medications most commonly used to manage mild to moderate degrees of congestive heart failure. These medications help the body get rid of water and salt. This group includes furosemide (“Lasix”), bumetanide, and spironolactone.

Interventional catheterization

For the many children with heart problems, surgery was the only treatment option. Today, minimally invasive procedures, such as interventional catheters, are often considered the first treatment option and are performed routinely in place of surgery. Interventional catheterization can provide a permanent solution for some conditions or a short-term solution for heart conditions in children who will need surgery later.

Diagnostic vs. Interventional catheterization

What is the difference? In terms of what your child will experience, and how you will prepare for the procedure, there is very little, if any, difference between diagnostic and interventional catheters. In both procedures, thin, flexible catheters are inserted into a vein or artery in the groin area and directed to the heart.

Catheters and balloon stents may be used to open narrowed valves or arteries. There are also special files and devices that are inserted through the catheter, used to block unwanted blood vessels and holes in the wall between the chambers of the heart.

Advanced imaging for earlier diagnosis

Our PCPs and emergency clinics utilize the most recent imaging gear and innovation to rapidly and precisely analyze an assortment of cardiovascular sicknesses, so patients can get therapy as fast as could reasonably be expected.

In the event that your youngster gives indications or manifestations of procured coronary illness, our pediatric cardiologist will probably suggest either an echocardiogram or attractive reverberation imaging of the heart (MRI). An echocardiogram is a non-invasive cardiology procedure that uses sound waves to evaluate the heart’s structure and function. An echocardiogram is used to diagnose and monitor the progression of this heart disease. However, in some cases, the cardiologist may want a more specialized image of your heart called a cardiac MRI. Cardiac MRI can produce 3D images of heart organs and tissues that enable specialists to more accurately evaluate heart function, the extent of the infection, or inflammation of the heart in disorders such as myocarditis.

Follow-up

After your child is treated for a heart defect, he or she will have regular check-ups with the cardiologist and/or pediatrician. For problems not related to their heart, they can still see your GP. If you are concerned about your child, talk to your child’s doctor, pediatrician, or cardiologist.

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What are Heart Problems in Children? | Cardiology

Overview of heart problems in children

Congenital malformations are abnormalities in the formation of the heart and/or its main blood vessels. These heart problems occur at birth in eight out of 1,000 babies, but go undiagnosed for many years. The abnormalities range from simple defects, such as a small hole in the wall between the two chambers of the heart, to more complex problems.

Although congenital heart defects are one of the most common birth defects, it can be difficult to know if your child has one. Most heart problems recover during pregnancy or immediately after birth, but others may not be apparent until the baby is a little older.

Heart disease in children

Heart disease is very difficult when touched by adults, but it is especially tragic in children. Heart disease can occur for a variety of reasons, from viral infections to chromosomal abnormalities, and can arise as problems secondary to other diseases or conditions in the body. In most cases, the cause of heart disease is unknown.

The good news is that with the advancement of medicine and technology, many children with heart disease are living full and active lives.

Causes of heart problems in children

A congenital heart defect is a condition (or one of the main heart problems in children) that you are born into. Certain genetic (inherited) diseases or disorders, such as Down syndrome, are associated with congenital heart defects. Certain substances or diseases that a pregnant woman is exposed to can cause congenital heart defects in the fetus, some of which include prescription drugs, rubella (German measles), and uncontrolled diabetes.

Risk factors for heart problems in children

Risk factors for these heart problems in children are divided into two categories: major and contributing. The major risk factors of heart problems in children have been shown to increase your risk of heart disease. There is a risk of heart disease due to proportionate risk factors.

If you have higher risk factors, you are more likely to have heart disease. Some risk factors of heart problems in children can change, treat, or modify and others cannot. But by controlling as many risk factors as possible through lifestyle changes, medications, or both, you can lower your risk of heart disease.

Major risk factors for heart problems in children are:

  • High blood pressure (Hypertension)
  • High blood cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity and Overweight
  • Smoking
  • Physical Inactivity
  • Gender
  • Heredity
  • Age

Contributing risk factors to heart problems in children are:

  • Stress
  • Sex hormones
  • Birth control pills
  • Alcohol

Symptoms of heart problems in children

  • Heart murmurs (abnormal heartbeats), depending on the location and nature of the disorder.
  • Symptoms of cardiac arrest, increased breathing rate, shortness of breath, tachycardia
  • “Blue baby” syndrome, in which the skin changes color from lack of oxygen to blue or purple.
  • Clubfoot or spread with a nail that extends the fingers and toes
  • An abnormal increase in red blood cell circulation.
  • Liver dilation
  • Pulse that is hard to hear or has no pulse
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Signs of organ failure, including low urine output or kidney failure
  • The expansion of the heart’s chambers results in the need to work harder to overcome the defect.

