Uses and Types of Defibrillators | Cardiology

What Is Defibrillators?

Defibrillators are devices that restore a normal heart rhythm by sending an electrical impulse or shock to the heart. They are used to prevent or correct arrhythmias when the heart rate is uneven or too slow or too fast. Defibrillators can also restore the heart rate if the heart suddenly stops.

Different types of defibrillators work in different ways. Automated Outdoor Defibrillators (AEDs) have been developed in many public places to save the lives of people facing sudden cardiac arrest. Even untrained spectators can use these devices in an emergency.

Other defibrillators can prevent sudden death in people at high risk for malignant arrhythmia. These include implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), which are surgically placed inside your body, and portable cardioverter defibrillators (WCDs), which are worn over the body. Getting used to living with a defibrillator takes time and effort, and it is important to be aware of the potential risks and problems.

Medical uses

Defibrillation is often an important step in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). CPR is an algorithm-based intervention aimed at restoring heart and lung function. Defibrillation is only indicated in certain types of cardiac dysrhythmia, particularly ventricular fibrillation (VF) and pulseless ventricular tachycardia.

The defibrillator is the newer and more compliant artery, like an occasional or dynamic electrolysis bolus (AEP). Defibrillation is not the only indication that the patient is conscientious or having a poultice. These choices electrify poorly applied by causing a dysrhythmic dance, all quenching ventricular fibrillation.

Types of defibrillators

  • Manual external defibrillator
  • Automated external defibrillator (AED)
  • Advanced Life Support Units
  • Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillators

Manual external defibrillator

More experience and training are needed to operate these defibrillators effectively. Therefore, they are common only in hospitals and in some ambulances with efficient hands. With the ECG, the trained provider determines the heart rate, then psychologically determines the pressure and timing of the shock to the patient’s chest via external paddles.

Automated external defibrillator (AED)

These are defibrillators that use computer technology, making it easy to analyze the heart rhythm and effectively determine if the rhythm is shocking. They can be found in medical facilities, government offices, airports, hotels, sports stadiums, and schools.

Advanced Life Support Units

Advanced Life Support (ALS) units are commonly used in the healthcare context. For example, these are common in ambulances and hospitals. Finally, these devices allow the medical team to monitor a person’s heart rate. If necessary, they can provide an electric shock. Most ALS units are also equipped with an AED function. This mode uses the computer to make shock recommendations based on the individual’s condition.

Other common characteristics are the ability to monitor oxygen, carbon dioxide, blood pressure, and temperature. Some units are also equipped with a heart attack warning system. While some models use paddles, electrodes are generally preferred because they are much safer for the rescuer. Not only that, the more evenly distributed the shock, the more effective it will be.

Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillators

The portable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) is a medical device used by people at risk of heart failure. For example, they are often prescribed for people who have had a recent heart attack or bypass surgery. People with circulatory disorders may also need the device.

Non-invasive WCDs have two different components: monitor and shirt, the latter of which detects and treats abnormal heart rhythms. A person gets under clothing while the monitor is moved around the waist. Properly covered, it will withstand a lot of adverse conditions. It delivers an electric shock every time a malignant rhythm is detected. Highly effective, it has a 98% first shock success rate.

Who can use a defibrillator?

You don’t need the training to use a defibrillator; anyone can use it. There are clear instructions on how to place the defibrillation pads. Assesses your heart rate and prompts you to shock only if necessary. You cannot accidentally shock, the defibrillator only allows you to shock if necessary.

In a recent survey, a third said they would be confident enough to act if they saw someone having a heart attack. With more CPR training and more awareness, we can change that.

Mechanism of action

The exact mechanism of defibrillation is not well understood. One theory is that successful defibrillation affects most of the heart, causing heart muscle failure to maintain the arrhythmia. Recent mathematical models of defibrillation provide new information on the response of heart tissue to violent electric shocks.


Types of Stress Testing Equipment | Cardiology

What is stress testing equipment?

A stress testing equipment (sometimes called a violence test) is a deliberately intensive or comprehensive test to determine the stability of a system, complex infrastructure, or a given entity. These are tests to observe results, often beyond normal operational capacity, to the point of failure. The reasons include:

  • To determine breaking points or limits of safe use
  • Planned features are being confirmed
  • The mathematical model is accurate enough to estimate breakpoints or safe use limits to verify
  • To test the constant operation of a component or system outside of standard use
  • To determine failure modes (how the system fails)

The word “stress” may have a more specific meaning in some industries, such as physics, so stress testing can sometimes have a technical meaning, in the example of a material fatigue test.

Alternate names

  • Stress test
  • Treadmill test
  • Stress EKG
  • Stress ECG
  • A nuclear stress test
  • Stress echocardiogram

What are the stress tests?

Stress testing equipment shows how well your heart can handle physical activity. Your heart beats faster and faster while you exercise. Some heart defects are easy to find when your heart is working hard. During a stress test, your heart will be monitored while you exercise on a treadmill or stationary bike.

If you are not healthy enough to exercise, you will be given medication that will make your heart beat faster and stronger, just like you exercise. If you have trouble completing the stress test at regular intervals, this means that the blood flow to your heart is reduced. Decreased blood flow is due to many different heart conditions, some of which are very serious.

Why do I need it?

Your doctor will use this stress testing equipment:

  • Find out if you have coronary heart disease and need more tests
  • Helps assess symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or palpitations to see if they are coming from the heart
  • Identify abnormal heart rhythms
  • Helps you develop a safe exercise program
  • See how well your heart valves are working

Types of stress testing equipment

Types of stress testing equipment are:

  • Exercise stress test
  • Stress test without exercise
  • Nuclear stress test

Exercise stress test:

During the stress test, the doctor aims to find out how tired the patient is by their heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and various levels of physical activity. This test also includes an electrocardiogram (ECG or ECG) test. It is a simple test that records the electrical activity of the heart. This will help the doctor understand how well the heart is working.

The ECG shows how fast the heart is beating. It also analyzes the heart rate and measures the strength and timing of electrical signals as they pass through each part of the heart. The wires with the electrodes were attached to the patient’s chest, arms, shoulders, and legs. Eventually, the patient will need to suck into the mouthpiece.

Stress test without exercise:

If a person is unable to exercise as is involved in the stress test, the physician may use medications to induce the same process. A technician attaches electrodes to his chest, legs, and arms using adhesive patches.

They place the intravenous (IV) line in the patient’s hand and dispense medications through this line. The medications stimulate the heart and cause side effects similar to those experienced during exercises, such as redness or shortness of breath.

Nuclear stress test:

If the first symptoms persist or worsen, the doctor may recommend a nuclear stress test. Provides a more detailed and accurate assessment of the patient’s heart. The procedure is the same, but the color is injected into the patient’s hand which shows the heart and blood flow in the image.

It also shows areas of the heart where blood is not flowing. This indicates stagnation. This can be captured by x-rays, or single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), or cardiac positron emission tomography (PET). Two sets of photographs are taken, each of which lasts between 15 and 30 minutes. The first is taken after exercise and the second when the body is at rest, the next day or the next day.

Risk factors for stress testing equipment

Stress testing equipment is generally considered safe, especially if it is performed in a controlled environment under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

However, there are some rare risks:

  • Heart attack
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Collapsing
  • Chest pain
  • Fainting

However, the risk of experiencing these reactions during the test is low because your doctor will examine you beforehand for problems. People who are at risk for these complications, such as those with advanced coronary heart disease, are rarely asked to be tested.

Results of stress testing equipment

If the information gathered from your stress testing equipment shows that your heart function is normal, you do not need additional testing. However, if the results are normal and your symptoms get worse, your doctor may recommend a nuclear stress test or other stress tests that includes an echocardiogram before and after exercise to increase blood flow to your heart.

These tests are more accurate and provide more information about your heart function, but they are also expensive. If the results of your stress test indicate that you may have coronary artery disease or show arrhythmia, your doctor will use the information to develop a treatment plan. You may need additional tests, such as a coronary angiogram.

If you take a stress test to decide on treatment for heart disease, your doctor will use the results to plan or change your treatment.


Risk Factors, and Results of Electrocardiogram | Cardiology

What is an electrocardiogram (ECG)?

An electrocardiogram is commonly called an ECG or EKG and it is a simple test used to check the rhythm and electrical activity of your heart. Sensors attached to the skin are used to detect the electrical signals your heart produces each time it beats. A machine records these signals, and the doctor sees if they are abnormal.

The electrocardiogram can be ordered by a cardiologist or any doctor who thinks you have a heart problem, including your GP. This test can be done by a hospital, clinic, or healthcare professional who is specially trained in surgery by your GP. Despite the similar name, the electrocardiogram is not the same as the echocardiogram, which is a scan of the heart.

Natural electrical impulses coordinate the contractions of different parts of the heart, causing blood to flow. An electrocardiogram records these impulses to show the strength and timing of the electrical impulses as the heartbeats, the rhythm of the heartbeat (constant or irregular), and the passage through different parts of the heart. Changes in the ECG indicate heart conditions.

Why is an electrocardiogram done?

Your doctor may recommend an electrocardiogram to assess the health of your heart. This is a common part of checkups, especially for those over 40.

An electrocardiogram by itself does not diagnose all types of heart conditions or predict future heart problems. Provides important information about your heart health-related to your age, physical exam, medical history, and other tests.

  • Identify abnormal heart rhythms that cause blood to clot.
  • Identifying heart problems includes a recent or ongoing heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia), coronary artery occlusion, damaged areas of the heart muscle (from a previous heart attack), inflammation of the broken heart, and shock around the heart.
  • Identify non-cardiac conditions such as electrolyte imbalance and lung and lung diseases.
  • Heart attack, the progression of heart disease, or recovery from the effect of certain medications or pacemakers.
  • Eliminate hidden heart disease in patients undergoing surgery.

When are ECGs needed?

In some cases, having this test is very important. If you have symptoms of high blood pressure or heart disease, chest pain, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, or large heartbeat, you may need an electrocardiogram. You may need screenings or tests for professional purposes or if you have a personal or family history of heart disease, diabetes, or other accidents and want to start exercising.

How the test is done

You will be asked to remove all clothing and jewelry from your waist (including women’s bras) to place electrodes on specific areas of the chest wall, arms, and legs. The electrodes are held in place by rubber bands, suction cups, or adhesive pads.

Sometimes it is necessary to shave the skin where the electrode recording patches are placed to easily detect the electrical signal and reduce discomfort when removing the patches. For a standard 12-bottle ECG, the electrodes are placed in 4 positions on the 4 extremities and 6 on the chest wall. Sometimes additional leads are added for a 15-lead electrocardiogram.

You will be prompted to remain normal when the machine is turned on, and typically a sample (usually 3-4 seconds) from each electrode site is recorded. The electrocardiogram is usually constantly monitoring and may ask you to hold your breath for a short time during the procedure (to stop chest wall movement that interferes with the signal). The machine captures the electrical activity of the wires and then produces a graph with an up and down row that looks a bit like a geographic map but indicates the activity of your heart.

Types of electrocardiogram

The types of ECG are:

  • Standard (resting) ECG: The electrocardiogram measures the electrical activity of your heart while you lie down or rest in a semi-reclined position. This is the most common type of ECG.
  • Stress test (exercise ECG or tape test): This usually involves taking an electrocardiogram on a treadmill while you exercise. Show how exercise affects your heart. Helps diagnose and diagnose coronary artery disease and other types of heart disease. Medications are sometimes given instead of mimicking the effect of exercise on the heart.
  • Holter monitor (24-hour ECG or ambulatory ECG): This includes the use of an electronic electrocardiogram recorder 24 hours a day. It records the electrical activity of your heart for 24 hours. It can help diagnose arrhythmias (irregular or abnormal heartbeats).
  • Cardiac event recorders record an electrocardiogram for an extended period, a year or more. Portable cardiac event recorders record the electrical activity of the heart when you have symptoms. Adjustable loop recorders are mounted under the skin on your chest. They constantly record the electrical activity of your heart.

Results of ECG

For most people, an electrocardiogram is just a series of lines. However, each line corresponds to an electrical signal sent from the heart. Doctors can read and understand these lines, which indicate the general condition of the heart.

The operating physician or healthcare professional places the electrodes on a person’s skin, usually around the chest, and at 10 different points on the extremities. Each beat sends an electrical impulse. These electrodes select this pulse and record the activity as a waveform on a graph.

All of these take place in the eyelid, so an EKG is very important. An ECG can capture all these little details and record them for the doctor to analyze.

Risk factors of ECG

Electrocardiograms (EKGs) are safe, non-invasive, painless, and accident-free tests. The electrodes (adhesive patches) that connect the sensors to your chest do not send electrical shocks. People who undergo stress tests have a higher risk of having a heart attack, but this is related to exercise, not the EKG.

You may develop a mild rash or irritation of the skin where the electrodes are placed. If paste or gel is used to place the electrodes, you may have an allergic reaction. This irritation usually disappears without the need for treatment, once the patches are removed.

Specialists who handle ECG

  • Cardiac surgeons specialize in the surgical treatment of the heart and its vascular conditions. They are also known as cardiothoracic surgeons.
  • Pediatric cardiologists and cardiologists are interns or pediatricians who specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases or situations of the heart and its blood vessels.
  • Emergency medicine specialists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of sudden illness or injury and difficulties of chronic illness.
  • Interventional cardiologists are cardiologists who specialize in diagnosing and treating conditions and diseases of the heart and its blood vessels. They use catheter-based non-surgical procedures and imaging techniques.
  • Primary care providers include interns, family practitioners (family medicine physicians), pediatricians, geriatricians, physician assistants (PA), and nurse practitioners (NP). Primary care providers provide comprehensive health services and treat a wide variety of ailments and conditions.
  • Thoracic surgeons train in the surgical treatment of diseases of the chest, including the blood vessels, heart, lungs, and esophagus. They are also known as cardiothoracic surgeons.
General Topics

Childhood Heart Conditions | Cardiology

What are common heart conditions in children?

The number of adults living with heart disease and other heart conditions is widely reported, but some of us have found that heart disease affects small hearts as well, and a large number do.

  • It is estimated that between three and five million children worldwide live with chronic rheumatic heart disease, the most serious complication of rheumatic fever.
  • Each year, more than 4,000 children under the age of 5 are diagnosed with Kawasaki disease.

While some children’s heart problems cannot be prevented, there are signs that parents can see, and what parents can do can lead to prior intervention and better outcomes for their children and teens.