Diagnosis of heart problems in children

To diagnose a congenital heart defect or any heart problems in children, your doctor may recommend that you or your baby have some of the following tests and procedures:

  • Echocardiography: Track your / your child’s progress over time to diagnose or not diagnose heart failure. Fetal echocardiography can sometimes diagnose congenital heart defects before the baby is born.
  • Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG): To evaluate the rhythm of the heartbeat.
  • Cardiac catheterization: Measure the pressure and oxygen levels within the chambers of the heart and blood vessels. This helps to know if blood is flowing from the left side of the heart to the right side of the heart instead of going to the rest of the body.
  • Chest X-ray: To show if the heart is dilated. It also shows whether there is excess blood flow or excess fluid in the lungs, which is a sign of heart failure.
  • Genetic testing: To find out if specific genes or genetic syndromes like Down syndrome are causing congenital heart defects. Your doctor can refer you or your child to a genetic testing specialist.
  • Cardiac MRI: Track your / your child’s progress over time to diagnose heart failure or not.
  • Pulse oximetry: Estimate the amount of oxygen in the blood. The small sensor is placed on the hand or foot of the baby or on the finger or toe of the elderly person.

Treatment for heart problems in children

Treatment for heart problems in children depends on the part of the heart affected. Some children do not need treatment if the effect on blood flow is minimal. Others require medication or intervention, such as cardiac catheterization or surgery. Some heart problems in children may not be treated right away, but wait until the child is an adult. Some heart problems in children are dealt with in stages. In such cases, there are options:

● Medications: Many medications help the heart work more efficiently. Some are also useful for preventing blood clots and controlling irregular heartbeats.

● Implantable heart devices: Some devices, such as pacemakers, can help control abnormal heart rates and implantable cardiovascular defibrillators (ICDs), which can correct irregular heart rates and prevent some of the problems associated with congenital heart defects.

● Catheter procedures: These allow doctors to surgically correct or repair congenital heart defects without opening the chest or heart. Here, the doctor inserts a catheter through a vein in the leg to guide the heart. Using small tools threaded through the catheter, he/she proceeds to correct the error. With the advancement of technology, many heart defects can be closed at the cathode in cathode procedures. This reduces the risks and complications of heart surgery.

● Open-heart surgery: These may be necessary if catheter procedures do not correct the error. These can close the openings of the heart, dilate the blood vessels, or repair the heart valves.

● Heart transplant: In cases where the congenital heart defect is too difficult to repair, a heart transplant may be used. In the process, the healthy donor heart replaces the patient’s heart.

Complications of heart problems in children

Congenital heart disease or heart problems in children can cause complications including:

  • Arrhythmia: The heart may beat very fast, very slow, or abnormally due to a defect or scarring after surgery.
  • Congestive heart failure: When the heart cannot efficiently pump oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body, symptoms affect various body systems.
  • Heart infections (endocarditis): This infection of the thin layer that lines the inside of the heart occurs when bacteria or other germs enter the bloodstream from another part of the body and remain in the heart. If left untreated, it can damage your heart valves or lead to a stroke.
  • Pulmonary hypertension: This type of high blood pressure only affects the arteries in the lungs. Some heart defects cause more blood to flow to the lungs. As pressure increases, the heart has to work harder, causing the muscles to weaken and sometimes fail. Permanent damage to the pulmonary artery can also occur.
  • Slower growth and development: Children with severe congenital heart defects may be younger and learn to walk and talk later than other children.
  • Stroke: Although rare, blood clots can travel to the brain through a hole in the heart or occur during corrective surgery.
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Symptoms and Treatment for Brain Stem Stroke | Cardiology

What is a brain stem stroke? 

The brain stem stroke regulates breathing, eye movement, facial movement, heart rate, and blood pressure. Sitting just above the spinal cord, the brain stem controls your breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. It also controls your speech, swallowing, hearing, and eye movements. Impulses sent by other parts of the brain travel through the brain stem on their way to various body parts.