Types of heart conditions in children

Here are the most common heart conditions in children which are following:

1. Congenital heart defects

Congenital malformations are abnormalities in the formation of the heart and/or its main blood vessels. These defects occur at birth in eight out of 1,000 babies, but go undiagnosed for many years. The abnormalities range from simple defects, such as a small hole in the wall between the two chambers of the heart, to more complex problems. Here is a list of common congenital heart defects:

2. Coronary artery fistulas

Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is defined as the irregular connection between the coronary artery and the main vessel or cardiac chamber. It is an unusual form of congenital heart disease. Randomized results of coronary disorders during the angiographic evaluation of coronary vascular disorders.

Most of these fistulas originate from the left anterior descending artery or the right coronary artery. Most of these patients are asymptomatic, but heart failure, angina, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, endocarditis, and dyspnea have been described in some cases. Management is complex and recommendations are based on narrative cases of very small recurring sequences.

3. Anomalous pulmonary venous return

Irregular total pulmonary vein return (TAPVR) is a congenital heart defect. Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs does not return to the left atrium. Instead, it returns to the right side of the heart. Here, oxygen-rich blood mixes with oxygen-depleted blood. This gives the baby less oxygen than the body needs.

To live with this defect, children with TAPVR usually have a hole between the right atrium and the left atrium (an atrial septal defect), which allows the mixed blood to reach the left side of the heart and out to the rest of the body. Some children have a separate atrial septal defect and have other heart defects along with TAPVR. Since a child with this defect may need surgery or other procedures immediately after birth, TAPVR is considered a critical congenital heart defect. It means coming with birth at birth.

4. Aortic stenosis/Bicuspid aortic valve

Some people are born with a bicuspid aortic valve, which has an aortic valve, located between the lower left heart chamber (left ventricle) and the main artery leading to the body (aorta), with only three (two) leaflets. People can also be born with one (unicuspid) or four (quadricuspid) cosplay, but these are very rare.

The bicuspid aortic valve narrows the aortic valve of the heart (aortic valve stenosis). This narrowing prevents the valve from opening fully, reducing, or obstructing blood flow from the heart to the body. In some cases, the aortic valve does not close tightly, causing blood to flow back into the left ventricle (aortic valve regurgitation). Most people with a bilateral aortic valve are not affected by valve problems until they become adults, and some may not be affected until adulthood.

5. Atrial septal defect (ASD)

An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall (septum) between the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart. The condition is present at birth (congenital).

Minor bugs can be found accidentally and will never cause a problem. Some small atrial septal defects close in infancy or childhood.

Blood from the holes increases the amount of blood that flows through the lungs. Large, chronic ASD can damage the heart and lungs. Surgery or device closure may be required to correct atrial septal defects and prevent complications.

6. Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD)

A heart defect called Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) in which there are holes between the chambers on the right and left sides of the heart and the valves that control blood flow between these chambers may not be formed correctly.

This condition is also known as the atrioventricular canal (AV canal) defect or endocardial cushion defect. In AVSD, blood usually flows where it shouldn’t go. Blood may have less oxygen than normal, and excess blood flows into the lungs. This excess blood is pumped to the lungs, causing the heart and lungs to work harder and leading to heart failure.

7. Coarctation of the aorta/Interrupted aortic arch

Coronation of the aorta is a congenital (congenital) condition in which the aorta (the main blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body) narrows. The narrow segment (coarctation) is usually small and opens to a normal size beyond the aortic coarctation. However, the correction can cause problems with heart function and high blood pressure.

8. D-Transposition of the great arteries

Dextro-transposition of the great arteries, or D-TGA, is a congenital heart defect in which the two main arteries that carry blood from the heart, the main pulmonary artery and the aorta, become congested or “transposed.” D-TGA is considered a complicated congenital heart defect (CCHD) because a baby with this defect may need surgery or other procedures immediately after birth. It means to come with birth at birth.

9. Ebstein’s anomaly

Ebstein’s deformity, also known as Ebstein’s deformity, is a rare congenital (congenital) heart defect.

In patients with Ebstein’s disorder, the valve (tricuspid valve) between the chambers on the right side of the heart may not close properly. The right side of the heart is where blood returns from the rest of the body and sends it to the lungs to take in oxygen again.

10. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

A birth defect called Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) affects normal blood flow through the heart. As the baby develops during pregnancy, the left side of the heart does not form properly. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a congenital heart defect. It means to come with birth at birth. HLHS is considered a complicated congenital heart defect (CCHD) because a baby with this defect may need surgery or other procedures immediately after birth.

11. L-Transposition of the great arteries

The bottom section is a completely inverted heart.

This heart defect causes a reversal in the normal blood flow pattern because the lower right and left chambers of the heart are reversed. However, transposition I am less dangerous than transposition because even the great arteries are inverted. This “double inversion” allows the body to continue to receive oxygen-rich blood and the lungs to receive oxygen-depleted blood.

12. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

An unsealed hole in the aorta.

Before a baby is born, the fetus’s blood does not have to go to the lungs for oxygen. The ductus arteriosus is the hole that allows blood to bypass circulation to the lungs. However, when the baby is born, the blood needs to carry oxygen to the lungs and this hole closes. If the ductus arteriosus is still open (or patented), the blood can bypass this necessary circulatory phase. The open hole is called a patent ductus arteriosus.

13. Pulmonary atresia

Pulmonary atresia is a form of heart disease in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly. It is congenital (congenital heart disease). The pulmonary valve opens on the right side of the heart, which controls blood flow from the right ventricle (right-side pumping chamber) to the lungs.

In pulmonary atresia, the valve leaflets converge. It forms a solid sheet of tissue where the valve opening is located. As a result, normal blood flow to the lungs and lungs is blocked. Because of this defect, oxygen from the blood on the right side of the heart cannot reach the lungs.

14. Pulmonary stenosis

Pulmonary stenosis (also known as pulmonary stenosis) means that the pulmonary valve (the valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery) is too small, narrow, or too tight.

The symptoms of pulmonary stenosis depend on how small the narrowing of the pulmonary valve is. If symptoms are mild, pulmonary stenosis should never be treated. But children with more severe pulmonary stenosis need a procedure to repair the pulmonary valve so that blood flows properly through the body.

15. Tetralogy of Fallot

Fallot’s tetralogy (Fuh-Low’s The-Troll-Uh-Ji) is a rare condition caused by a combination of four congenital heart defects.

These defects, which affect the structure of the heart, cause oxygen-deficient blood to flow from the heart to the rest of the body. Babies and children with tetralogy of following usually have blue skin because their blood does not have enough oxygen.

16. Tricuspid atresia

Tricuspid atresia (tri-cusp-id uh-tree-yuh) is a congenital defect of the heart, where the valve that controls blood flow from the right upper chamber of the heart to the lower right chamber of the heart does not form at all. In children with this defect, blood does not flow properly through the heart and to the rest of the body.

17. Truncus arteriosus

Truncus arteriosus also is known as the common trunk, a rare heart defect in which a common blood vessel protrudes from the heart, instead of the two normal vessels (the main pulmonary artery and the aorta).

18. Vascular ring/Sling

The vascular ring is a birth defect in which there is an abnormal structure in the main artery that supplies blood from the heart to the body (aorta) and the blood vessels associated with it. They can be classified as complete when both the trachea and the esophagus are surrounded by vascular dysfunction or incomplete without complete closure of both structures.

19. Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

Ventricular septal defect (VSD), a hole in the heart, is a common congenital heart defect. The hole (defect) occurs in the wall (septum), which separates the lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart and allows blood to flow from left to right into the heart. Excess oxygenated blood is sent back to the lungs rather than outside the body, causing the heart to work harder.

A small ventricular septal defect does not cause problems, and most small VSDs close on their own. Medium or large VSDs may require surgical repair early in life to prevent complications.

20. Dilated cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is a disease in which the heart muscle becomes weak, stretches, or has another structural problem.

Dilated cardiomyopathy is a condition in which the heart muscle becomes weak and expands. As a result, the heart does not pump enough blood to the rest of the body.

21. Endocarditis

Endocarditis is an infection of the endocardium, the lining of the heart’s chambers, and valves.

Endocarditis usually occurs when there is a spread of bacteria, viruses, fungi to the damaged portion of the heart from already infected parts. If not treated quickly, endocarditis can damage or destroy heart valves and lead to fatal complications. Treatments for endocarditis include antibiotics and, in some cases, surgery.

22. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease that affects the heart muscle and causes the muscles to dilate or “hypertrophy.”

23. Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease is an illness that causes inflammation (swelling and redness) in the blood vessels throughout the body. It occurs in three stages, and permanent fever is usually the first sign.

This condition most often affects children under 5 years of age. When symptoms are detected and treated early, children with Kawasaki disease may feel better within a few days.

24. Myocarditis

The inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium). Inflammation of the heart muscle can lead to atrophy or death of heart muscle cells. Myocarditis has many different causes and can lead to many outcomes ranging from mild (brief presentation and resolution) to rapidly developing malignancy. Myocarditis is distinguished from pericarditis because pericarditis is an inflammation of the sac that surrounds the heart and is not associated with the heart muscle as in myocarditis. However, it is not uncommon for a patient to have both pericarditis and myocarditis.

25. Pericarditis

The inflammation of the pericardium is called pericarditis, which consists of two thin layers of a sac-like tissue that surround the heart, holding it in place and helping it function. A small amount of liquid separates the layers so there is no friction between them.

A common symptom of pericarditis is chest pain, which is caused by inflammation of the lining of the sac and rubbing against the heart. It can feel like the pain of a heart attack.

26. Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that develops when strep throat or scarlet fever is not treated properly. Infection with the bacteria Streptococcus (Strep-toe-Coke-US) can cause strep throat and scarlet fever.

Rheumatic fever mainly affects children between the ages of 5 and 15, although it can develop in young children and adults. Although strep throat is common, rheumatic fever is very rare in the United States and other developed countries. However, rheumatic fever is common in many developing countries.

General Topics

Symptoms and Treatment for Brain Stem Stroke | Cardiology

What is a brain stem stroke? 

The brain stem stroke regulates breathing, eye movement, facial movement, heart rate, and blood pressure. Sitting just above the spinal cord, the brain stem controls your breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. It also controls your speech, swallowing, hearing, and eye movements. Impulses sent by other parts of the brain travel through the brain stem on their way to various body parts.

We’re dependent on brain stem function for survival. A brain stem stroke threatens vital bodily functions, making it a life-threatening condition. When the blood supply to a part of the brain is cut off, a stroke occurs because the blocked artery or blood vessels are leaking. The brainstem is located at the base of the brain and is responsible for receiving and transmitting information throughout the body.

The brain stem regulates essential bodily functions, namely:

  • Breathing
  • Swallow
  • Eye movement
  • Facial movement and sensation
  • Listening
  • Heart rate
  • Blood pressure
  • Brain stem strokes affect a person’s basic bodily functions and can lead to chronic problems.

Symptoms of brain stem stroke

Dizziness and loss of balance are common symptoms of a stroke. Because the brain stem regulates different types of motor functions, strokes in this area of the brain can cause a wide variety of symptoms. Brainstem strokes affect important bodily functions, including:

  • Breathing
  • Swallow
  • Heart rate

The brain stem receives different signals from the brain and sends them to different parts of the body. Brainstem strokes interrupt these signals, so people may experience physical symptoms, such as numbness or weakness in the face, arms, or legs.

Other common symptoms of a stroke:

  • Dizziness
  • Loss of balance
  • Vertigo
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Trouble speaking or swallowing
  • Headache
  • Confusion

Stroke syndromes of the brain system

Some stroke syndromes of the brain system have an unrelated set of symptoms because their control is in small concentrated areas of the brain system that share the same blood supply.

Ondine’s curse: Ondine’s curse due to a lower spinal injury affects voluntary breathing.

Weber syndrome: Weber syndrome is a stroke of the midbrain that causes weakness in the front of the body, which is accompanied by weakness of the eyelids and weakness of eye movements.

Blockage syndrome: Blockage syndrome affects strokes and leads to complete paralysis and inability to speak, the ability to move consciousness, and intact eyes. This may be due to a very abnormal salt and fluid balance.

Wallenberg syndrome: Also known as a lateral spinal syndrome, Wallenberg syndrome causes sensory deficits of the face on the same side as stroke and sensory deficits of the body.

Types of brain stem stroke 

There are two main types of strokes, both of which affect the brain stem:

Ischemic stroke:

  • Ischemic strokes occur when blood clots form in narrow arteries in the head or neck and cut off the blood supply to an area of the brain.
  • Ischemic strokes are the most common type, accounting for 87% of all strokes. About 10% of all ischemic strokes affect the brain stem.
  • A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a mini-stroke or warning stroke, when the blood supply to the brain is briefly interrupted. TIAs cause milder symptoms than full ischemic strokes, and most symptoms clear up within an hour.

Brain-vascular hemorrhagic accident:

  • Brain bleeding or hemorrhage occurs when weak blood vessels leak or open, creating swelling and pressure. This stress damages the tissues and cells of the brain.
  • Hemorrhagic strokes are less common than other types of strokes but account for 40 percent of all stroke deaths.

Risk factors of brain stem stroke

High blood pressure increases the risk of stroke. Anyone can have a stroke, but specific genetic factors such as family history, gender, race, and age put some people at higher risk for stroke than others. Women have more strokes than men and are more likely to die from a stroke than men.

Some risk factors specific to women:

  • Use of hormone replacement therapies
  • Long-term use of birth control pills in combination with other risk factors such as smoking
  • The pregnancy
  • People of African American and Hispanic descent are also at risk for stroke.
  • Most strokes occur in people over the age of 65. However, research suggests that the rate of stroke hospitalizations and the presence of risk factors for stroke in young children has increased significantly.

Medical conditions that increase the risk of stroke:

  • Hypertension
  • High cholesterol
  • Atrial fibrillation (AFib)
  • Diabetes
  • is blackberry
  • Heart disease (CVD)
  • Lifestyle risk factors

People cannot control genetic factors, but they can control lifestyle factors that increase the risk of stroke. Behaviors that increase the risk of high blood pressure or clotting increase the risk of stroke.

Behaviors that increase the risk of stroke:

  • Smoke tobacco
  • Excessive drinking
  • Consumption of illicit drugs
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Lack of food 

Diagnosis of brain stem stroke

Brain stem stroke is a fatal medical emergency. If you have symptoms that indicate a stroke, your doctor may order imaging tests such as an MRI, CT scan, Doppler ultrasound, or angiogram. The cardiac function test may include an EKG and an echocardiogram. Additional diagnostic procedures may include blood tests, as well as kidney and liver function tests. 