We’re dependent on brain stem function for survival. A brain stem stroke threatens vital bodily functions, making it a life-threatening condition. When the blood supply to a part of the brain is cut off, a stroke occurs because the blocked artery or blood vessels are leaking. The brainstem is located at the base of the brain and is responsible for receiving and transmitting information throughout the body.

The brain stem regulates essential bodily functions, namely:

  • Breathing
  • Swallow
  • Eye movement
  • Facial movement and sensation
  • Listening
  • Heart rate
  • Blood pressure
  • Brain stem strokes affect a person’s basic bodily functions and can lead to chronic problems.

Symptoms of brain stem stroke

Dizziness and loss of balance are common symptoms of a stroke. Because the brain stem regulates different types of motor functions, strokes in this area of the brain can cause a wide variety of symptoms. Brainstem strokes affect important bodily functions, including:

  • Breathing
  • Swallow
  • Heart rate

The brain stem receives different signals from the brain and sends them to different parts of the body. Brainstem strokes interrupt these signals, so people may experience physical symptoms, such as numbness or weakness in the face, arms, or legs.

Other common symptoms of a stroke:

  • Dizziness
  • Loss of balance
  • Vertigo
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Trouble speaking or swallowing
  • Headache
  • Confusion

Stroke syndromes of the brain system

Some stroke syndromes of the brain system have an unrelated set of symptoms because their control is in small concentrated areas of the brain system that share the same blood supply.

Ondine’s curse: Ondine’s curse due to a lower spinal injury affects voluntary breathing.

Weber syndrome: Weber syndrome is a stroke of the midbrain that causes weakness in the front of the body, which is accompanied by weakness of the eyelids and weakness of eye movements.

Blockage syndrome: Blockage syndrome affects strokes and leads to complete paralysis and inability to speak, the ability to move consciousness, and intact eyes. This may be due to a very abnormal salt and fluid balance.

Wallenberg syndrome: Also known as a lateral spinal syndrome, Wallenberg syndrome causes sensory deficits of the face on the same side as stroke and sensory deficits of the body.

Types of brain stem stroke 

There are two main types of strokes, both of which affect the brain stem:

Ischemic stroke:

  • Ischemic strokes occur when blood clots form in narrow arteries in the head or neck and cut off the blood supply to an area of the brain.
  • Ischemic strokes are the most common type, accounting for 87% of all strokes. About 10% of all ischemic strokes affect the brain stem.
  • A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a mini-stroke or warning stroke, when the blood supply to the brain is briefly interrupted. TIAs cause milder symptoms than full ischemic strokes, and most symptoms clear up within an hour.

Brain-vascular hemorrhagic accident:

  • Brain bleeding or hemorrhage occurs when weak blood vessels leak or open, creating swelling and pressure. This stress damages the tissues and cells of the brain.
  • Hemorrhagic strokes are less common than other types of strokes but account for 40 percent of all stroke deaths.

Risk factors of brain stem stroke

High blood pressure increases the risk of stroke. Anyone can have a stroke, but specific genetic factors such as family history, gender, race, and age put some people at higher risk for stroke than others. Women have more strokes than men and are more likely to die from a stroke than men.

Some risk factors specific to women:

  • Use of hormone replacement therapies
  • Long-term use of birth control pills in combination with other risk factors such as smoking
  • The pregnancy
  • People of African American and Hispanic descent are also at risk for stroke.
  • Most strokes occur in people over the age of 65. However, research suggests that the rate of stroke hospitalizations and the presence of risk factors for stroke in young children has increased significantly.

Medical conditions that increase the risk of stroke:

  • Hypertension
  • High cholesterol
  • Atrial fibrillation (AFib)
  • Diabetes
  • is blackberry
  • Heart disease (CVD)
  • Lifestyle risk factors

People cannot control genetic factors, but they can control lifestyle factors that increase the risk of stroke. Behaviors that increase the risk of high blood pressure or clotting increase the risk of stroke.

Behaviors that increase the risk of stroke:

  • Smoke tobacco
  • Excessive drinking
  • Consumption of illicit drugs
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Lack of food 

Diagnosis of brain stem stroke

Brain stem stroke is a fatal medical emergency. If you have symptoms that indicate a stroke, your doctor may order imaging tests such as an MRI, CT scan, Doppler ultrasound, or angiogram. The cardiac function test may include an EKG and an echocardiogram. Additional diagnostic procedures may include blood tests, as well as kidney and liver function tests. 

Treatment for brain stem strokes

When an ischemic stroke occurs, the first line of treatment is clotting or drawing the blood. If a stroke is diagnosed quickly, blood thinners can be given. If possible, a catheter can be used to clot during a procedure called an embolectomy. In some cases, angioplasty and stenting are used to widen and keep the artery open. Bleeding For a stroke, the bleeding must stop.

Sometimes a clip or coil is placed over the aneurysm to stop the bleeding. Medications to reduce clotting may also be needed. During this time, your medical team will need to take extra steps to keep your heart and lungs working. Brain stem stroke is a medical emergency. You need immediate treatment to save lives and reduce the risk of permanent complications.

Treatment depends on the type, location, and severity of the stroke:

Ischemic stroke: In the treatment of ischemic stroke, blood flow is restored through clotting. The methods include the following:

  • Anticoagulant drugs, such as tissue plasminogen activator (T-PA), help dissolve clots and restore blood flow to the affected area.
  • Antiplatelet drugs such as warfarin. The doctor may prescribe aspirin if a person has a lower risk of having a heart attack or stroke and bleeding. Current guidelines do not recommend the use of aspirin as in the past.
  • Endovascular therapy, which is a surgical procedure that involves the use of mechanical reclaimers to clot the blood.
  • Other devices, such as balloons or stents, can be used to open narrow blood vessels and improve blood flow.

Brain-vascular hemorrhagic accident: Treatment of hemorrhagic strokes focuses on controlling bleeding and reducing stress on the brain. Treatment methods:

  • Give medicine to control blood pressure and prevent seizures.
  • Spiral embolization, which is a surgical procedure that helps blood to clot in a weakened vessel. Clotting reduces bleeding and prevents blood vessels from reopening.
  • Once bleeding in the brain has been controlled, doctors can perform surgical procedures to prevent the ruptured blood vessel from bleeding again.

Prevention of brain stem strokes

It is estimated that 80 percent of strokes are preventable. People can reduce their risk of stroke by making the following lifestyle changes:

  • It controls the levels of lipids and cholesterol
  • Control blood pressure with medications and behavior changes
  • Manage medical conditions like diabetes
  • Give up smoking
  • Eat a diet low in fat and sodium
  • Make sure you have plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables in your diet
  • At least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise per week or at least 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic exercise per week
  • Restoration and perspective
  • Brain stem stroke can lead to serious chronic problems. Medications and behavior changes can help reduce the risk of future strokes.
  • Physical therapy improves muscle strength and coordination and ultimately helps people regain lost motor skills.
  • Speech and language and occupational therapy can help people improve their cognitive skills, such as memory, problem-solving, and judgment.
  • Some people with stroke and severe disabilities need counseling to adjust.
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Overview of Nervous System Problems in Women | Neurology

What are the nervous system problems in women?

The nervous system problems in women may be a complex and complicated system that regulates and coordinates bodily activities. it’s made from two main divisions, including the following:

  • Central system nervous: It consists of the brain and medulla spinalis.
  • Peripheral system nervous: It consists of all the opposite neural elements, including the peripheral nerves and therefore the autonomic nerves.

In addition to the brain and medulla spinalis, the main organs of the system nervous include the following:

  • Eyes
  • Ears
  • Sensory organs of taste
  • Sensory organs of smell
  • Sensory receptors located within the skin, joints, muscles, and other parts of the body.

The nervous system is subject to various disorders. It can be harmed by the following:

  • Trauma
  • Infections
  • Degeneration
  • Structural defects
  • Tumors
  • Interruption of blood flow
  • Autoimmune disorders

Nervous system problems in women can involve the following:

  • Vascular disorders, like stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, and extradural hematoma and hemorrhage
  • Infections, like meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and epidural abscess
  • Structural disorders, like brain or medulla spinalis injury, Bell’s palsy, cervical spondylosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, brain or medulla spinalis tumors, peripheral neuropathy, and Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Functional disorders, like headache, epilepsy, dizziness, and neuralgia
  • Degeneration, like paralysis, MS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s chorea, and Alzheimer’s disease

Symptoms of nervous system problems in women

The following are the foremost common general signs and symptoms of nervous system problems in women. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently.