Treatment for brain stem strokes

When an ischemic stroke occurs, the first line of treatment is clotting or drawing the blood. If a stroke is diagnosed quickly, blood thinners can be given. If possible, a catheter can be used to clot during a procedure called an embolectomy. In some cases, angioplasty and stenting are used to widen and keep the artery open. Bleeding For a stroke, the bleeding must stop.

Sometimes a clip or coil is placed over the aneurysm to stop the bleeding. Medications to reduce clotting may also be needed. During this time, your medical team will need to take extra steps to keep your heart and lungs working. Brain stem stroke is a medical emergency. You need immediate treatment to save lives and reduce the risk of permanent complications.

Treatment depends on the type, location, and severity of the stroke:

Ischemic stroke: In the treatment of ischemic stroke, blood flow is restored through clotting. The methods include the following:

  • Anticoagulant drugs, such as tissue plasminogen activator (T-PA), help dissolve clots and restore blood flow to the affected area.
  • Antiplatelet drugs such as warfarin. The doctor may prescribe aspirin if a person has a lower risk of having a heart attack or stroke and bleeding. Current guidelines do not recommend the use of aspirin as in the past.
  • Endovascular therapy, which is a surgical procedure that involves the use of mechanical reclaimers to clot the blood.
  • Other devices, such as balloons or stents, can be used to open narrow blood vessels and improve blood flow.

Brain-vascular hemorrhagic accident: Treatment of hemorrhagic strokes focuses on controlling bleeding and reducing stress on the brain. Treatment methods:

  • Give medicine to control blood pressure and prevent seizures.
  • Spiral embolization, which is a surgical procedure that helps blood to clot in a weakened vessel. Clotting reduces bleeding and prevents blood vessels from reopening.
  • Once bleeding in the brain has been controlled, doctors can perform surgical procedures to prevent the ruptured blood vessel from bleeding again.

Prevention of brain stem strokes

It is estimated that 80 percent of strokes are preventable. People can reduce their risk of stroke by making the following lifestyle changes:

  • It controls the levels of lipids and cholesterol
  • Control blood pressure with medications and behavior changes
  • Manage medical conditions like diabetes
  • Give up smoking
  • Eat a diet low in fat and sodium
  • Make sure you have plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables in your diet
  • At least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise per week or at least 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic exercise per week
  • Restoration and perspective
  • Brain stem stroke can lead to serious chronic problems. Medications and behavior changes can help reduce the risk of future strokes.
  • Physical therapy improves muscle strength and coordination and ultimately helps people regain lost motor skills.
  • Speech and language and occupational therapy can help people improve their cognitive skills, such as memory, problem-solving, and judgment.
  • Some people with stroke and severe disabilities need counseling to adjust.
General Topics

Congenital Heart Defects in Children – an Overview | Cardiology

What are congenital heart defects in children?

Congenital heart defects in children (CHDs) are the most well-known sort of birth deformity. With advances in medical care and treatment, children with CHD live longer and healthier lives. Find out more facts about coronary heart disease below.

What are congenital heart defects (CHDs)?

Coronary artery disease is present at birth and can affect the structure and functioning of a baby’s heart. It can affect how blood flows through the heart and out to the rest of the body. Coronary artery disease can vary from mild (such as a small hole in the heart) to severe (such as missing or poorly formed parts of the heart).

About 1 in 4 babies born with a heart defect suffer from critical coronary heart disease (also known as a serious congenital heart defect). Babies with critical coronary heart disease need surgery or other procedures in the first year of life.

Types of congenital heart defects in children

Babies and children with all types of congenital heart defects receive expert diagnosis and treatment from specialists at the Pediatric Congenital Heart Program. Congenital heart defects in children occur at birth and affect the heart or blood vessels. Hundreds of heart defects can arise as a baby develops in the womb, and some infants may have more than one. Some defects cause no health challenges for years; in fact, some may never pose a health risk.

However, many infants require treatment with surgery or catheter procedures to repair congenital heart defects in children immediately or in the first few months of life. Others may need medication as a bridge to surgery or other procedures, or as the only therapy to manage symptoms.

Our experts treat babies and children with all types of congenital heart defects in children, including:

  • Aortic valve stenosis
  • Atrial septal defect
  • Ebstein’s anomaly
  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
  • Interrupted aortic arch
  • Coarctation of the aorta
  • Complete atrioventricular canal defect
  • Patent ductus arteriosus
  • Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
  • Transposition of the great arteries
  • Tricuspid atresia
  • Pulmonary valve stenosis
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Truncus arteriosus
  • Ventricular septal defect

Symptoms of congenital heart defects in children

Serious congenital heart defects in children usually appear soon after birth or within the first few months of life. They can include signs and symptoms:

  • Pale gray or blue skin color (cyanosis)
  • Rapid breathing
  • Swelling in the legs, abdomen, or areas around the eyes
  • Shortness of breath during feeding, resulting in poor weight

Less serious congenital heart defects in children may not be diagnosed until later in childhood, because your child may not show any noticeable signs of a problem. If signs and symptoms occur in older children, they may include:

  • Feeling short of breath easily during exercise or activity
  • Fatigue easily during exercise or activity
  • Fainting during exercise or activity
  • Swelling in the hands, ankles, or feet

Causes of congenital heart defects in children

Doctors don’t always know why a child has a congenital heart defect. It tends to run in families. Things that make congenital heart defects in children more likely include:

  • Genetic or chromosomal problems in a child, such as Down syndrome
  • Taking certain medications or alcohol or drug abuse during pregnancy
  • A viral infection, such as rubella (rubella) in the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy

How are heart defects treated?

Youngsters with minor heart deformities may not require any treatment. However, some children suffer from severe symptoms that require medical or surgical treatment during the first year of life. They will be taken care of:

  • Pediatric cardiologists: Doctors who specialize in treating children’s heart problems
  • Pediatric heart surgeons: Specialists in pediatric heart surgery

Procedures performed through cardiac catheterization – such as balloon angioplasty or valvuloplasty – can dilate blood vessels or a blocked valve. Another procedure, blockage of the catheter device, can close abnormal openings or holes in the heart or blood vessels without surgery.

Some problems, such as small or medium-sized ventricular septal defects, may close or get smaller as the child grows. While waiting for the hole to close, the child may have to take medications. Complex Congenital heart defects in children detected early may need a series of processes ending when the child is approximately 3 years old.

Testing and diagnosis of congenital heart disease

Several serious congenital heart diseases are detected during pregnancy, during a routine ultrasound examination. Other conditions may be diagnosed soon after birth. Less serious heart conditions may not be diagnosed until children get older and begin to show certain signs or symptoms of congenital heart disease.

During pregnancy, if your doctor thinks your baby may have CHD, you will likely be referred to a pediatric cardiologist for further testing. The type of diagnostic tests performed will depend on the form of coronary heart disease your child may have. Examples of tests used include a fetal echocardiogram, electrocardiogram (EKG), magnetic resonance imaging of the heart (MRI), and cardiac catheterization. If you are referred to the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, you will be seen through the Heart Center’s Fetal Heart Program.

Risk factors for congenital heart defects in children

Most Congenital heart defects in children are caused by problems early in the development of your baby’s heart, and the cause is unknown. However, some environmental and genetic risk factors may play a role. They include:

  • Rubella (German measles): German measles infection during pregnancy can cause problems with the development of your baby’s heart. Your doctor can test for immunity to this viral disease before pregnancy and vaccinate you against it if you are not immune.
  • You can reduce the risk of Congenital heart defects in children by carefully controlling diabetes before trying to conceive and during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes generally does not increase your baby’s risk of developing a heart defect.
  • Some medications taken during pregnancy may cause birth defects, including congenital heart defects. Provide your doctor with a complete list of all medications you take before trying to conceive.
  • Medicines known to increase the risk of congenital heart defects include thalidomide (Thalomide), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACE), statins, acne medication isotretinoin (Absorica, Amnstim, and Claravis), and lithium.
  • Drinking alcohol during pregnancy: Avoid drinking alcohol during pregnancy because it increases the risk of Congenital heart defects in children.
  • Smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of a congenital heart defect in the baby.
  • Congenital heart defects in children sometimes run in families and may be associated with an inherited syndrome. Many children with Down syndrome – which is caused by an extra chromosome 21 (trisomy 21) – have heart defects. A missing (deleted) piece of genetic material on chromosome 22 also causes heart defects.
  • Genetic testing can detect such disturbances during fetal development. If you already have a baby with a congenital heart defect, a genetic counselor can estimate the odds that your next child will have it.

Complications of congenital heart defects in children

Complications depend on the type of congenital heart defect you have. Include some potential complications:

  • Arrhythmia
  • Blood clots
  • Developmental disorders and delays: Children with congenital heart defects are more likely to have behavior problems. They are also more likely to have speech and attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder.
  • Emotional health issues: Depression, anxiety, and PTSD are common among people with congenital heart defects.
  • Endocarditis: A type of heart inflammation
  • Endocrine disorders: Include thyroid problems, bone health problems, and diabetes. Problems with the hormones that deal with calcium can cause bone problems.
  • Heart failure: Heart failure is the leading cause of death in adults with congenital heart defects. Some children with congenital heart defects develop heart failure.
  • Kidney disease
  • Liver disease
  • Pneumonia: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in adults with congenital heart disease.
  • Pregnancy complications: Women with congenital heart defects are at increased risk of developing complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Read more in the Living With section.
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Stroke

Outlook and follow-up care for congenital heart disease

Children with congenital heart disease are monitored by specialists called pediatric cardiologists. These doctors diagnose heart disease and help manage children’s health before and after surgical repair of a heart problem. The specialists who correct heart problems in the operating room are known as pediatric cardiovascular surgeons or cardiothoracic surgeons.

It is imperative that individuals born with congenital heart disease who have reached adulthood transition to the appropriate type of heart care. The type of care required depends on the type of CHD the person has. Generally, people with mild types of Congenital heart defects in children can be cared for by a community adult cardiologist. People with more complex types of coronary heart disease will need care at a center that specializes in adult congenital heart disease, such as the Philadelphia Adult Congenital Heart Center.

How can congenital heart disease be prevented?

Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant can take certain precautions to reduce the risk of having a baby with a congenital heart defect:

  • If you are planning to become pregnant, talk to your doctor about any prescription or over-the-counter medicines you are taking.
  • If you have diabetes, make sure your blood sugar levels are controlled before pregnancy. It is also important to work with your doctor to manage illness during pregnancy.
  • If you have not been vaccinated against rubella or rubella, avoid exposure to the disease and talk to your doctor about prevention options.
  • If you have a family history of congenital heart defects, ask your doctor about genetic testing. Certain genes may contribute to abnormal heart development.
  • Avoid drinking alcohol and using drugs during pregnancy.
General Topics

Common Neurological Problems in Children | Neurology

What are neurological problems in children?

The brain is one of the most important and delicate organs in the human body. Neurological problems in children are those caused by dysfunction of the brain or nervous system and result in psychological or physical symptoms depending on the area of the brain involved, leading to disorders.

The human brain begins to develop when the child is in the womb and continues through childhood through adolescence. Brain cells are formed mainly before birth, although nerve connections do not develop until later. Neurological disorders have a wide spectrum and can have a variety of causes, complications, symptoms, and outcomes. All neurological conditions involve the nervous system that comprises the brain and spinal column. The nervous system panels everything in the human body, including movement, vision, and hearing. Symptoms and results depend on the area of the brain that has been damaged.

These conditions can affect people of all age groups; however, few neurological conditions present only during the early years of development. They can manifest as birth defects or, in some cases, symptoms are diagnosed only during the child’s later years. Most of these neurological signs and symptoms are found when a child misses a developmental milestone or has a brain injury or infection. Brain-related complaints, such as headaches, are sometimes temporary and are often ignored. However, symptoms like constant dizziness or weakness that appear unexpectedly without any explanation or cause can be indications of neurological conditions.

Symptoms of neurological problems in children

Some common symptoms of pediatric neurological disorders are:

  • Partial or complete paralysis
  • Muscular weakness
  • Partial or total loss of sensation
  • Convulsions
  • Difficulty reading and writing
  • Poor cognitive abilities
  • Pain
  • Decreased alertness

Effects of neurological problems in children

Neurological disorders in children can occur for many reasons and can have a wide range of effects on the baby and her family. Autism, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, brain injuries, and headaches are some of the common neurological disorders in childhood.


Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that refers to impaired social interaction, impaired communication skills along a repetitive pattern of behavior.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

It is a common neurological disorder that makes it difficult for a child to be attentive and unable to control impulses.


This is a condition that makes it difficult for children to coordinate physical movements.


It refers to the learning disability in children and they find it difficult to read, write, etc.

Cerebral palsy

This is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a child’s motor skills and is caused by brain damage that occurs before or during birth. It usually occurs during pregnancy when the fetus does not grow properly or develops brain damage. Proper treatment and therapies can help improve the condition.

Causes of neurological problems in children

Many neurological disorders are “congenital,” meaning they were present at birth. But some of the disorders are “acquired,” which means they developed after birth. Those with an unknown cause are called “idiopathic.”

  • Congenital Causes (present at birth)
  • Pre/perinatal Causes
  • Acquired Causes (developed after birth)

Types of neurological problems in children

There are many nervous system disorders here that require clinical attention from a physician or other healthcare professional. A few are listed in the following directory, for which we have provided a brief overview.

  • Acute spinal cord injury
  • Alzheimer disease
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • Ataxia
  • Bell’s palsy
  • Brain tumors
  • Brain aneurysm
  • Epilepsy and seizures
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome
  • Headache
  • Head injury
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Lumbar disc disease (herniated disc)
  • Meningitis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Neurocutaneous syndromes
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Stroke (brain attack)
  • Cluster headaches
  • Tension headaches
  • Migraines
  • How a migraine occurs
  • Diagnosis and treatment of migraines
  • Encephalitis
  • Septicemia
  • Types of muscular dystrophy and neuromuscular diseases
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Stroke overview
  • Risk factors for stroke
  • Types of stroke
  • Effects of stroke
  • Stroke rehabilitation

Treatment for neurological disorder in children

Neurological problems in children refer to the condition that affects the brain and nervous system. In other words, it is caused by dysfunction in a part of the brain or nervous system. Disorders involve the brain, spine, or nerves, and symptoms depend on the site of damage and vary accordingly. Physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms may occur that affect control movement, communication, vision, hearing, or thinking, etc.