Symptoms of nervous system problems in women can include:

  • Persistent or sudden headache
  • A headache that changes or is different
  • Loss of sensation or tingling
  • Weakness or loss of muscle strength
  • Loss of sight or diplopia
  • Memory loss
  • Impaired brain
  • Lack of coordination
  • Muscular stiffness
  • Tremors and seizures
  • Back pain that radiates to the feet, toes, or other parts of the body
  • Loss of muscle mass and difficulty speaking
  • New language impairment (expression or comprehension)

The symptoms of nervous system problems in women may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

There are many sorts of nervous system problems in women, including:

  • Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
  • Epilepsy
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Paralysis agitans
  • Migraines

Causes of nervous system problems in women

If you think that you simply or a beloved could also be affected by one among these nervous system problems in women, you’ll even be wondering what causes a nervous disorder. The causes of such dysfunction are often quite diverse. Both the medulla spinalis and therefore the brain is insulated by numerous membranes that will be susceptible to force and pressure. Peripheral nerves located deep under the skin also can be susceptible to damage. Nervous system problems in women can affect a whole neurological pathway or one neuron. Even a little alteration during a neuron’s structural pathway may result in dysfunction. As a result, neurological disorders are often thanks to a variety of causes, including:

  • Lifestyle-related causes
  • Infections
  • Genetics
  • Nutrition-related causes
  • Environmental influences
  • Physical injuries

Medications

Medication Options for nervous system problems in women

While it’s understandable that the thought of being diagnosed with a nervous disorder is often terrifying, it’s important to know that there are medication options for nervous system problems in women. These options can assist you or your beloved in better control your condition, reduce symptoms, and improve your quality of life.

Neurological drugs: Possible options for nervous system problems in women

The type of drugs which will be wont to treat your nervous disorder will depend upon your condition. Possible neurological drug options may include corticosteroids, which are often indicated for the treatment of MS . this sort of drug can help decrease inflammation. Medications that affect dopamine, like levodopa, are commonly utilized in the treatment of Parkinson’s to assist with stiffness and tremors.

Side effects of medicines

When taking medication to treat any condition or disorder, it’s important to know that you simply may experience certain side effects. The side effects of medicines associated with the treatment of neurological disorders may vary counting on your own situation and therefore the sort of medication in question. In some cases, you’ll develop a dependence on the drugs you’re taking. this will occur albeit it’s a prescription and you’re taking it to treat significant ill health, like a nervous disorder.

Depression and neurological problems

Depression and neurological problems are often interrelated. thanks to the debilitating nature of depression, people that suffer from it, also as neurological problems, can find it challenging to recover without professional assistance. There are many treatment options available that will assist you to treat your depression, including combination therapy with medications.

Dual diagnosis: Addiction and neurological disorders

Seeking the assistance of a middle that gives the power to form a dual diagnosis, as the diagnosis of an addiction aggravated by a nervous disorder, is critical to achieving optimal recovery. If one problem is treated but the opposite isn’t treated, the probabilities of a full recovery may decrease. At a treatment center that focuses on addressing both addiction and neurological issues, you’ll be ready to receive the critical assist you need for your addiction while ensuring that your nervous disorder is treated also.

Diagnosis of nervous system problems in women

Assessing and diagnosing harm to the sensory system is confounded and complex. A significant number of the equivalent symptoms happen in various mixes among the various issues. To additionally confound the symptomatic cycle, numerous issues don’t have complete causes, markers, or tests.

Notwithstanding a total clinical history and physical test, symptomatic strategies for nervous system problems in women may incorporate the accompanying:

  • Computed tomography scan (also called a CT or CAT scan)
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Electrodiagnostic tests, such as electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Arteriogram (also called an angiogram)
  • Spinal tap (also called a lumbar puncture)
  • Evoked potentials
  • Myelogram
  • Neurosonography
  • Ultrasound (also called sonography)

Treatment of nervous system problems in women

Neurological disorders are undoubtedly one of the foremost terrifying diseases that humans face. Other sorts of dysfunction, like cancer or viruses, are a minimum of easily understood, if not so easily treated. A malfunctioning pancreas, problematic because it could also be, doesn’t strike the guts of what it means to be human, and can basically leave its victim intact as an individual.

Knowledge is usually the sole power that exists against the vagaries of neurological diseases. Learning the causes of neurological problems can make the difference between a totally voting patient who is responsible for his or her own care decisions and a helpless and terrifying subject who is preoccupied with mysterious ailments that make no sense.

Therapies for neurological disorders

Aside from the question of cure, sometimes patients with neurological problems can receive rehabilitation as a part of an attempt to revive some lost function. this is often usually a hopeful sign because it is rare to seek out a patient assigned to therapy when there’s little or no hope of a minimum of partial recovery. Therapies for nervous system problems in women can often consist of:

  • Lifestyle changes to stop or minimize the impact of such conditions.
  • Physiotherapy to regulate symptoms and restore some function
  • Pain management, as many deficiencies are often related to considerable discomfort
  • Medications to revive function or prevent a worsening of the patient’s condition

Cognitive therapy treatments

One approach to treating primarily behavioral neurological problems is understood as cognitive behavioral therapy, formerly referred to as talk therapy. CBT focuses on reorienting a patient’s thoughts and behavior associated with their disability. While this is often obviously not an adequate response to several brain and systema nervosum disorders, like paralysis agitans or epilepsy, it’s shown a big effect in treating ADHD, anxiety, and other mood disorders. , and a spread of mainly psychogenic deficiencies.

It’s several advantages, one among which is that it doesn’t pose the danger of side effects like medications or other interventions might. CBT can often be administered by someone aside from a physician, although it must be administered by licensed therapists. it’ll often be among the primary options for patients, given its generally non-invasive nature.

Other therapeutic methods

Clearly, CBT isn’t necessary in the case of patients recovering from a stroke, traumatic injury, or degenerative brain diseases. In cases like these, other therapeutic methods are preferred. These can range from medications like neuroleptics (haloperidol and chlorpromazine, for example) that are wont to treat organic brain disorders like schizophrenia, to comparatively simple pain relievers, like ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and opiates to treat the painful effects of the many neurological diseases.

Residential inpatient neurological treatment centers

One of the choices nearby might be any number of residential inpatient neurological treatment centers. These institutions, sometimes mentioned simply as rehabilitation centers, often focus their attention on treatable disorders, the most ones being problems of alcoholic abuse and other chemical dependencies.

Luxury neurological treatment facilities

The sometimes bitter pill of relocation and treatment can be sweetened considerably at the prospect of admission to one of the many luxury neurological treatment facilities. They are mostly inpatient or residential care facilities but provide care in a resort-like setting.

Executive neurological treatment programs

Often, those with behavioral deficiencies, such as addictions to substances or processes, will have a difficult time breaking away from the ongoing demands of everyday life. They may have jobs that don’t allow them time off or family responsibilities. In cases like these, you can arrange treatment into an executive neurological treatment program that specializes in quickly addressing the needs of the inpatient clinical patient and quickly reintegrating them into their jobs and families.

Outpatient neurological rehabilitation and treatment programs

Sometimes patients and their care providers feel that the demands of hospital care are excessive or impossible due to life circumstances. In cases like this, outpatient neurological rehabilitation and treatment programs may be the most desirable option for treatment. By maintaining a stable residence, a patient in this type of therapeutic treatment course will often present to an outpatient clinic for a specified period to receive agreed-upon care.

Prescription and over-the-counter drugs

A valuable adjunct to the clinical care of those with nervous system problems in women is the provision of effective prescription and non-prescription medications. While not all brain and nervous system conditions respond to medication, a surprising number do, and it is rare for a healthcare provider to overlook such a powerful tool for managing the effects of neurological problems.

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Things to know about Multiple Sclerosis in Children | Neurology

What is multiple sclerosis in children?

Multiple Sclerosis in Children is a disorder of the central nervous system. This means that it affects the brain and spinal cord. It is an autoimmune disease as well as inflammatory – meaning that white blood cells, which protect against infection, enter the nervous system, and cause damage. The damage occurs because the myelin sheath, the protective covering of nerves, is stripped of antibodies produced by the immune system. (This is called demyelination). Multiple sclerosis is a long-term disease that can happen to anyone.

Multiple sclerosis begins in children or teenagers. About 98% have relapsing and migratory MS, versus 84% ​​of adults with MS. This means that symptoms come and go (relapse and remission). When symptoms disappear, the disease can still progress. This condition may also be called pediatric multiple sclerosis (POMS), early MS, or juvenile MS. Relapses seem to occur more often in children and teens. This group appears to recover from neurological disability more quickly but is at increased risk of cognitive difficulties that can affect schoolwork.