Neurological problems in children generally occur in the early years of development and can be diagnosed at birth. The disorder can occur as birth defects or during a child’s later years. Symptoms of neurological disorders in children appear for the following reasons:

  • Development problems
  • Harmful infection
  • Brain damage

Information About Pediatric Cardiologist | Cardiology

What is a pediatric cardiologist?

If your pediatrician has any questions about your child’s heart, he or she can refer him to a pediatric cardiologist. Pediatric cardiologists specialize in diagnosing and treating heart problems in children. In children requiring cardiac surgery, pediatric cardiologists work with pediatric cardiac surgeons to determine the best treatments and interventions.

Many heart conditions affect children. Some are structural differences from where they were born. Others have an electrical system that controls the heartbeat. Pediatric cardiologists are specially trained to diagnose and manage these problems. If you are concerned about your child’s heart, talk to your pediatrician if you need a referral to a pediatric cardiologist.

Education and training

Those who wish to become pediatric cardiologists must have a four-year undergraduate degree. Then they should also have:

  • Faculty of Medicine four years
  • Three years of pediatric residency
  • Three or more years of training in the subspecialty of pediatric cardiology

Pediatric cardiologists may focus on specialized skills such as cardiac catheterization, heart transplantation, or child care in the cardiac ICU during the last year or two of their training.

Conditions treated by a pediatric cardiologist

  • The cardiovascular collapse in childhood
  • Heart failure in infants and children
  • Cyanosis in newborns and beyond (where the skin is blue due to lung, lung, or circulatory problems)
  • Children with a heart murmur
  • Children and adolescents may experience chest pain, palpitations, or fainting.
  • Patients with congenital heart disease
  • Cardiovascular abnormalities in neonatal intensive care
  • Fetal heart abnormalities
  • Pediatric heart transplant
  • Evaluate a child before heart surgery
  • Evaluation of Children with Heart Disease Undergoing Heart Surgery
  • Management of children with heart problems
  • Great arterial transfer

Types of treatment

  • “Congenital heart disease” (birth defects in children), such as perforations between the chambers of the heart, valve problems, and abnormal blood vessels.
  • “Arrhythmia” or abnormal heart rhythms caused by the electrical system that controls the heartbeat.

Some pediatric cardiologists also treat “pulmonary hypertension” (pulmonary hypertension), while in some parts of the country pulmonary hypertension is treated by pediatric pulmonologists.

Some pediatric cardiologists can treat “systemic hypertension” (hypertension), but in some parts of the country, systemic hypertension is treated by pediatric nephrologists.

What conditions and diseases does a pediatric cardiologist treat?

The pediatric cardiologist treats conditions and diseases that include:

  • Arrhythmia, abnormal heart rhythm (the heart beats too fast, too slow, or irregular)
  • Bacterial endocarditis, a type of heart infection.
  • Cardiomyopathy, weakening or dilation of the heart muscle.
  • Congenital heart defects, including patented ductus arteriosus (PAC), atrial septal defect (ASD), and ventricular septal defect (VSD)
  • Cardiac syndromes, including genetic syndromes that affect the heart, such as Down syndrome and Marfan syndrome
  • Clogged pulmonary and aortic valves with heart valve defects
  • Kawasaki disease causes heart problems such as coronary artery aneurysms, leaky heart valves, and fluid retention
  • Myocarditis, inflammation of the heart.
  • Pulmonary hypertension, high blood pressure in the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the lungs.
  • Serious risk factors for cardiovascular conditions, including high blood pressure and high cholesterol

Procedures and interventions

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)
  • Advanced imaging – CT / MRI
  • Diagnostic and therapeutic catheterization
  • Exercise test
  • Recording of cardiac events
  • Pulmonary radiography
  • Balloon atrial septostomy – A small hole is created in the two upper chambers of the heart to increase oxygen saturation
  • Pediatric heart transplant
  • Ultrasound of the heart

Overview of Cardiac Surgeon | Cardiology

What is a cardiac surgeon?

A cardiac surgeon is also known as a cardiothoracic surgeon or cardiovascular surgeon. The cardiac surgeon is a doctor who specializes in surgical procedures on the heart, lungs, esophagus, and other organs of the chest. This includes surgeons called cardiac surgeons, cardiovascular surgeons, general thoracic surgeons, and congenital cardiac surgeons.

Cardiac surgery is the specialty of medicine for the surgical treatment of pathologies of the heart and thoracic aorta. The spectrum of modern heart surgery can be understood through its late 19th-century history. Since then, cardiac surgery has evolved thanks to the work of many dedicated cardiac surgeons offering even more treatments for different heart conditions. This development continues to this day.

Most of the time, the diagnosis of heart disease begins with your primary care physician, who will refer you to a cardiologist. If your cardiologist decides that you need surgery, he or she will refer you to a heart surgeon who will be a new member of your heart health team.

What does a cardiac surgeon do?

Cardiac surgeons play an important role in the health care team. They work on diseases that occur in the organs within the chest and in the skeletal structures and tissues that make up the chest cavity.

The diagnosis of heart disease begins with the patient’s primary care physician, who then refers the patient to a cardiologist. If your cardiologist decides that you need surgery, he or she will refer you to a cardiothoracic surgeon who will be a new member of your heart health team.

Cardiac surgeons work on diseases that occur in the organs within the chest and in the skeletal structures and tissues that make up the chest cavity.

Difference between a cardiologist and cardiac surgeons

The cardiologist has completed a residency in internal medicine and a fellowship in cardiology. They specialize in the medical or endovascular treatment of heart problems. The cardiac surgeons have completed the general surgical residency and the cardiothoracic fellowship. They specialize in the surgical treatment of cardiac and pulmonary cysts and other intrathoracic problems.

The cardiologist generally evaluates patients with heart problems, manages heart failure, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and can perform echocardiography and endovascular work such as cardiac catheterization and stenting.

The cardiac surgeons remove lungs and other intrathoracic tumors, replace or repair heart valves, and perform other intrathoracic surgical procedures, including bypass grafts and aneurysm repair.

Types of cardiac surgeries

Common types of cardiac surgeries are:

  • Catheter ablation: This procedure uses radio waves or coagulation to silence an abnormal area of ​​the cardiovascular system. The abnormal area is often found during the electrophysiology study. This procedure breaks the problematic electrical circuit that causes an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).
  • Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG): In CABG, the most common heart surgery, the surgeon takes a healthy artery or vein from other parts of the body and connects it to supply blood past the blocked coronary artery. The grafted artery or vein bypasses the blocked part of the coronary artery, creating a new path for blood to flow to the heart muscle. This often happens in more than one coronary artery during a single surgery. CABG is sometimes called heart bypass surgery or coronary artery bypass surgery.
  • Heart transplant: A surgical option to treat advanced heart failure, a condition that occurs when the heart cannot pump enough oxygenated blood to meet the needs of the body’s organs.
  • Heart valve replacement: Heart valve surgery and procedures are performed to repair or replace a heart valve that is not working properly due to valvular heart disease (also known as heart valve disease). Heart valve surgery is open-heart surgery in the chest, through the breastbone. It is a major operation that takes two hours or more and can take several weeks to recover. There are newer and less invasive procedures suitable for certain types of heart valve disease, but they are only performed in a few hospitals.
  • Insertion of a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD): Pacemakers and implantable cardiovascular defibrillators (ICD) are small devices that feed the heart through thin, flexible wires called leads. They are placed under the skin, under the collarbone. In most cases, we can place the devices on a patient with minimally invasive techniques (overnight or overnight).
  • Congenital heart surgery: Corrective surgery to correct or treat a genetic heart defect.
  • Valve surgery: Heart valve surgery is open-heart surgery to replace or repair one of the four heart valves. Heart valves regulate one-way blood flow through the four chambers of your heart. Think of them as doors that open and close to allow blood to pass through.
  • Mycctomy/myotomy: This is an operation that surgically removes a thickened wall of the heart. It is used when medications can no longer control the symptoms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

The procedure of cardiac surgeon

Special tubes with a deflated balloon attached to the coronary arteries are threaded. The balloon is inflated to expand blocked areas where blood flow to the heart muscle is reduced or cut off. Often combined with the placement of a stent (see below), it helps open the artery and reduces the chance of another blockage. The body is considered less aggressive because it is not kept open. It ranges from 30 minutes to several hours. You need to stay in the hospital overnight.