Symptoms of multiple sclerosis in children

MS symptoms depend on which nerves are affected. Because myelin damage is intermittent and can affect any part of the central nervous system, symptoms of MS are unpredictable and vary from person to person. In children, Multiple sclerosis is often the relapsing and dormant type. This means that the disease alternates between relapses, in which a person appears new symptoms, and calm, where there are only mild or no symptoms.

Attacks can last from days to weeks, and remission can last for months or years. Ultimately, the disease can progress to permanent disability. Most symptoms of multiple sclerosis in children are the same as in adults, include:

  • Weakness
  • Tingling and numbness
  • Eye problems, including vision loss, pain with eye movement, and double vision
  • Balance problems
  • Difficulty walking
  • Shivering
  • Spasticity (constant muscle contraction)
  • Problems with bowel and bladder control
  • Unclear

Symptoms such as weakness, numbness, tingling, and vision loss usually occur on one side of the body at a time. Mood disorders occur more frequently in children with MS. Depression is the most common, occurring in about 27 per cent of children with MS. Other frequent causes include:

  • Anxiety
  • Bipolar depression
  • Adjustment disorder
  • Panic disorder

Almost 30 per cent of children with multiple sclerosis have a cognitive impairment or problem with their thinking. Include the most affected activities:

  • Memory
  • Information processing
  • Executive functions like planning, organizing, and decision-making
  • Attention span
  • Speed and coordination performing tasks

Some symptoms appear more frequently in children but rarely in adults. These symptoms:

  • Seizures
  • Lethargy

Causes of multiple sclerosis in children

The cause of multiple sclerosis in children (and adults) is unknown. It is not contagious, and there is nothing that can be done to prevent it. However, there are several things that appear to increase your risk of developing it:

  • Genetics/family history: MS is not inherited from the parents, but if a child has certain sets of genes or a parent or sibling has MS, they are more likely to develop it.
  • Exposure to the Epstein-Barr virus: This virus may act as a trigger that releases MS in children exposed to it. However, many children are exposed to the virus and do not develop MS.
  • Low levels of vitamin D: MS is found more often in people in northern climates where there is less sunlight than around the equator. Our bodies need sunlight to produce vitamin D, so people in northern climates tend to have lower levels of vitamin D. Researchers believe this may imply a link between multiple sclerosis and low vitamin D. Additionally, low vitamin D levels increase the risk of relapse.
  • Exposure to smoking: Cigarette smoke, both direct use and passive exposure, has been shown to increase the risk of developing multiple sclerosis.

Evaluation and diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in children

Children who have been diagnosed with MS have a type called relapsing multiple sclerosis. This type of multiple sclerosis in children is characterized by recurrent episodes that cause new or worsening neurological symptoms, followed by periods without new symptoms, called remissions.

At the time of the first attack, it is not always clear whether the diagnosis of MS is appropriate because the relapsing disease has not yet occurred. New relapses or attacks will confirm your child’s diagnosis and provide insight to help their doctors better manage their care.

There is no single diagnostic test for MS. In most cases, MS is diagnosed in a combination of ways. Your child’s health care provider will take a thorough medical history and order tests that may include:

  • Neurological examination
  • Magnetic resonance imaging to check for lesions in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves
  • Lumbar puncture to check the cerebrospinal fluid for antibodies and proteins associated with multiple sclerosis

In some patients, the first MRI scan shows multiple lesions so closely aligned with MS that multiple sclerosis in children can be diagnosed after only one clinical attack. While not common, an early diagnosis can provide an important opportunity for early treatment.

Treatment of multiple sclerosis in children

Although there is no cure for multiple sclerosis in children, there are treatments aimed at reducing new lesions and relapses and slowing the progression of the disease:

  • Steroids can reduce inflammation and reduce the length and severity of relapses.
  • Plasma exchange, which removes antibodies that attack myelin, may be used to treat relapse if steroids do not work or are not tolerated.

Certain symptoms may be treated with other medicines to improve the quality of life. Physical, occupational and speech therapy can also be helpful for children with multiple sclerosis.

Follow-up care

Close follow-up of multiple sclerosis in children is vital to long-term outcomes, and this is provided at the CHOP Children’s Clinic with Multiple Sclerosis and Inflammatory Neurological Disorders. We closely follow children for evidence of relapse, and to monitor drug efficacy. Follow-up MRI studies will also be required on a regular basis, and we will personally review these images during clinic visits.

long-term outlook

Multiple sclerosis in children is a chronic condition that must be dealt with throughout life. The course of the disease is difficult to predict and varies from person to person. Some have long periods of remission while others have frequent seizures.