Reasons for the procedure are:

  • Hugely increases blood flow through the blocked artery.
  • Decreases chest pain (angina).
  • Increases the strength of physical activity that has been restricted by angina or ischemia.
  • It can also be used to open the jugular and cerebral arteries to prevent stroke.

Future of cardiac surgeon

The future of cardiac surgery will have the potential to improve surgical techniques, innovate treatments, and diversify practice. However, personal development and education often stop slowly or completely after completing the training due to the reluctance of some experienced students to learn new techniques.

Cardiac surgeons must challenge this archetype by enhancing cardiac surgical residency through training methods and expanding clinical skill sets in open, minimally invasive, and percutaneous techniques, simulation training, and recruiting the best and brightest young practitioners. Cardiac surgeons must retrain, stay on the cutting edge of technological advancements, actively participate in future research, and continue to thrive in the ever-changing field of cardiac surgeons.


Types of Congenital Heart Specialists | Treatments | Cardiology

Before knowing about congenital heart specialists, first of all, everyone needs to know about congenital heart disease and also types.

What Is congenital heart disease?

Congenital heart disease is one or more problems with the heart’s construction that are present from birth. Congenital means that you were born with a defect. Congenital heart disease, also called a congenital heart defect, can change the way blood flows through your heart. Some congenital heart defects may not cause any problems. However, complex defects can cause grievous complications.

Advances in diagnosis and treatment have allowed children with congenital heart disease to survive into adulthood. Former the signs and symptoms of congenital heart disease don’t appear until you’re an adult. If you have congenital heart disease, you will likely need care throughout your life. Inquire your doctor to determine how often you need to be tested.


All cardiologists are not the same. While each doctor undergoes education and training related to the heart, they specialize in different types of heart problems. It is important that you be treated by a cardiologist trained in caring for the type of heart disease you have.

There are two major types of heart problems:

Congenital: Heart abnormalities present at birth.

  • Some examples are holes in the heart, deformed valves, or pump chambers
  • It is most often diagnosed in infancy
  • Usually, there is no specific cause or prevention

Acquired: Heart abnormalities that develop over time.

  • Examples include coronary artery disease, weak heart muscles, and valve leakage
  • It is often diagnosed later in life
  • It may be caused by smoking, infection, or diseases such as diabetes

If you have congenital heart disease (CHD), it is important that your health care team understands your unique heart. Patients with coronary artery disease can have hearts that look and function differently than a normal heart. Some hearts can be underdeveloped or on the other side of the chest or with vessels in abnormal places.

While it may seem strange to the untrained eye, it may be normal for someone trained in the treatment of CHD. Congenital cardiologists understand all the unique ways hearts can be formed and the surgeries used to treat them.

Types of Congenital heart specialists

Pediatric Congenital heart specialists

  • Pediatric congenital heart specialists treat infants and children with coronary heart disease
  • Diagnosis of coronary artery disease in infants
  • Defines treatment plans
  • Cares about the growth of the heart
  • Pediatric congenital heart specialists determine whether the initial intervention (catheter or surgery) is necessary

Adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) cardiologist

  • It treats adolescents and adults with coronary artery disease
  • It takes care of the aging heart
  • Cares about hearts when the body changes like during pregnancy or illness
  • He watches hearts to make sure his childhood surgeries are still working
  • Determines whether secondary intervention is required

If you have a heart condition, it is imperative that you see a cardiologist trained in treating your type of problem. Congenital heart patients have very unique hearts and undergo specialized surgeries. Congenital heart specialists understand congenital heart disease and what treatments are best.

ACHD cardiologists or congenital heart specialists have dedicated their careers to treating adults with coronary heart disease. You care enough about your car to find the right kind of specialist, shouldn’t you do the same for your heart?

What does congenital heart specialists do?

Congenital heart disease means there is a problem with the structure of your heart that is present from birth. Congenital heart disease is usually diagnosed in infancy or childhood and people diagnosed early to deal with it throughout their lives, requiring ongoing care and potentially additional surgeries.

Others do not know about their illness until adulthood and try to understand what that means for them. The University of Michigan Adult Congenital Heart Program has experience caring for both types of patients and our program also works closely with the Michigan Congenital Heart Center.

Reasons you might need adult congenital heart care by Congenital heart specialists

Congenital heart disease affects at least 1 in 100 live births. Its severity ranges on a wide range, from small holes between the heart chambers that close naturally, to abnormal, life-threatening structures, such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome, which require a series of complex surgeries. As an adult with congenital heart disease, you may need our program sponsorship for a number of reasons; For example, you can:

  • Be at risk of developing an arrhythmia (arrhythmia)
  • You had surgery as a child and it would require another surgery as an adult
  • You underwent a transplant as a child and are now too small for your adult body
  • The valve was replaced as a child which had worn off over time
  • You are pregnant or want to become pregnant, and you and your baby need to be monitored regularly

What Medications Give by the Congenital heart specialists?

Some mellow intrinsic heart imperfections can be treated with meds that help the heart work all the more proficiently. You may also need medicines to prevent blood clots or to control an irregular heartbeat.

Surgeries and other procedures

A few medical procedures and methodologies are accessible to treat grown-ups with inherent coronary illness.

  • Implantable heart devices: A device that helps control the heart rate (pacemaker) or that corrects a life-threatening irregular heartbeat (an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or cardioverter and defibrillator) may help improve some complications associated with heart defects Congenital.
  • Catheter-based treatments: Some congenital heart defects can be repaired using catheterization techniques. These treatments allow repair without open-heart surgery. Instead, the doctor inserts a thin tube (catheter) into a vein or artery in the leg and guides it to the heart with the help of X-ray images. Once the catheter is in place, the doctor passes small tools through the catheter to repair the defect.
  • Open-heart surgery: On the off chance that catheter methodology can’t fix your heart deformity, your primary care physician may suggest an open-heart medical procedure.
  • Heart transplant: If a serious heart defect cannot be repaired, a heart transplant may be an option.

Follow-up care is given by congenital heart specialists

If you are an adult with congenital heart disease, you are at risk of developing complications – even if you underwent surgery to repair a defect during childhood. Lifelong follow-up care is important. Ideally, congenital heart specialists or cardiologist trained in treating adults with congenital heart defects will care for you.

Follow-up care may include regular check-ups of the congenital heart specialists and occasional blood and imaging tests to detect complications. How often you will need to see your doctor depends on whether your congenital heart disease is mild or complex.