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Common Neurological Problems in Children | Neurology

What are neurological problems in children?

The brain is one of the most important and delicate organs in the human body. Neurological problems in children are those caused by dysfunction of the brain or nervous system and result in psychological or physical symptoms depending on the area of the brain involved, leading to disorders.

The human brain begins to develop when the child is in the womb and continues through childhood through adolescence. Brain cells are formed mainly before birth, although nerve connections do not develop until later. Neurological disorders have a wide spectrum and can have a variety of causes, complications, symptoms, and outcomes. All neurological conditions involve the nervous system that comprises the brain and spinal column. The nervous system panels everything in the human body, including movement, vision, and hearing. Symptoms and results depend on the area of the brain that has been damaged.

These conditions can affect people of all age groups; however, few neurological conditions present only during the early years of development. They can manifest as birth defects or, in some cases, symptoms are diagnosed only during the child’s later years. Most of these neurological signs and symptoms are found when a child misses a developmental milestone or has a brain injury or infection. Brain-related complaints, such as headaches, are sometimes temporary and are often ignored. However, symptoms like constant dizziness or weakness that appear unexpectedly without any explanation or cause can be indications of neurological conditions.

Symptoms of neurological problems in children

Some common symptoms of pediatric neurological disorders are:

  • Partial or complete paralysis
  • Muscular weakness
  • Partial or total loss of sensation
  • Convulsions
  • Difficulty reading and writing
  • Poor cognitive abilities
  • Pain
  • Decreased alertness

Effects of neurological problems in children

Neurological disorders in children can occur for many reasons and can have a wide range of effects on the baby and her family. Autism, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, brain injuries, and headaches are some of the common neurological disorders in childhood.

Autism

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that refers to impaired social interaction, impaired communication skills along a repetitive pattern of behavior.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

It is a common neurological disorder that makes it difficult for a child to be attentive and unable to control impulses.

Dyspraxia

This is a condition that makes it difficult for children to coordinate physical movements.

Dyslexia

It refers to the learning disability in children and they find it difficult to read, write, etc.

Cerebral palsy

This is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a child’s motor skills and is caused by brain damage that occurs before or during birth. It usually occurs during pregnancy when the fetus does not grow properly or develops brain damage. Proper treatment and therapies can help improve the condition.

Causes of neurological problems in children

Many neurological disorders are “congenital,” meaning they were present at birth. But some of the disorders are “acquired,” which means they developed after birth. Those with an unknown cause are called “idiopathic.”

  • Congenital Causes (present at birth)
  • Pre/perinatal Causes
  • Acquired Causes (developed after birth)

Types of neurological problems in children

There are many nervous system disorders here that require clinical attention from a physician or other healthcare professional. A few are listed in the following directory, for which we have provided a brief overview.

  • Acute spinal cord injury
  • Alzheimer disease
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • Ataxia
  • Bell’s palsy
  • Brain tumors
  • Brain aneurysm
  • Epilepsy and seizures
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome
  • Headache
  • Head injury
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Lumbar disc disease (herniated disc)
  • Meningitis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Neurocutaneous syndromes
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Stroke (brain attack)
  • Cluster headaches
  • Tension headaches
  • Migraines
  • How a migraine occurs
  • Diagnosis and treatment of migraines
  • Encephalitis
  • Septicemia
  • Types of muscular dystrophy and neuromuscular diseases
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Stroke overview
  • Risk factors for stroke
  • Types of stroke
  • Effects of stroke
  • Stroke rehabilitation

Treatment for neurological disorder in children

Neurological problems in children refer to the condition that affects the brain and nervous system. In other words, it is caused by dysfunction in a part of the brain or nervous system. Disorders involve the brain, spine, or nerves, and symptoms depend on the site of damage and vary accordingly. Physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms may occur that affect control movement, communication, vision, hearing, or thinking, etc.

Neurological problems in children generally occur in the early years of development and can be diagnosed at birth. The disorder can occur as birth defects or during a child’s later years. Symptoms of neurological disorders in children appear for the following reasons:

  • Development problems
  • Harmful infection
  • Brain damage